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Corneal confocal microscopy

Anna Sarosiak, Monika Udziela, Aneta Ścieżyńska, Dominika Oziębło, Anna Wawrzynowska, Jacek P Szaflik, Monika Ołdak
PURPOSE: Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is a rare inherited disease that leads to gradual vision loss by the deposition of lipids in the corneal stroma. The aim of this study is to report a novel pathogenic variant in the UBIAD1 gene and present clinical and molecular findings in Polish patients with SCD. METHODS: Individuals (n = 37) originating from four Polish SCD families were subjected for a complete ophthalmological check-up and genetic testing. Corneal changes were visualized by slit-lamp examination, anterior segment optical coherent tomography (AS-OCT), and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
August 6, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Gabriela Mahelková, Marie Ceská Burdová, Šárka Malá, Lucie Hoskovcová, Dagmar Dotrelová, Katerina Štechová
Purpose: Neuropathies are among the most common long-term complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and good glycemic control is essential in prevention of this complication. DM patients with similar mean glucose levels or HbA1c levels often exhibit differences in glucose variability. We tested for possible associations between parameters of glycemia compensation and corneal sub-basal nerve fiber status. Methods: The study included 20 patients with DM type 1 treated using an intensified insulin regimen...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Khaled Al Rashah, Nicola Pritchard, Cirous Dehghani, Alfredo Ruggeri, Pedro Guimaraes, Anthony Russell, Rayaz A Malik, Nathan Efron, Katie Edwards
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish an age-dependent normative range and factors affecting the migration rate of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus in a healthy control population. METHODS: Corneal nerve migration rate was measured in 60 healthy participants grouped by age: A, aged 20 to 39 years (n = 20); B, 40 to 59 years (n = 20); and C, 60 to 79 years (n = 20). Laser-scanning corneal confocal microscopy was performed on the right eye of all participants at baseline and again after 3 weeks...
July 30, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Ilya M Leyngold, Michael T Yen, James Tian, Mark M Leyngold, Gargi K Vora, Christopher Weller
PURPOSE: To describe a minimally invasive surgical technique and its clinical outcomes with the use of acellular nerve allograft to re-establish corneal sensibility in patients with neurotrophic keratopathy. METHODS: Acellular nerve allograft was coapted to an intact supraorbital, supratrochlear, or infraorbital nerve and transferred to the affected eye. Donor nerve pedicles were isolated through a transpalpebral or transconjunctival approach. Retrospective evaluation of preoperative and postoperative corneal sensibility, ocular surface, and best-corrected visual acuity was performed in all patients...
July 24, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Xiaofan Jia, Xiaogang Wang, Xiaoxia Wang, Qi Pan, Tongzhang Xian, Xiaobin Yu, Lixin Guo
Aim: This study aimed to investigate whether in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) can detect the improvement of corneal nerve parameters following glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in natural history. Methods: Thirty-two patients with diabetes complicated by DPN and 12 age-matched control subjects underwent detailed clinical examination and were assessed per the Toronto Clinical Scoring Scale for DPN, nerve conduction studies, and IVCCM at baseline and after approximately one year from the first visit...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
B Benito-Pascual, P Arriola-Villalobos, D Díaz-Valle, J M Benítez Del Castillo-Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: Polychromatic corneal dystrophy is an unusual pre-descemet dystrophy, about which there are very few publications. The findings are presented in a case series of four patients with polychromatic corneal dystrophy, using a slit lamp, specular biomicroscopy, and confocal microcospy. CLINICAL CASES: Four women, between 36 and 72 year-old, with the diagnosis of polychromatic corneal dystrophy in routine reviews. None reported visual symptoms or ocular history of interest...
July 17, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Alise Kalteniece, Maryam Ferdousi, Shazli Azmi, Andrew Marshall, Handrean Soran, Rayaz A Malik
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between corneal keratocyte density (KD) and corneal nerve damage in patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Eighty-six patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and 21 age-matched control subjects underwent assessment of the neuropathy disability score, quantitative sensory testing, electrophysiology, and corneal confocal microscopy and were divided into those without (DN-) (n = 22) and with (DN+) (n = 64) diabetic neuropathy...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Matthias Fuest, Nur Zahirah Binte M Yusoff, Tze-Wei Goh, Francisco Bandeira, Melina Setiawan, Xin-Yi Seah, Nyein-Chan Lwin, Tisha P Stanzel, Hon-Shing Ong, Jodhbir S Mehta
Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of intrastromal injection of human corneal stromal keratocytes (CSKs) and its therapeutic effect on a rodent early corneal opacity model. Methods: Twelve research-grade donor corneas were used in primary culture to generate quiescent CSKs and activated stromal fibroblasts (SFs). Single and repeated intrastromal injections of 2 to 4 × 104 cells to rat normal corneas (n = 52) or corneas with early opacities induced by irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy (n = 16) were performed, followed by weekly examination of corneal response under slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo confocal microscopy with evaluation of haze level and stromal reflectivity, and corneal thickness using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Juan Li, Shuangyan Tian, Qi Tao, Yawen Zhao, Ruyi Gui, Fan Yang, Lingquan Zang, Yanzhong Chen, Qineng Ping, Dongzhi Hou
Background: To date, the rapid clearance from ocular surface has been a huge obstacle for using eye drops to treat glaucoma, since it has led to the short preocular residence time and low bioavailability. Methods: The novel nanoparticles (NPs) were designed for topical ophthalmic controlled drug delivery system through intercalating the BH into the interlayer gallery of Na-montmorillonite (Na+Mt) and then further enchasing chitosan nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles had a positive charge (+29±0...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
J Wasielica-Poslednik, A Gericke, A Desuki, U Schlötzer-Schrehardt, N Pfeiffer, W Lisch
Purpose: To report on a case of recurrence of paraproteinemic keratopathy (PPK) associated with monoclonal gammopathy after bilateral penetrating keratoplasty. Observations: Penetrating keratoplasty was performed on both eyes of a 45-year-old man due to bilateral progressive corneal stromal clouding. Recurrence of the corneal stromal opacities accompanied by a decrease in visual acuity was observed on slit-lamp examination already two years after penetrating keratoplasty...
September 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Juan P Vigueras-Guillen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Angela Engel, Hans G Lemij, Jeroen van Rooij, Koenraad A Vermeer, Lucas J van Vliet
Corneal endothelium images obtained by in vivo specular microscopy provide important information to assess the health status of the cornea. Estimation of clinical parameters, such as cell density, polymegethism, and pleomorphism, requires accurate cell segmentation. State-of-the-art techniques to automatically segment the endothelium are error-prone when applied to images with low contrast and/or large variation in cell size. Here, we propose an automatic method to segment the endothelium. Starting with an oversegmented image comprised of superpixels obtained from a stochastic watershed segmentation, the proposed method uses intensity and shape information of the superpixels to identify and merge those that constitute a cell, using Support Vector Machines...
May 29, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Takashi Ono, Yosai Mori, Ryohei Nejima, Miyuki Ogata, Keiichiro Minami, Kazunori Miyata
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the efficiency and sustainability of pain relief produced by corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in eyes with bullous keratopathy (BK) and to explore the histopathological changes in the stroma by using in vivo confocal microscopy. DESIGN: Prospective observational case series. METHODS: Fourteen eyes of 14 consecutive BK patients were treated with CXL with dehydration of the corneal stroma and followed up for 1 year after treatment...
July 11, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Shahram Mahmoudi, Ahmad Masoomi, Kazem Ahmadikia, Seyed Ali Tabatabaei, Mohammad Soleimani, Sassan Rezaie, Hossein Ghahvechian, Ali Banafsheafshan
Mycotic keratitis or keratomycosis is a fungal infection with global distribution. The dominant aetiology of this disease varies based on geographical origin, socioeconomic status, and climatic condition. Generally, Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. are common in tropical and subtropical regions and Candida spp. are dominant in temperate areas. Demonstration of fungal elements in microscopic examination besides the isolation of fungi in culture is the gold standard of laboratory diagnosis. As the culture is a time-consuming procedure, other approaches such as in vivo confocal microscopy which produces real-time imaging of corneal tissue and molecular techniques have been developed to facilitate rapid diagnosis of fungal keratitis...
July 11, 2018: Mycoses
Fei Dong, Xueting Jin, Michelle A Boettler, Harrison Sciulli, Mones Abu-Asab, Christina Del Greco, Shurong Wang, Yueh-Chiang Hu, Maria M Campos, Shelley N Jackson, Ludovic Muller, Amina S Woods, Christian A Combs, Jianhua Zhang, Michael L Nickerson, Howard S Kruth, Jayne S Weiss, Winston W Kao
Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is a rare autosomal dominant disease in humans, characterized by abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in cornea caused by mutations in the UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1) gene. In this study, we generated a mouse line carrying Ubiad1 N100S point mutation using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to investigate the pathogenesis of SCD. In vivo confocal microscopy revealed hyper-reflective dot-like deposits in the anterior cornea in heterozygotes and homozygotes...
July 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hassan Fadavi, Mitra Tavakoli, Philip Foden, Maryam Ferdousi, Ioannis Petropoulos, Maria Jeziorska, Nishi Chaturvedi, Andrew J M Boulton, Rayaz A Malik, Caroline A Abbott
BACKGROUND: Low foot ulcer risk in South Asian, compared with European, people with type 2 diabetes in the UK has been attributed to their lower levels of neuropathy. We have undertaken a detailed study of corneal nerve morphology and neuropathy risk factors, to establish the basis of preserved small nerve fibre function in South Asians versus Europeans. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, population-based study, age- and sex-matched South Asians (n=77) and Europeans (n=78) with type 2 diabetes underwent neuropathy assessment using corneal confocal microscopy, symptoms, signs, quantitative sensory testing, electrophysiology and autonomic function testing...
July 4, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Elisa Cinotti, Luca Provvidenziale, Michele Fimiani, Jean Luc Perrot, Frederic Cambazard, Pietro Rubegni
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase that leads to a systemic accumulation of globotriaosylceramide. Handheld in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (HH-RCM) is a useful modern technique in diagnosis and follow-ups of many skin diseases. This noninvasive device provides high-resolution and high-contrast real-time images to study both the skin and the ocular surface structures that can help clinicians to confirm the diagnosis of FD...
June 27, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
G B Egorova, V V Averich
PURPOSE: to assess the possibilities of reducing the cytotoxic effect of benzalkonium chloride (a preservative used in ophthalmic hypotensive drugs) with the help of tear replacement therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 28 patients (56 eyes) who had been using antiglaucomatous drugs containing benzalkonium chloride as a preservative for various periods (from 2 months to 17 years). The examination was performed in the setting of compensated IOP. In addition to hypotensive topical medication regimen, all patients were prescribed Stilavit eye drops...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Roberto dell'Omo, Francesco Cifariello, Serena De Turris, Vito Romano, Federico Di Renzo, Davide Di Taranto, Giovanni Coclite, Luca Agnifili, Leonardo Mastropasqua, Ciro Costagliola
PURPOSE: To measure the thickness and length of corneal nerves and the peri-papillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients recently diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients recently diagnosed with type 2 DM and 22 eyes of 22 healthy individuals were consecutively enrolled. Central corneal sensitivity was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and corneal nerve length (CNL) and thickness (CNT) were evaluated through in vivo confocal microscopy...
June 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Yang Liu, YingNan Zhang, Qingfeng Liang, Chao Yan, Li Wang, Jing Zhang, ZhiQiang Pan
BACKGROUND: In current non-human primate models, full-thickness porcine grafts could not achieve long-term survival without using potent systemic immunosuppressors. Moreover, the thickness disparity in xeno-PKP proved to be hard to manipulate and may cause several complications which also could prevent the grafts from long survival. Considering the advantages of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) derived from its ultrathin graft and lower rejection rate, we hypothesize xeno-DSAEK may overcome these imperfections in xeno-PKP...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Michelle Samuel, Sara M Thomasy, Allison S Calderon, Philip H Kass, Keith Collins, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 5% sodium chloride ophthalmic ointment (5% NaCl) on thickness and morphology of the normal canine cornea using ultrasonic pachymetry (USP), in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). METHODS: Five healthy laboratory Beagles received ophthalmic examinations including USP, IVCM, and FD-OCT prior to and at fixed intervals following treatment. The right and left eyes were treated with 5% NaCl and artificial tears ophthalmic ointment (AT), respectively, every 2 hours for 4 treatments/d (days 2-9), and then hourly for 7 treatments/d (day 10)...
June 21, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
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