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Corneal confocal microscopy

Yukako Tatematsu, Qalbi Khan, Tomas Blanco, Jeffrey A Bair, Robin R Hodges, Sharmila Masli, Darlene A Dartt
Thrombospondin-1-deficient (TSP-1-/- ) mice are used as an animal model of Sjögren's Syndrome because they exhibit many of the symptoms associated with the autoimmune type of dry eye found in primary Sjögren's Syndrome. This type of dry eye is linked to the inflammation of the lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, and cornea, and is thought to involve dysfunction of the complex neuronal reflex arc that mediates tear production in response to noxious stimuli on the ocular surface. This study characterizes the structural and functional changes to the corneal nerves that are the afferent arm of this arc in young and older TSP-1-/- and wild type (WT) mice...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Min Chen, Dewei Li
A 40-year-old man had uneventful small-incision lenticule extraction. Three days later, the uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 and the cornea was clear without intraocular inflammatory in both eyes. At 6 days, the patient presented with a foreign-body sensation in the right eye but with no decrease in vision. Dense infiltration was visible at the inferior nasal corneal rim on slitlamp microscopy. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the lesion in the junction of the capsular bag and the lenticular edge...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Rebecca Grayston, Gabriela Czanner, Kareim Elhadd, Andreas Goebel, Bernhard Frank, Nurcan Üçeyler, Rayaz A Malik, Uazman Alam
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia is a condition which exhibits chronic widespread pain with neuropathic pain features and has a major impact on health-related quality of life. The pathophysiology remains unclear, however, there is increasing evidence for involvement of the peripheral nervous system with a high prevalence of small fiber pathology (SFP). The aim of this systematic literature review is to establish the prevalence of SFP in fibromyalgia. METHODS: An electronic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases...
August 23, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Philippe Daull, Elisabeth Raymond, Laurence Feraille, Jean-Sébastien Garrigue
PURPOSE: Preservative-free cationic emulsion-based artificial tear (AT) is an innovative eye drop based on the Novasorb® technology with cetalkonium chloride (CKC) as the cationic agent. The cationic emulsion Cationorm is designed for the management of mild-to-moderate dry eye disease (DED) patients that present cornea epithelium alterations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of overdosed ATs by altered corneal epithelium in vivo and assess the usefulness of the ex vivo eye irritation test (EVEIT) as a predictive alternate toxicity test method...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Julia Hafner, Sonja Karst, Stefan Sacu, Christoph Scholda, Eleonore Pablik, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of diabetic neurodegeneration and microvasculopathy remains controversial. Neurosensory layer thickness and corneal nerve fibre loss represent potential biomarkers of neuropathy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the correlation between these neurodegenerative features and their association with retinal microvascular integrity in patients with type II diabetes without retinopathy. METHODS: Nerve fibre length (NFL), density (NFD) and branch density (NBD) were assessed using corneal confocal microscopy...
October 11, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Signe T Andersen, Kasper Grosen, Hatice Tankisi, Morten Charles, Niels T Andersen, Henning Andersen, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Rayaz A Malik, Troels S Jensen, Pall Karlsson
AIMS: In this cross-sectional study, we explored the utility of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) measures for detecting diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and their association with clinical variables, in a cohort with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: CCM, nerve conduction studies, and assessment of symptoms and clinical deficits of DPN were undertaken in 144 participants with type 2 diabetes and 25 controls. DPN was defined according to the Toronto criteria for confirmed DPN...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Odelya E Pagovich, Mary L Vo, Zijun Zhao, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Michelle Yuan, Buntitar Lertsuwanroj, Jessica Ciralsky, Edward Lai, Szilard Kiss, Donald J D'Amico, Jason G Mezey, Rayaz A Malik, Ronald G Crystal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Andreas Thorsrud, Anne Marie Hagem, Gunhild Falleth Sandvik, Liv Drolsum
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) on progressive keratoconus using 0.1% riboflavin with either dextran or methylcellulose as the main supplement. METHODS: In a comparative case series, CXL was performed in 40 patients (40 eyes) using a riboflavin solution containing either dextran (dextran-riboflavin; n = 20) or methylcellulose (methylcellulose-riboflavin; n = 20). Changes in central corneal thickness (CCT), Scheimpflug tomography, maximal keratometry reading (Kmax ), visual acuity (VA) and endothelial cell density (ECD) were recorded...
October 3, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Luca Terracciano, Michela Cennamo, Eleonora Favuzza, Litasova Julia, Orsola Caporossi, Rita Mencucci
PURPOSE: To evaluate, through the in vivo confocal microscopy, the pathological changes of each corneal layer in eyes affected by pseudoexfoliation syndrome. METHODS: We studied 40 eyes of 40 patients with diagnosis of unilateral senile cataract associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and 40 eyes of 40 control subjects with senile cataract without pseudoexfoliation syndrome. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including best corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, corneal sensitivity measurement using a Cochet-Bonnet nylon thread esthesiometer, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany); in vivo confocal microscopy of corneal sections (endothelium, stroma, sub-basal nerve plexus, and superficial and basal epithelium) was performed with the ConfoScan 4...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Julie A Lovshin, Petter Bjornstad, Leif E Lovblom, Johnny-Wei Bai, Yuliya Lytvyn, Geneviève Boulet, Mohammed A Farooqi, Sam Santiago, Andrej Orszag, Daniel Scarr, Alanna Weisman, Hillary A Keenan, Michael H Brent, Narinder Paul, Vera Bril, Bruce A Perkins, David Z I Cherney
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes carries a significant risk for cardiovascular mortality, but it is unclear how atherosclerosis associates with microvascular complications. We aimed to determine the relationships between atherosclerotic burden and neuropathy, retinopathy, and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in adults with a ≥50-year history of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with type 1 diabetes ( n = 69) underwent coronary artery calcification (CAC) volume scoring by wide-volume computerized tomography...
October 1, 2018: Diabetes Care
Astrid Zayas-Santiago, David S Ríos, Lidia V Zueva, Mikhail Y Inyushin
Transparent cells in the vertebrate optical tract, such as lens fiber cells and corneal epithelium cells, have specialized proteins that somehow permit only a low level of light scattering in their cytoplasm. It has been shown that both cell types contain (1) beaded intermediate filaments as well as (2) α-crystallin globulins. It is known that genetic and chemical alterations to these specialized proteins induce cytoplasmic opaqueness and visual complications. Crystallins were described previously in the retinal Müller cells of frogs...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Rong-Mei Peng, Yu-Xin Guo, Ge-Ge Xiao, Qing Lu, Bin-Jia Sun, Jing Hong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics and in vivo confocal microscopic (IVCM) findings of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-related corneal endotheliitis. METHODS: Retrospectively reviewed 20 eyes with corneal edema which were diagnosed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: one had VZV infection. Three had epithelial lesions. Six had mydriasis. Four had loss of iris pigment. Keratic precipitates (KPs) were mixed. Subbasal nerves had disappeared in 12 eyes...
September 25, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Neil S Lagali, Reza A Badian, Xu Liu, Tobias R Feldreich, Johan Ärnlöv, Tor Paaske Utheim, Lars B Dahlin, Olov Rolandsson
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by a low-grade inflammation; however, mechanisms leading to this inflammation in specific tissues are not well understood. The eye can be affected by diabetes; thus, we hypothesized that inflammatory changes in the eye may parallel the inflammation that develops with diabetes. Here, we developed a non-invasive means to monitor the status of inflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the corneal epithelium as a potential biomarker for the onset of inflammation in type 2 diabetes...
September 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susmito Biswas, Martha Gaviria, Luísa Malheiro, João Pedro Marques, Vincenzo Giordano, Hong Liang
Cystinosis, a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by intracellular cystine accumulation, occurs in an estimated 1/100,000-200,000 live births. Ocular non-nephropathic cystinosis is typically diagnosed during adulthood, when patients present with corneal crystal deposition and no systemic involvement. Due to the rarity of the condition, diagnosis is often delayed and can have a significant impact on the overall prognosis of the disease. Early diagnosis is therefore imperative to ensure successful treatment and improve quality of life, as most of its clinical manifestations can be prevented or delayed...
September 21, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Leonardo Mastropasqua, Mario Nubile, Manuela Lanzini, Roberta Calienno, Harminder S Dua
Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is a rare degenerative corneal disorder characterized by instability of epithelial integrity with consequent epithelial defects that can worsen up to persistent epithelial defects with stromal melting and ulceration. The pathogenesis of NK springs from a variable degree of damage to the trigeminal nerve plexus, leading to a reduction or total loss of corneal sensitivity. Mackie classification (1995) distinguishes three stages of NK, based on the severity of clinical presentation...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Manuel Martínez-Lavín
Several groups of investigators have described the presence of small fiber neuropathy in fibromyalgia patients. This writing discusses how this new finding could renovate fibromyalgia concept, diagnosis, and treatment. Predominant rheumatology thinking proposes fibromyalgia as a "centralized pain syndrome." An alternative hypothesis views fibromyalgia as a stress-related dysautonomia with neuropathic pain features. Dorsal root ganglia may be the key autonomic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. The recent recognition of small fiber neuropathy in a large subgroup of fibromyalgia patients reinforces the dysautonomia-neuropathic hypothesis and validates fibromyalgia pain...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Cerys J Evans, Lubica Dudakova, Pavlina Skalicka, Gabriela Mahelkova, Ales Horinek, Alison J Hardcastle, Stephen J Tuft, Petra Liskova
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic cause and describe the clinical phenotype of Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) in six unrelated probands. METHODS: We identified two white Czech, two white British and two South Asian families with a clinical diagnosis of SCD. Ophthalmic assessment included spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of one individual with advanced disease, and SD-OCT and confocal microscopy of a child with early stages of disease...
September 17, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Q F Liang, J J Huang, K Cao, G Y Su, Z Q Wang, Y Zhang, B Li
Objective: To study the histopathology manifestation and imaging characteristics of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) for diagnosis of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and analyze the reliability of IVCM in differential diagnosis from OSSN cases. Methods: A prospective study. Twenty-three patients (23 eyes) with OSSN were collected from September 2015 to November 2017 in Beijing Tongren Eye center. They were underwent the examinations sequentially as follows: visual examination; slit-lamp microscope examination and ocular surface photography; color fundus image; anterior segment optical coherence tomography examination; IVCM examination and histopathology examination after surgery...
September 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Shruti Aggarwal, Bernardo M Cavalcanti, Laura Regali, Andrea Cruzat, Monique Trinidad, Candice Williams, Ula V Jurkunas, Pedram Hamrah
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal nerve and immune cell alterations in Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK) by laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) as correlated to sensation and endothelial cell loss. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study. METHODS: 33 eyes with FECD were compared to 13 eyes with PBK and 17 normal age-matched control eyes at a tertiary referral center. FECD was classified into early (without edema) and late stage (with edema)...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
F Cifariello, M Minicucci, F Di Renzo, D Di Taranto, G Coclite, S Zaccaria, S De Turris, C Costagliola
Aim: To evaluate two different techniques of cross-linking: standard epithelium-off (CXL epi-off) versus transepithelial (CXL epi-on) cross-linking in patient with progressive keratoconus. Methods: Forty eyes from 32 patients with progressive keratoconus were prospectively enrolled from June 2014 to June 2015 in this nonblinded, randomized comparative study. Twenty eyes were treated by CXL epi-off and 20 by CLX epi-on, randomly assigned, and followed for 2 years...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
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