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Corneal confocal microscopy

Min-Suk Yoon, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Dietrich Sturm, Aiden Haghikia, Ralf Gold, Anna Lena Fisse
Background: The aim of this work was to report a case of an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) treated with propionate to evaluate its therapeutic potential in AMSAN. Materials and methods: The patient was investigated by clinical examination, electroneurography, high-resolution nerve ultrasound and confocal corneal microscopy at baseline and the 2 month follow up. We compared the outcome with those of five other patients with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and AMSAN of who were referred to our neurology department in the past 5 years...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
E M Messmer
BACKGROUND: Neurotrophic keratopathy is characterized by corneal surface alterations, persistent corneal epithelial defects and/or corneal ulcerations associated with corneal sensory abnormalities. Due to the variable clinical picture neurotrophic keratopathy is often overlooked or diagnosed too late in the course of the disease. OBJECTIVE: Discussion of the clinical picture of neurotrophic keratopathy and recommendations for correct diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of the existing literature and discussion of basic recent publications...
December 7, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Tsubasa Nishino, Akira Kobayashi, Natsuko Mori, Toshinori Masaki, Hideaki Yokogawa, Keiko Fujiki, Ai Yanagawa, Akira Murakami, Kazuhisa Sugiyama
PURPOSE: To report genetic mutational analysis and in vivo histology of Meesmann corneal dystrophy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, case control study. METHODS: Six patients from three independent families with clinically diagnosed Meesmann corneal dystrophy were enrolled in this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy with fluorescein vital staining, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and in vivo laser confocal microscopy (IVCM) were performed on selected patients...
December 7, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
G Y Su, P P Zheng, Y D Su, K Cao, C Gao, Y Zhang, B Li, Q F Liang
Objective: To study the effects of ultraviolet light combined with riboflavin treatment (corneal collagen-crosslinking, CXL) on infectious control and stromal reconstruction of bacterial keratitis. Methods: Experimental Study. A Staphylococcus aureus rabbit keratitis model was established by injecting Staphylococcus aureus broth into the shallow stromal layer of the right eye cornea of New Zealand white rabbits. Forty-four rabbits that successfully established the model were randomly divided into four groups: corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) group, antibiotic group, CXL+ antibiotic group and untreated group, with 11 rabbits in each group...
December 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Anica Herlyn, Ruby Kala Prakasam, Sabine Peschel, Stephan Allgeier, Bernd Köhler, Karsten Winter, Rudolf F Guthoff, Thomas Mittlmeier, Oliver Stachs
Introduction: Diabetic neuroosteoarthropathy (DNOAP) early symptoms are unspecific, mimicking general infectious symptoms and rendering a diagnosis challenging. Consequently, unfavourable outcomes occur frequently, with recurrent foot ulceration, infectious complications, and eventually amputation. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) of the subbasal nerve plexus (SNP) is used to detect early peripheral neuropathy in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy. This pilot study was designed to determine if specific SNP changes manifest in severe DNOAP in comparison to a healthy control group...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Julie A Lovshin, Yuliya Lytvyn, Leif E Lovblom, Alexandra Katz, Geneviève Boulet, Petter Bjornstad, Vesta Lai, Leslie Cham, Josephine Tse, Andrej Orszag, Hillary A Keenan, Narinder Paul, Vera Bril, David T Wong, Kylen D McReelis, Michael H Brent, Bruce A Perkins, David Z I Cherney
OBJECTIVE: The importance of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in retinopathy for long-standing diabetes is not well understood. We determined retinopathy stage and evaluated associations with other vascular complications before and after physiological RAAS activation in adults with long-standing (≥50 years duration) type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants underwent retinal examination by digital funduscopic photography and optical coherence tomography and were classified as having nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), or no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) with or without diabetic macular edema (DME)...
December 6, 2018: Diabetes Care
Hidetaka Miyagi, Soohyun Kim, Jennifer Li, Christopher J Murphy, Sara M Thomasy
PURPOSE: Corneal endothelial cell regeneration varies by species, with nonhuman primates (NHPs) and rabbits displaying low and high proliferative capacities, respectively. Recent studies report that topical application of rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors accelerates corneal endothelial wound healing in animal models and human patients with endothelial dysfunction. This study determines the regenerative capacity of canine corneal endothelial cells in vivo and their response to a topical ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, after transcorneal freezing...
November 29, 2018: Cornea
Olivia L Lee, Tudor C Tepelus, Jianyan Huang, Anne G Irvine, Christopher Irvine, Gloria B Chiu, SriniVas R Sadda
BACKGROUND: The corneal epithelium is directly affected in dry eye syndrome. Thus, we attempted to describe the morphological features and evaluate the cellular density within the corneal epithelial layers in patients with non-Sjögren's (NSDE) and Sjögren's syndrome dry eyes (SSDE) by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: Central cornea was prospectively imaged by IVCM in 68 clinically diagnosed aqueous tear-deficient dry eyes and 10 healthy age-matched control eyes...
December 4, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Maryam Ferdousi, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Alise Kalteniece, Shazli Azmi, Georgios Ponirakis, Nathan Efron, Handrean Soran, Rayaz Ahmed Malik
Purpose: Patients with diabetes have a propensity to develop dry eye symptoms (DES), with reduced tear secretion and corneal sensitivity. The underlying pathologic basis of DES was explored in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Forty-two patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (age: 49.21 ± 2.53 years, duration of diabetes: 29.98 ± 2.64 years) and 25 control subjects (age: 48.70 ± 2.84 years) underwent assessment of DES using a validated dry eye questionnaire, and tear stability and tear production were assessed using tear breakup time (TBUT) and Schirmer's test, respectively...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ana Maria Abreu-Velez, Michael S Howard, Héctor Jose Lambraño Padilla, Sergio Tobon-Arroyave
Background: We have described a variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in El Bagre area known as pemphigus Abreu-Manu. Our previous study suggested that Colombian EPF seemed to react with various plakin family proteins, such as desmoplakins, envoplakin, periplakin BP230, MYZAP, ARVCF, p0071 as well as desmoglein 1. Objectives: To explore whether patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (El Bagre-EPF) demonstrated oral involvement. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was done by searching for oral changes in 45 patients affected by El Bagre-EPF, as well as 45 epidemiologically matched controls from the endemic area matched by demographics, oral hygiene habits, comorbidities, smoking habits, place of residence, age, sex, and work activity...
October 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
Adnan Khan, Saadat Kamran, Naveed Akhtar, Georgios Ponirakis, Hamad Al-Muhannadi, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Shumoos Al-Fahdawi, Rami Qahwaji, Faheem Sartaj, Blessy Babu, Muhammad Faisal Wadiwala, Ashfaq Shuaib, Rayaz A Malik
Endothelial dysfunction and damage underlie cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke. We undertook corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) to quantify corneal endothelial cell and nerve morphology in 146 patients with an acute ischemic stroke and 18 age-matched healthy control participants. Corneal endothelial cell density was lower (P < 0.001) and endothelial cell area (P < 0.001) and perimeter (P < 0.001) were higher, whilst corneal nerve fibre density (P < 0.001), corneal nerve branch density (P < 0...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Saint-Jean, N Reguart, A Eixarch, A Adán, C Castellà, B Sánchez-Dalmau, M Sainz-de-la-Maza
PURPOSE: Controversy exists regarding the safety of agents that systemically inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRi) in oncologic patients in terms of toxicity to the ocular surface. We performed a prospective clinical study comparing the ocular surface toxicity of systemic EGFRi between a case and a control group. METHODS: Patients with lung or colon cancer were divided in two groups: 25 patients treated with systemic EGFRi and 25 control patients without EGFRi treatment...
November 22, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
N Banayan, C Georgeon, K Grieve, D Ghoubay, F Baudouin, V Borderie
The limbus is the anatomical and functional barrier between corneal and conjunctival epithelia. It is characterized by presence of the limbal stem cell niche which allows corneal homeostasis to be maintained. Limbal stem cell deficiency is characterized by a dual process: insufficient regeneration of corneal epithelium, which cannot therefore assure its function of physiological support, associated with corneal invasion by conjunctival proliferation. Diagnosis is currently made via routine clinical examination, corneal impression cytology and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
November 22, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Brian C Leonard, Iman Jalilian, Vijay Krishna Raghunathan, Wei Wang, Albert S Jun, Christopher J Murphy, Sara M Thomasy
Early-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) has been associated with nonsynonymous mutations in collagen VIII α2 (COL8A2), a key extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in Descemet's membrane (DM). Two knock-in strains of mice have been generated to each express a mutant COL8A2 protein (Col8a2L450W/L450W and Col8a2Q455K/Q455K ) that recapitulate the clinical phenotype of early-onset FECD including endothelial cell loss, cellular polymegathism and pleomorphism, and guttae. Due to abnormalities in ECM protein composition and structure in FECD, the stiffness of DM in Col8a2 knock-in mice and wildtype (WT) controls was measured using atomic force microscopy at 5 and 10 months of age, coinciding with the onset of FECD phenotypic abnormalities...
November 21, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Nate Jowett, Roberto Pineda Ii
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Medical management of neurotrophickeratopathy is challenging and costly. Supra-orbital nerve transfer to thecornea has proven effective for management of keratopathy, but yieldsconsiderable donor site morbidity. Herein, a novel technique for reinnervationof the anaesthetic cornea is presented and early results characterised. METHODS: Sensory fibres of the ipsilateral greatauricular nerve were directed via an interposition graft to the anteriorcorneal stroma using scleral-corneal tunnel incisions in two patients withgrade III neurotrophic keratopathy...
November 23, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
N Banayan, C Georgeon, K Grieve, D Ghoubay, F Baudouin, V Borderie
The limbus is the anatomical and functional barrier between the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. It is characterized by the presence of the limbal stem cell niche, which allows corneal homeostasis to be maintained. Limbal stem cell deficiency is characterized by a dual process: insufficient regeneration of corneal epithelium, which cannot therefore assure its function of physiological support, associated with corneal invasion by conjunctival proliferation. Diagnosis is currently made via routine clinical examination, corneal impression cytology and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
November 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Xiaolin Qi, Miaolin Wang, Xiaofeng Li, Yanni Jia, Suxia Li, Weiyun Shi, Hua Gao
Purpose: To observe clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of new onset herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) after keratoplasty. Methods: Among 1,443 patients (1,443 eyes) who underwent keratoplasty (excluding cases of primary HSK) in Shandong Eye Hospital, 17 patients suffered postoperative HSK. The clinical manifestations, treatment regimens, and prognoses of the patients were evaluated. Results: The incidence of new onset HSK after keratoplasty was 1...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Gian Marco Tosi, Gianluca Martone, Tommaso Bacci, Antonio Tarantello, Stefano Baiocchi, Davide Marigliani, Gabriele Cevenini, Flavia Menicacci, Gianni Virgili, Giacomina Massaro-Giordano
The corneal sub-basal nerve (SBN) plexus is destroyed during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and its recovery is still a matter of debate. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) was used to evaluate SBN plexus in 23 patients at a distance of 10-25 years (mean 15.6 years) from myopic PRK. Because 8 out of the 23 PRK patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, IVCM was also performed on those patients 6 months after PPV. Thirteen patients matched for age and myopia served as controls (non-PRK)...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Reaux-Le Goazigo Annabelle, Poras Hervé, Ben-Dhaou Cyrine, Ouimet Tanja, Baudouin Christophe, Wurm Michel, Melik Parsadaniantz Stéphane
Ocular pain is a core symptom of inflammatory or traumatic disorders affecting the anterior segment. To date, the management of chronic ocular pain remains a therapeutic challenge in ophthalmology. The main endogenous opioids (enkephalins) play a key role in pain control but exhibit only transient analgesic effects due to their rapid degradation. The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of topical administration of PL265 (a dual enkephalinase inhibitor) on murine models of corneal pain...
October 17, 2018: Pain
He Jin, Miao He, Wei Wang, Hongshan Liu, Xiaoying Zhong, Liangping Liu, Hui Ding, Xingwu Zhong
BACKGROUND: In our previous study, both allogeneic and xenogeneic small-incision femtosecond laser-assisted intrastromal keratoplasty were demonstrated to be safe and effective surgeries. Glycerol-dehydrated corneal lamellae could serve as alternative xenogeneic inlay grafts. However, these xenogeneic lamellae have not been explored in lamellar keratoplasty (LK). The immunoreactivity differences between corneal intrastromal xenotransplantation and xenogeneic LK have not been assessed...
November 9, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
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