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Skin immunity

Kelly Emi Hirai, Luciana Mota Silva, Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Juarez de Souza, Leônidas Braga Dias, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Tinara Leila de Souza Aarão, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy is a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which is characterized by two distinct poles, the tuberculoid pole and the lepromatous pole, depending on the immune response to the bacillus. Langerin-positive cells are dendritic cells that appear to play an essential role in the development of the disease. These cells are specialized in the processing and presentation of antigens, exerting an important function in the activation of the immune system. To evaluate the expression of langerin-positive cells (CD207+) in skin lesion fragments of patients with a diagnosis of M...
August 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Michael Devos, Denis A Mogilenko, Sébastien Fleury, Barbara Gilbert, Coralie Becquart, Sandrine Quemener, Hélène Dehondt, Peter Tougaard, Bart Staels, Claus Bachert, Peter Vandenabeele, Geert Van Loo, Delphine Staumont-Salle, Wim Declercq, David Dombrowicz
Keratinocytes are key players in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. A20 regulates NF-κB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory genes and cell death, but the impact of its expression in keratinocytes on systemic inflammation and skin disorders has not been determined. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of micro-dissected epidermis showed that A20 is downregulated in involved epidermis, but not in dermis, of psoriasis (Pso) and atopic dermatitis (AD) patients suggesting that loss of A20 expression in keratinocytes increases the vulnerability for Pso/AD induction...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Jason R Woloski, Deepa Burman, Olumuyiwa Adebona
Patients with suspected bites or skin rashes regularly present to their primary care physician. Common mite infections encountered in the primary care office include scabies, chiggers, grain itch, and allergic responses from dust mites. In fact, scabies is one of the 50 most prevalent diseases worldwide. Bed bugs are also becoming increasingly common, living in dark crevices, such as mattresses, feeding at night, and causing a maculopapular immune mediated allergic skin response in humans. Proper identification of the mite or bed bug is essential to guide treatment and eradication...
September 2018: Primary Care
Farhana Hoque, T Jawahar Abraham, T S Nagesh, Dibyendu Kamilya
Use of probiotics as the biocontrol agent for disease prevention in aquaculture is gaining importance as an alternative to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics. In view of this trend, the probiotic properties of a potent antagonistic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa FARP72 , was characterized in terms of safety, antagonistic activities, in vitro immunomodulation, and in vivo disease resistance. Immunomodulatory activity was ascertained by measuring the production of intracellular superoxide anion, nitric oxide, total leukocyte peroxidase content, and the leukocyte proliferation in head kidney leukocytes...
August 15, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Andrew Blauvelt, Andrea Chiricozzi
Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease that is pathogenically driven by proinflammatory cytokines. This article reviews the immunologic role of interleukin (IL)-17, the major effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease, along with the rationale for targeting the IL-17 cytokine family (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17 receptor A) in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Emerging evidence indicates that major sources of IL-17A in patients with psoriatic disease are mast cells, γδ T cells, αβ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells in lesional skin and synovial fluid...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Taku Hatano, Masashi Takanashi, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Shin-Ichi Ueno, Arisa Hayashida, Yutaka Tsukune, Kazuaki Kanai, Yasushi Shimo, Nobutaka Hattori
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis are skin disorders characterized by cutaneous polyclonal plasma cell infiltration accompanied by polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Cutaneous plasmacytosis involvement is limited to the skin, mainly on the face and trunk, while systemic plasmacytosis also involves 2 or more organ systems. However, there have been no reports of inflammatory myositis due to plasmacytosis. Here, we report a patient with plasmacytosis who developed myalgia and easy fatigability due to inflammatory myositis...
August 14, 2018: BMC Neurology
Elizabeth Mannino Avila, Erin Stucky Fisher, Kyung Rhee
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine patient history as well as clinical and laboratory features associated with true bacteremia versus false bacteremia in previously healthy febrile children ages 0 to 36 months in the era of polyvalent conjugate pneumococcal immunization. METHODS: Using retrospective chart review, we examined history, physical examination, and laboratory characteristics associated with true and false bacteremia. We included subjects under 3 years old, with a positive blood culture obtained in the emergency department or clinic from July 2011 to July 2013, and fever defined as a temperature of greater than or equal to 100...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
He Le, Duan LiHua, Feng JianJun, Lin Peng, Guo SongLin
AIMS: Vibrio vulnificus is a common bacterial pathogen causing hemorrhagic septicemia in eels farming. This study is to investigate the immunogenicity of an outer membrane protein U of V. vulnificus and the feasibility of the protein as a new subunit vaccine against V. vulnificus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Partial gene sequence of the outer membrane protein U (OmpU) of V. vulnificus was cloned, and then the OmpU was expressed and purified. Three groups of Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) were intraperitoneally (i...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Abdel-Aziz A El-Rifaie, Dina Sabry, Reham W Doss, Mai A Kamal, Dalia M Abd El Hassib
Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes due to interplay between keratinocytes and immune cells. Iron status plays an important role in modifying the function of the immune system. Heme oxygenase (HO), heme-degrading enzyme, plays important role in protective response to oxidative cellular stress. We aimed in this study to map the iron status and HO levels and declare the role HO enzyme in iron homeostasis and immune-modulation in psoriasis. Fifty-one patients with psoriasis and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Leng Wei Khoo, Siew Audrey Kow, Ming Tatt Lee, Chin Ping Tan, Khozirah Shaari, Chau Ling Tham, Faridah Abas
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau (Acanthaceae), commonly known as Sabah snake grass, is a vegetable and a well-known herb that is considered an alternative medicine for insect bites, skin rashes, herpes infection, inflammation, and cancer and for health benefits. Current review aims to provide a well-tabulated repository of the phytochemical screening, identification and quantification, and the pharmacological information of C. nutans according to the experimental design and the plant preparation methods which make it outstanding compared to existing reviews...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Wandi Zhu, Song Li, Chao Wang, Guoying Yu, Mark R Prausnitz, Bao-Zhong Wang
Skin vaccination using biodegradable microneedle patch (MNP) technology in vaccine delivery is a promising strategy showing significant advantages over conventional flu shots. In this study, we developed an MNP encapsulating a 4M2e-tFliC fusion protein and two types of whole inactivated influenza virus vaccines (H1N1 and H3N2) as a universal vaccine candidate. We demonstrated that mice receiving this tri-component influenza vaccine via MNP acquired improved IgG1 antibody responses with more balanced IgG1/IgG2a antibody responses and enhanced cellular immune responses, including increased populations of IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells and higher frequencies of antigen-specific plasma cells compared with intramuscular injection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Khalid Almoammar
Vitamin D is known as the oldest of all hormones. 7-Dehydrocholesterol is converted to previtamin D3 . It becomes a secosteroid when it is later converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ). A number of factors influence vitamin D3 production, including skin pigmentation, the use of sunscreen lotions, season, latitude, and altitude. Vitamin D is important for bone metabolism and calcium hemostasis. Researchers have linked a deficiency in vitamin D levels to a number of systemic complications, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, immune deficiency, and infectious diseases...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
Louise A Rollins-Smith, Jacques Robert
In many studies of diseases affecting amphibians, it is important to determine to what extent lymphocyte-mediated defenses are involved. For example, in studies of the nature of the immune response of Xenopus laevis to the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , it was essential to determine if mucosal antimicrobial peptides or lymphocyte-mediated immunity was most important for resistance to this skin pathogen. In this protocol, we describe a method for sublethal irradiation to reduce lymphocyte numbers...
August 13, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Robyn M Lucas, Rachael M Rodney Harris
If environmental exposures are shown to cause an adverse health outcome, reducing exposure should reduce the disease risk. Links between exposures and outcomes are typically based on 'associations' derived from observational studies, and causality may not be clear. Randomized controlled trials to 'prove' causality are often not feasible or ethical. Here the history of evidence that tobacco smoking causes lung cancer-from observational studies-is compared to that of low sun exposure and/or low vitamin D status as causal risk factors for the autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS)...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
In-Jeong Choi, Aram Kang, Myun-Hwan Ahn, Hyesun Jun, Seung-Ki Baek, Jung-Hwan Park, Woonsung Na, Seong-O Choi
In this study, we present transcutaneous influenza vaccination using a novel tip-separable microneedle system called insertion-responsive microneedles (IRMNs). IRMNs are composed of dissolvable hyaluronic acid (HA) tips and biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL) bases, the tip of which is instantly separated from the base during microneedle insertion and retraction. Vaccine antigens derived from canine influenza virus (A/canine/VC378/2012; H3N2) were successfully coated on HA tips by rapidly freezing the tips prior to coating...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Stephanie L Brandt, Nathan Klopfenstein, Soujuan Wang, Seth Winfree, Brian P McCarthy, Paul R Territo, Lloyd Miller, C Henrique Serezani
The early events that shape the innate immune response to restrain pathogens during skin infections remain elusive. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection engages phagocyte chemotaxis, abscess formation, and microbial clearance. Upon infection, neutrophils and monocytes find a gradient of chemoattractants that influence both phagocyte direction and microbial clearance. The bioactive lipid leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is quickly (seconds to minutes) produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and signals through the G protein-coupled receptors LTB4R1 (BLT1) or BLT2 in phagocytes and structural cells...
August 13, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Emmanuel Morelon, Palmina Petruzzo, Jean Kanitakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascularized composite allografts (VCA), which restore severely damaged body parts that cannot be repaired with conventional surgical techniques, often undergo acute skin rejection episodes in the early postgraft period. Although the risk of human VCA to be affected by chronic rejection was initially unknown, such cases were recently observed. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic rejection targets preferentially the skin (dermal sclerosis, adnexal atrophy, necrosis) and vessels (graft vasculopathy) and may cause graft dysfunction, often resulting in ischemic graft loss...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Laura Wagenaar, Marianne Bol-Schoenmakers, Giulio Giustarini, Marlotte M Vonk, Betty C A M van Esch, Leon M J Knippels, Johan Garssen, Joost J Smit, Raymond H H Pieters
SCOPE: A major downside of oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergy is the risk of severe side-effects. Non-digestible short- and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS/lcFOS), reduced allergy development in murine models. We therefor hypothesized that scFOS/lcFOS can also support the efficacy of OIT in a peanut allergy model. METHODS AND RESULTS: After sensitization to peanut extract (PE) using cholera toxin, C3H/HeOuJ mice were fed a 1% scFOS/lcFOS or control diet and received OIT (1...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
A Claßen, T Buhl, S Schubert, M Worm, A Bauer, J Geier, S Molin
BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggested an inverse association between contact allergy and psoriasis, although the results of clinical studies have been inconsistent. Gene-expression studies in human contact allergy focusing on immune responses revealed nickel being an inducer of Th1/Th17 and some Th22 immune polarization, whereas fragrances were found to promote a Th2-dominated immune activation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate (i) the epidemiological association between contact allergy and psoriasis in a large multicenter cohort and (ii) to analyze the sensitization profile to specific allergens in these patients...
August 12, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Hanren Dai, Yong Zhou, Chuan Tong, Yelei Guo, Fengxia Shi, Yao Wang, Pingping Shen
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder mediated by the cells and molecules of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell infusion is considered an effective and safe cancer treatment and is licensed for this use in China. Accumulated evidence indicating that CD3+ CD56+ cells are significantly decreased in psoriatic patients prompted us to investigate if the restoration of CD3+ CD56+ cells may be beneficial for psoriatic patients. We designed a clinical trial for psoriasis treatment that involved CIK cell infusion because CIK cells include a large amount of CD3+ CD56+ T cells (NCT01894373 at www...
August 9, 2018: Cytotherapy
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