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Skin immunity

Anne-Sofie Ravn Ballegaard, Charlotte Bernhard Madsen, Katrine Lindholm Bøgh
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitisation to foods may occur in infancy without prior oral exposure to the offending food, leading to the assumption that food allergy sensitisation may occur through the skin. Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of use of personal care products containing hydrolysed wheat proteins, since these products have been shown to induce allergy through the skin, and even cause an abrogation of an already established oral tolerance. OBJECTIVE: To establish an animal model for food allergy skin sensitisation and compare the sensitising capacity of an unmodified and an acid-hydrolysed gluten product via slightly damaged skin in naïve versus tolerant rats...
December 5, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Kaitlin N Calhoun, Lerin R Luckett-Chastain, Benjamin Frempah, Randle M Gallucci
Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), the most common occupational cutaneous illness, is an acute inflammatory response caused by topical irritant exposure. Multiple factors are associated with the manifestation and severity of ICD and contribute to the lack of effective prophylactic and treatment strategies. To determine the pathomechanism of ICD caused by the irritants, benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and JP-8 jet fuel, two mouse strains, C57BL/6 and Balb/c, were assessed due to their differential immune predispositions...
December 4, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Hassan Zafar, Milton H Saier
The communities of beneficial bacteria that live in our intestines, the gut microbiome, are important for the development and function of the immune system. Bacteroides species make up a significant fraction of the human gut microbiome, and can be probiotic and pathogenic, depending upon various genetic and environmental factors. These can cause disease conditions such as intra-abdominal sepsis, appendicitis, bacteremia, endocarditis, pericarditis, skin infections, brain abscesses and meningitis. In this study, we identify the transport systems and predict their substrates within seven Bacteroides species, all shown to be probiotic; however, four of them (B...
2018: PloS One
Verena Moosbrugger-Martinz, Robert Gruber, Katharina Ladstätter, Marion Bellutti, Stefan Blunder, Matthias Schmuth, Sandrine Dubrac
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have previously been studied in AD, their role remains controversial, likely owing to patient heterogeneity. Thus, we recruited adult AD patients and age-matched healthy controls, and assessed their filaggrin (FLG) genotype, serum IgE level, and eczema area and severity index (EASI). We found increased proportions of all circulating Treg subpopulations in AD patients. Moreover, we show positive correlations between circulating Tregs and serum IgE FLG null mutations limited the expansion of both memory and effector Tregs and enhanced that of recently thymus-emigrated Tregs...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Harshad Devarbhavi, Sujata Raj
While dermatologic manifestations of adverse drug reactions are frequent, drug-induced liver injury is rare. Numerous drugs are implicated in either Drug-Induced Liver Injury or Drug-Induced Skin Injury. However, concomitant Drug-Induced Liver Injury and Drug-Induced Skin Injury are uncommon, not well characterized and appear to be caused by a limited number of drugs. These are often associated with immuno-allergic or hypersensitivity features such as fever, skin rash, blisters or peeling of skin, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy and mucositis...
December 4, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Alireza Hassanshahi, Mohammadhossein Hassanshahi, Samira Khabbazi, Zahra Hosseini-Khah, Yaser Peymanfar, Saman Qhalamkari, Yu-Wen Su, Cory J Xian
Wound healing is a complex but a fine-tuned biological process in which human skin has the ability to regenerate itself following damage. However, in particular conditions such as deep burn or diabetes the process of wound healing is compromised. Despite investigations on the potency of a wide variety of stem cells for wound healing, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) seem to possess the least limitations for clinical applications, and literature showed that ASCs can improve the process of wound healing very likely by promoting angiogenesis and/or vascularisation, modulating immune response, and inducing epithelialization in the wound...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Bing Han, Qiang Guo
Introduction: Clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) is a rare disease with unknown origin. It is characterized by the specific skin lesions of dermatomyositis (DM) without clinical or laboratory evidence of myopathy. Previous studies indicated that tattoo may induce immune response. Case Report: A 22-year-old male who tattooed butterfly on the left chest with blue and red ink. Then, he gradually had typical Gottron rash and interstitial lung disease (ILD) without weakness of the muscle...
2018: Case Reports in Rheumatology
Flavie Ngo Nyekel, Emeline Pacreau, Samira Benadda, Rasha Msallam, Magnus Åbrink, Gunnar Pejler, Jean Davoust, Marc Benhamou, Nicolas Charles, Pierre Launay, Ulrich Blank, Gregory Gautier
Recent evidences indicate an important role of tissue inflammatory responses by innate immune cells in allograft acceptance and survival. Here we investigated the role of mast cells (MC) in an acute male to female skin allograft rejection model using red MC and basophil (RMB) mice enabling conditional MC depletion. Kinetic analysis showed that MCs markedly accelerate skin rejection. They induced an early inflammatory response through degranulation and boosted local synthesis of KC, MIP-2, and TNF. This enhanced early neutrophil infiltration compared to a female-female graft-associated repair response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kimiko Nakajima, Sayo Kataoka, Kenji Sato, Mikiro Takaishi, Mayuko Yamamoto, Hideki Nakajima, Shigetoshi Sano
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease associated with aberrant crosstalk between the epidermis and immune system. However, the role of Langerhans cells (LCs) in psoriasis remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate whether LCs are functionally involved in the development of psoriasis using a mouse model. METHODS: Two lines of transgenic mice were used and crossed. They included K5.Stat3C, the psoriasis-model mouse and langerin DTR knock-in (KI) mouse...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Meysam Shakoori, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hamed Paknejad, Valiollah Jafari, Roghieh Safari, Hien Van Doan, Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh
A two-month study was conducted to determine the influence of different levels of microbial lysozyme (LZ) contents (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g kg-1 of diet) on growth performance, serum and skin mucus immune parameters as well as intestinal immune-related genes expression in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings (5.5 ± 0.1 g). Growth performance and feed utilization were not affected significantly by dietary LZ. Fish fed LZ-supplemented diets had higher serum total immunoglobulins concentration than the control group...
December 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Khairul Syahputra, Per W Kania, Azmi Al-Jubury, Rzgar M Jafaar, Ron P Dirks, Kurt Buchmann
The parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting skin, fins and gills of a wide range of freshwater fish species, including rainbow trout, is known to induce a protective immune response in the host. Although a number of studies have reported activation of several immune genes in infected fish host, the immune response picture is still considered incomplete. In order to address this issue, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on infected versus uninfected rainbow trout gills and it showed that a total of 3352 (7...
December 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Michael E Mullins, Charles J Gerardo, Sean P Bush, S Rutherfoord Rose, Spencer Greene, Eugenia B Quackenbush, Brandon Lewis, Victoria E Anderson, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Richard B Schwarz, Nathan P Charlton, Eric A Toschlog, Kapil Sharma, David A Denning, Eric J Lavonas
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions following copperhead envenomation treated with Fab antivenom (FabAV) or placebo. METHODS: Patients with copperhead snakebites received treatment and follow-up in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of FabAV or placebo. The treatment allocation ratio was 2:1 (FabAV:placebo). All of the included patients received at least one dose of study treatment. We reviewed all treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) using a previously published scale to classify likely hypersensitivity reactions as mild, moderate, or severe...
December 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Hiroki Kiyohara, Tomohisa Sujino, Toshiaki Teratani, Kentaro Miyamoto, Mari Mochizuki Arai, Ena Nomura, Yosuke Harada, Ryo Aoki, Yuzo Koda, Yohei Mikami, Shinta Mizuno, Makoto Naganuma, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Takanori Kanai
Background & Aims: Psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases occurring in the skin and gut, respectively. It is well established that psoriasis and IBD have high concordance rates, and similar changes in immune cells and microbiome composition have been reported in both conditions. To study this connection, we used a combination murine model of psoriatic dermatitis and colitis in which mice were treated topically with the Toll-like receptor 7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) and fed dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)...
2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Esmaeil Mortaz, Saeede Amani, Sharon Mumby, Ian M Adcock, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Jelle Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Gert Folkerts
The multifunctional role of mast cells (MCs) in the immune system is complex and has not fully been explored. MCs reside in tissues and mucous membranes such as the lung, digestive tract, and skin which are strategically located at interfaces with the external environment. These cells, therefore, will encounter external stimuli and pathogens. MCs modulate both the innate and the adaptive immune response in inflammatory disorders including transplantation. MCs can have pro- and anti-inflammatory functions, thereby regulating the outcome of lung transplantation through secretion of mediators that allow interaction with other cell types, particularly innate lymphoid cells (ILC2)...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Akanksha Sharma, Ajay Verma, Irfan Ahmad Ansari, Premendra D Dwivedi
In the course of analyzing amino acid sequence of an allergen (≈20 kDa), we found this protein has a homology with the amino acid sequence of putative α-Dioxygenase fragment (ADF). Allergy caused by many allergens having an enzymatic activity have been reported previously, but allergenicity to neither α-Dioxygenase enzyme nor to it's any constituents has been reported. We sought to purify an ADF (≈19.5 kDa) from chickpea to investigate it's inherent allergic potential in BALB/c mice. The ADF showed IgE-affinity in sera of sensitized BALB/c mice and allergic patients...
November 15, 2018: Immunobiology
Karl Walter Bock
Despite decades of intense research physiologic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) functions have not been elucidated. Challenges include marked species differences and dependence on cell type and cellular context. A previous commentary on human AHR functions in skin and intestine has been extended to vascular tissue. Similar functions appear to be operating in vascular tissue including microbial defense, modulation of stem/progenitor cells as well as control of immunity and inflammation. However, AHR functions are Janus faced: Detrimental AHR functions in vascular tissue are well documented, e...
November 30, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Sung Hoon Lee, Il-Hong Bae, Hyangtae Choi, Hyeong Won Choi, Soojung Oh, Paulo A Marinho, Dae Jin Min, Dae-Yong Kim, Tae Ryong Lee, Chang Seok Lee, Jongsung Lee
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is not fully understood. Defects in skin barrier function and dysregulation of the Th2 immune response are thought to be pivotal in AD pathogenesis. In this study, we used keratinocytes and AD-like skin equivalent models using Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. The keratinocytes and AD-like skin model were used to investigate the effect of dipotassium glycyrrhizinate (KG), which is widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent for AD treatment. KG decreased AD-related gene expression in keratinocytes stimulated with Th2 cytokines...
November 30, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Priya T Rajan, T N Suresh, T S Rajashekar
Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic and immune-mediated skin disorder having a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. An analysis of the role of angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel density in psoriatic skin lesions may help in better understanding of the disease pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel density using CD34 antibodies in psoriatic skin lesions by immunohistochemical examination using normal skin of healthy individuals as controls...
November 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Abdulla Watad, Charlie Bridgewood, Tobias Russell, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Richard Cuthbert, Dennis McGonagle
In our paper, we discuss how the early phases of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are linked to peri-firbocartilagenous osteitis in the sacroiliac joint and entheseal bone related anchoring sites. This skeletal proclivity is linked to an abnormal immunological response to skeletal biomechanical stress and associated microdamage. A key event in the early stages of AS appears to be the association with subclinical Crohn's-like colitis with this gut inflammation being pivotal to the osteitis reaction. Whether this osteitis is consequent to non-specific intestinal innate immune activation or adaptive immune responses against specific microbiotal or self-antigens is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kota Sekiguchi, Kohta Kurohane, Masato Tsutsumi, Narumi Mochizuki, Akimasa Orii, Mutsumi Nose, Yasuyuki Imai
The prevalence of skin allergies could be partly due to the increased exposure to chemicals from consumer products. Chemicals that can enhance hypersensitivity caused by other chemicals are the focus of this study. We have demonstrated that phthalate esters with short chain alcohols enhance fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in a mouse model. We have also found that tributyrin, a triacylglycerol (TAG) with three butyric acids, enhances sensitization to FITC. To elucidate such an enhanced skin sensitization might be based on a general feature of TAG, we compared tributyrin and triolein, a natural TAG, as to an adjuvant effect on FITC-CHS...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology
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