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Skin immunity

Xiaochun Xue, Jianhua Wu, Junhui Li, Jianguo Xu, Haiying Dai, Congshan Tao, Chao Li, Jinhong Hu
It was previously reported that the expression of CD274 was down-regulated in psoriatic epidermis, leading to immune disorders of psoriasis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CD274 were rarely elucidated. We aimed to explore the regulatory mechanisms of CD274.Skin samples were collected from 18 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 9 healthy participants for RNA sequencing. Candidate genes were chosen based on degree and k-core difference of genes in the co-expression network. The relations between candidate genes and CD274 were validated by flow cytometry and realtime PCR in primary human epidermal keratinocytes...
October 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen, Saskia Braber, Reinilde Loonstra, Nicole Buurman, Lieke Rutten, Karen Knipping, Paul J Savelkoul, Lucien F Harthoorn, Frode L Jahnsen, Johan Garssen, Anita Hartog
The conditionally essential amino acid glycine functions as inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Moreover, it has been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory compound in animal models of ischemic perfusion, post-operative inflammation, periodontal disease, arthritis and obesity. Glycine acts by binding to a glycine-gated chloride channel, which has been demonstrated on neurons and immune cells, including macrophages, polymorphonuclear neutrophils and lymphocytes. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of glycine on allergy development in a cow's milk allergy model...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Manuel Göller, Michaela Fels, Wiebke-Rebekka Gerdts, Nicole Kemper
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was the scientific evaluation of an intradermal vaccination method in comparison to an intramuscular vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in suckling piglets with regard to skin reactions, performance parameters and procedural aspects. Possible effects on animal welfare should be deduced. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Under field conditions, 672 suckling piglets in three batches were vaccinated; 338 intradermally and 334 intramuscularly...
October 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Jan Dudeck, Julia Froebel, Johanna Kotrba, Christian H K Lehmann, Diana Dudziak, Stephan Speier, Sergei A Nedospasov, Burkhart Schraven, Anne Dudeck
BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) are best known as key effector cells of allergic reactions but they also play an important role in host defense against pathogens. Despite increasing evidence for a critical impact of MCs on adaptive immunity, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Here, we monitored MC intercellular communication with dendritic cells (DCs), MC activation and degranulation and tracked the fate of exocytosed MC granules during skin inflammation...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Álvaro Fernández-Montero, Silvia Torrecillas, Marisol Izquierdo, María José Caballero, Douglas John Milne, Christopher John Secombes, John Sweetman, Polyana Da Silva, Félix Acosta, Daniel Montero
The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of two forms of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS: Bio-Mos® and cMOS: Actigen® , Alltech Inc, USA) and their combination on greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) growth performance and feed efficiency, immune parameters and resistance against ectoparasite (Neobenedenia girellae) infection. Fish were fed for 90 days with 5 g kg-1 MOS, 2 g kg-1 cMOS or a combination of both prebiotics, in a Seriola commercial base diet (Skretting, Norway). At the end of the feeding period, no differences were found in growth performance or feed efficiency...
October 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
K Krause, R Sabat, E Witte-Händel, A Schulze, V Puhl, M Maurer, K Wolk
BACKGROUND: Schnitzler's syndrome (SchS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease characterized by urticarial exanthema, bone and joint alterations, fever and monoclonal gammopathy, which manifests mostly in the second half of life. It involves over-activation of the interleukin(IL)-1 system, but the exact pathophysiological pathways remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at the identification and characterization of pathogenetic players in SchS. METHODS: Blood parameters were quantified in SchS patients compared to healthy subjects and patients with psoriasis and hidradenitis suppurativa using ELISA...
October 19, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Anaïs Nassios, Susanne Wallner, Sebastian Haferkamp, Christoph Klingelhöffer, Christoph Brochhausen, Stephan Schreml
BACKGROUND: In humans, there are four known proton-sensing G-Protein-coupled receptors (pH-GPCRs): GPR4 (GPR19), TDAG8 (GPR65, T-cell death-associated gene 8), OGR1 (GPR68, ovarian cancer GPCR1), and G2A (GPR132, G2 accumulation protein). They are known to be involved in sensing changes of extracellular proton-concentrations in the acidic microenvironment of tumors, which leads to altered cell proliferation, migration, metastasis, immune cell function and inflammation. However, little is known about the expression of pH-GPCRs in the skin and especially skin cancers...
October 19, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
I V Reshetov, K A Petrosyan, P A Antonyan, L S Khachatryan
Among all thermal burn injuries, electrical burns are the most unpredictable and are characterized by the damage of depressing and functionally important anatomical structures, as well as an extensive volume of tissue damage. The tactics of treating such post-burn defects require always an individual and non-standard approach. In this article, a clinical example of the plastic closure of a neck defect is presented, as a result of a high-voltage electric burn received, with counter skin-muscular flaps based on m...
2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Skuli Magnusson, Hilmar Kjartansson, Baldur Tumi Baldursson, Katrin Astradsdottir, Magnus S Ågren, Hilmar Hilmarsson, Gudmundur Fertram Sigurjonsson
It is vital that cellular- and tissue-based products (CTPs) used for wound treatment do not provoke autoimmunity. In this study, the immunogenic response to extracts of 2 CTPs of piscine and porcine origin was assessed in the collagen-induced arthritis model. Male DBA/1J mice were divided into 4 groups, each composed of 7 to 9 animals. Each animal was injected with one of following to assess their immune responses: (1) bovine type II collagen (100 µg) in Freund's adjuvant, (2) extract of piscine skin (100 µg) in Freund's adjuvant, (3) extract of porcine urinary bladder matrix (100 µg) in Freund's adjuvant, or (4) Freund's adjuvant alone (control) at the beginning of the experiment and 3 weeks later...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Moshe C Ornstein, Jorge A Garcia
Background: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) have now been established as standard agents in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Given the unique toxicity profiles of CPIs, a detailed understanding of their incidence rate and characteristics is critical. Objective: To perform a systematic review for the analysis of the incidence rate and characteristics of toxicities in mRCC patients treated with CPIs in published clinical trials. Methods: A systematic search of EMBASE (Ovid) and MEDLINE (Ovid) was conducted as per PRISMA guidelines to identify prospective clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors in mRCC...
November 27, 2017: Kidney cancer
Andrés Montoya, Lina Yepes, Alexander Bedoya, Raúl Henao, Gabriela Delgado, Iván D Vélez, Sara M Robledo
Introduction: In cutaneous leishmaniasis, the host immune response is responsible for the development of skin injuries but also for resolution of the disease especially after antileishmanial therapy. The immune factors that participate in the regulation of inflammation, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, cell proliferation and differentiation may constitute biomarkers of diseases or response to treatment. In this work, we analyzed the production of the growth factors EGF, TGFβ1, PDGF, and FGF during the infection by Leishmania parasites, the development of the injuries and the early response to treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marcelo Augusto Kazuo Ikeda, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Grasielle Pereira Jannuzzi, André Cronemberger-Andrade, Ana Cláudia Trocoli Torrecilhas, Nilmar Silvio Moretti, Julia Pinheiro Chagas da Cunha, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Karen Spadari Ferreira
Sporotrichosis is a mycosis that affects the skin, lymphatic system and other organs in humans and animals. The disease has a worldwide distribution, with endemic areas in Brazil, and is caused by a complex of species, including Sporothrix brasiliensis . Some fungi release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can interact with the host cell and modulate the host immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the participation of S. brasiliensis EVs in the modulation of dendritic cells (DCs) and in the control of infection in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dietlinde Wolf, Cameron S Bader, Henry Barreras, Sabrina Copsel, Brent J Pfeiffer, Casey O Lightbourn, Norman H Altman, Krishna V Komanduri, Robert B Levy
Posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has been found to be effective in ameliorating acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). Adoptive transfer of high numbers of donor Tregs in experimental aHSCT has shown promise as a therapeutic modality for GVHD regulation. We recently described a strategy for in vivo Treg expansion targeting two receptors: TNFRSF25 and CD25. To date, there have been no direct comparisons between the use of PTCy and Tregs regarding outcome and immune reconstitution within identical groups of transplanted mice...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Emma Guttman-Yassky, Jon M Hanifin, Mark Boguniewicz, Andreas Wollenberg, Robert Bissonnette, Vivek Purohit, Iain Kilty, Anna M Tallman, Michael A Zielinski
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly prevalent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects children and adults. The pathophysiology of AD is complex and involves skin barrier and immune dysfunction. Many immune cytokine pathways are amplified in AD, including T helper (Th) 2, Th22, Th17 and Th1. Current treatment guidelines recommend topical medications as initial therapy; however, until recently, only two drug classes were available: topical corticosteroids (TCSs) and topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs)...
October 17, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Pauline Henrot, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Gary Fisher, Alain Taïeb, Muriel Cario
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex auto-immune connective tissue disease combining inflammatory, vasculopathic and fibrotic manifestations. Skin features, which give their name to the disease and are considered as diagnostic as well as prognostic markers, have not been thoroughly investigated in terms of therapeutic targets. CCN proteins (CYR61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2, NOV/CCN3, and WISP1-2-3 as CCN4-5-6) are a family of secreted matricellular proteins implicated in major cellular processes such as cell growth, migration, differentiation...
October 17, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Fan Zhang, Olivia Ledue, Maria Jun, Cibelly Goulart, Richard Malley, Ying-Jie Lu
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S. aureus colonizes 20 to 80% of humans at any one time and causes a variety of illnesses. Strains that are resistant to common antibiotics further complicate management. S. aureus vaccine development has been unsuccessful so far, largely due to the incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of protection against this pathogen. Here, we studied the role of different aspects of adaptive immunity induced by an S. aureus vaccine in protection against S...
October 16, 2018: MBio
Bernice Y Yan, Sandra Garcet, Nicholas Gulati, Felix Kiecker, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Patricia Gilleaudeau, Mary Sullivan-Whalen, Avner Shemer, Hiroshi Mitsui, James G Krueger
Dysplastic nevi (DN) are benign lesions with atypical features intermediate between that of common melanocytic nevi (CMN) and malignant melanoma (MM). Debate remains over whether DN represent progressive lesions from CMN. Through gene expression profiling and analysis of molecular gene signatures, our study revealed progressive increases in immune activation and regulation, along with pathways implicated in melanomagenesis, from CMN to DN to MM. Using criteria of 1.5 fold change and false discovery rate ≤ 0...
October 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Nonhlanhla Lunjani, Pattraporn Satitsuksanoa, Zuzanna Lukasik, Milena Sokolowska, Thomas Eiwegger, Liam O'Mahony
All body surfaces are exposed to a wide variety of microbes, which significantly influence immune reactivity within the host. This review provides an update on some of the critical novel findings that have been published on the influence of the microbiome on atopic dermatitis, food allergy and asthma. Microbial dysbiosis has consistently been observed in the skin, gut and lungs of patients with atopic dermatitis, food allergy and asthma respectively and the role of specific microbes in allergic disorders is being intensively investigated...
October 16, 2018: Allergy
Sakis Lambrianides, Evgenios Kinnis, Eleni Leonidou, Marios Pantzaris
Psoriasis is a relatively common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease. It is well known that interferon-beta, a drug used in the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, could exacerbate or induce de novo psoriasis. There is limited evidence in the literature based only on case reports that natalizumab could induce or aggravate psoriasis. In this case study, we present a 33-year-old patient who developed plaque psoriasis during natalizumab treatment.
September 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Yohei Otsuka, Eri Watanabe, Eiji Shinya, Sadayuki Okura, Hidehisa Saeki, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Hidemi Takahashi
Human mucosal tissues and skin contain two distinct types of dendritic cell (DC) subsets, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal DCs, which can be distinguished by the expression of C-type lectin receptors, Langerin and DC-SIGN, respectively. Although peripheral blood monocytes differentiate into these distinct subsets, monocyte-derived LCs (moLCs) induced by coculture with GM-CSF, IL-4, and TGF-β1 coexpress both Langerin and DC-SIGN, suggesting that the environmental cues remain unclear. In this study, we show that LC differentiation is TGF-β1 dependent and that cofactors such as IL-4 and TNF-α promote TGF-β1-dependent LC differentiation into Langerin+ DC-SIGN- moLCs but continuous exposure to IL-4 blocks differentiation...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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