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Diffusion weighted imaging

Feibi Zeng, Munenobu Nogami, Taiichiro Shirai, Yoh Zen, Takamichi Murakami
Iron overload is a major complication in blood transfusion procedures. This report presents a case of malignant lymphoma, in which the findings of bone marrow involvement were discordant between F-FDG PET imaging studies and MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging studies. In this case, the PET imaging studies were positive for malignant lymphoma, whereas the MRI studies were negative. Iron deposition in the reticuloendothelial system due to posttransfusion iron overload was considered to be the cause of the decrease in signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging, resulting in a false-negative finding on MRI...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Tina Laga, Sandrina Lambrechts, Annouschka Laenen, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Sileny N Han, Ignace Vergote
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of macroscopically complete (R0) secondary debulking surgery (SDS) in a single-center cohort of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. The performances of existing prediction models (DESKTOP score, Tian model) for R0 SDS were evaluated in this cohort. METHODS: Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of 102 patients undergoing SDS for recurrent ovarian cancer at the University Hospitals Leuven between 1997 and 2014 were collected...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Maria Del Mar Amador, Marion Masingue, Rabab Debs, Foudil Lamari, Vincent Perlbarg, Emmanuel Roze, Bertrand Degos, Fanny Mochel
BACKGROUND: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare neurodegenerative disease related to sterols metabolism. It affects both central and peripheral nervous systems but treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) has been reported to stabilize clinical scores and improve nerve conduction parameters. Few quantitative brain structural studies have been conducted to assess the effect of CDCA in CTX. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected retrospectively clinical, neurophysiological, and quantitative brain structural data in a cohort of 14 patients with CTX treated by CDCA over a mean period of 5 years...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Jing Ye, Guifeng Fu, Xiaohui Yan, Jingyi Liu, Xiaoyong Wang, Liang Cheng, Fan Zhang, Phillip Zhe Sun, Gang Liu
In vivo assessment of vascular permeability and therapeutic response provides novel insights into photothermal therapy (PTT) that is currently under clinical investigation. We have developed noninvasive imaging strategies to improve the monitoring of nanoparticle-mediated PTT responses for personalized nanomedicine. Briefly, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) were applied to study the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in tumor models of different microvascular permeabilities (i...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Ana Luisa Duarte, João Lopes Dias, Teresa Margarida Cunha
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used in protocols for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the female pelvis. It provides functional and structural information about biological tissues, without the use of ionizing radiation or intravenous administration of contrast medium. High signal intensity on DWI with simultaneous low signal intensity on apparent diffusion coefficient maps is usually associated with malignancy. However, that pattern can also be seen in many benign lesions, a fact that should be recognized by radiologists...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Ronny Kalash, Scott M Glaser, Balasubramanya Rangaswamy, Zachary D Horne, Hayeon Kim, Christopher Houser, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) response and outcome in the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based planning and to assess whether the addition of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) could more accurately classify treatment response and prognosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective chart review identified 244 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation, including high-dose-rate image-based brachytherapy, between 2007 and 2016...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Nandin-Erdene Enkhbaatar, Shigeaki Inoue, Hiroshi Yamamuro, Shuichi Kawada, Masashi Miyaoka, Naoya Nakamura, Sotaro Sadahiro, Yutaka Imai
Purpose To determine response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) by using magnetic resonance (MR) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis. Materials and Methods Ninety-two patients with LARC underwent MR imaging with rectal barium before and after chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT). Rectal expansion with barium expanded the lumen, provided similar imaging geometry before and after CRT, and eliminated fecal matter, air, and residual fluid...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Jianzhong Yin, Haizhen Sun, Zhiyun Wang, Hongyan Ni, Wen Shen, Phillip Zhe Sun
Purpose To determine the relationship between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in patients with acute stroke at admission and the tissue outcome 1 month after onset of stroke. Materials and Methods Patients with stroke underwent DWI (b values = 0, 1000 sec/mm2 along three directions) and DKI (b values = 0, 1000, 2000 sec/mm2 along 20 directions) within 24 hours after symptom onset and 1 month after symptom onset. For large lesions (diameter ≥ 1 cm), acute lesion volumes at DWI and DKI were compared with those at follow-up T2-weighted imaging by using Spearman correlation analysis...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Song Luo, Lijuan Yang, Yanfei Luo
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a non-invasive technique that can reveal venous structures and iron in the brain. This retrospective study evaluated SWI, relative to other imaging techniques, for determining cerebral infarct size and early-stage clinical prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Within 3 days after onset, 22 patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent SWI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
March 20, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Won Jang, Hyo Sung Kwak, Gyung Ho Chung, Seung Bae Hwang
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the utility of three-dimensional (3D), black-blood (BB), contrast-enhanced, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of intraluminal thrombi in acute stroke patients. METHODS: Forty-seven patients with acute stroke involving the anterior circulation underwent MRI examination within 6 h of clinical onset. Cerebral angiography was used as the reference standard. In a blinded manner, two neuroradiologists interpreted the following three data sets: (1) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) + 3D BB contrast-enhanced MRI; (2) DWI + susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI); (3) DWI + 3D BB contrast-enhanced MRI + SWI...
March 19, 2018: European Radiology
Gesa Cohrs, Monika Huhndorf, Nils Niemczyk, Lukas J Volz, Alexander Bernsmeier, Ash Singhal, Naomi Larsen, Michael Synowitz, Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging tool which lacks the burden of ionizing radiation. It is not established as primary diagnostic tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MRI as initial imaging modality in the emergency management of mild pediatric TBI. METHODS: Children (0-18 years, sub-divided in four age-groups) with mild TBI who received MRI in the emergency department were identified...
March 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Taekmin Kwon, Jeong Kon Kim, Chanwoo Lee, Jaeyoon Jung, Hanjong Ahn, Choung-Soo Kim, Jun Hyuk Hong
Background: Multiparametric magnetic resonance is the most accurate imaging technique for prostate cancer detection, staging, localization, and aggressiveness evaluation. We assessed accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging in local recurrence diagnosis after radical prostatectomy. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 118 patients with findings suggestive of local recurrence in dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging. Local recurrence was defined clinically as a rising prostate-specific antigen level (biochemical recurrence) without radiographic evidence of distant metastasis over 6 months after surgery...
March 2018: Prostate International
Ping Li, Sungyong You, Christopher Nguyen, Yanping Wang, Jayoung Kim, Deepika Sirohi, Asha Ziembiec, Daniel Luthringer, Shih-Chieh Lin, Timothy Daskivich, Jonathan Wu, Michael R Freeman, Rola Saouaf, Debiao Li, Hyung L Kim
MRI is used to image prostate cancer and target tumors for biopsy or therapeutic ablation. The objective was to understand the biology of tumors not visible on MRI that may go undiagnosed and untreated. Methods: Prostate cancers visible or invisible on multiparametric MRI were macrodissected and examined by RNAseq. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on MRI visibility status were cross-referenced with publicly available gene expression databases to identify genes associated with disease progression...
2018: Theranostics
Feng Wang, Xuquan Jing, Bo Liu, Xue Meng, Xindong Sun, Yongsheng Gao, Linlin Wang, Zheng Fu
Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the vagina is uncommon. The present case study reports the case of a 54-year-old female with a palpable mass between the rectum and vagina. The patient presented with symptoms consistent with vaginal cancer but lacked any of the 'B' symptoms often associated with systemic lymphoma, including fever, weight loss, night sweats and fatigue. The mass was resected under anesthesia. Immunohistochemistry and biopsy confirmed diffuse large B-cell NHL (DLBCL). Following surgery, six cycles of chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone were administered...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Dylan N Wolman, Michael Iv, Max Wintermark, Gregory Zaharchuk, Michael P Marks, Huy M Do, Robert L Dodd, Gregory W Albers, Maarten G Lansberg, Jeremy J Heit
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who benefit from endovascular treatment have a large vessel occlusion (LVO), small core infarction, and salvageable brain. We determined if diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) alone can correctly identify and localize anterior circulation LVO and accurately triage patients to endovascular thrombectomy (ET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients undergoing MRI for the evaluation of AIS symptoms...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Si-Cong Zhang, Shui-Hong Zhou, De-Sheng Shang, Yang-Yang Bao, Ling-Xiang Ruan, Ting-Ting Wu
The aim of the present study was to assess the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. A total of 40 hypopharyngeal carcinoma tissues and 15 benign lesion tissues were retrospectively analyzed. DWI, and T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of conventional MRI were 97.5, 66.7, and 89.1%, respectively. The mean ADC value [diffusion sensitive factor (b)=1,000× sec/mm2 ) for hypopharyngeal carcinomas was (1...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Liangping Ni, Ying Liu
The present study aimed to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3.0 T. A total of 44 patients newly diagnosed with NPC were included in the present study. All patients underwent MR examination at 3.0 T using DCE-MRI and DWI. The volume transfer constant ( Ktrans ), flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma ( Kep ), the volume of extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue ( Ve ) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tumours were investigated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Moritz Kronlage, Philip Bäumer, Daniel Schwarz, Ralf Gold, Martin Bendszus, Min-Suk Yoon
Background: We present a clinical, electrophysiological, sonographical and magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) study examining the complementary role of two neuroimaging methods of the peripheral nervous system for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Furthermore, we explore the significance of cross-sectional area (CSA) increase through correlations with MRN markers of nerve integrity. Methods: A total of 108 nerve segments on the median, ulnar, radial, tibial and fibular nerve, as well as the lumbar and cervical plexus of 18 CIDP patients were examined with high-resonance nerve ultrasound (HRUS) and MRN additionally to the nerve conduction studies...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Eric J Jordan, Charles Fiske, Ronald Zagoria, Antonio C Westphalen
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ADC values in combination with PI-RADS v2 for the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer (CS-PCa) compared to PI-RADS v2 alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 155 men whom underwent 3-Tesla prostate MRI and subsequent MR/US fusion biopsies at a single non-academic center from 11/2014 to 3/2016. All scans were performed with a surface coil and included T2, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Ashley J Robinson, M Ashraf Ederies
This paper is based on a literature review from 2011 to 2016. The paper is divided into two main sections. The first section relates to technical advances in fetal imaging techniques, including fetal motion compensation, imaging at 3.0 T, 3-D T2-weighted MRI, susceptibility-weighted imaging, computed tomography, morphometric analysis, diffusion tensor imaging, spectroscopy and fetal behavioral assessment. The second section relates to clinical updates, including cerebral lamination, migrational anomalies, midline anomalies, neural tube defects, posterior fossa anomalies, sulcation/gyration and hypoxic-ischemic insults...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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