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Immune memory

Laura K Fonken, Matthew G Frank, Heather M D'Angelo, Jared D Heinze, Linda R Watkins, Christopher A Lowry, Steven F Maier
Aging is a major risk factor for developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Neuroinflammatory processes, which can play a causal role in the etiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, are potentiated or primed as a function of aging. Here we explored whether exposure to a microorganism with immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, Mycobacterium vaccae NCTC 11659 (M. vaccae), could ameliorate age-associated neuroinflammatory priming. Aged (24 months) and adult (3 months) male F344XBN rats were immunized with heat-killed M...
July 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar, Paul Verbruggen
Triggering an appropriate protective response against invading agents is crucial to the effectiveness of human innate and adaptive immunity. Pathogen recognition and elimination requires integration of a myriad of signals from many different immune cells. For example, T cell functioning is not qualitatively, but quantitatively determined by cellular and humoral signals. Tipping the balance of signals, such that one of these is favored or gains advantage on another one, may impact the plasticity of T cells. This may lead to switching their phenotypes and, ultimately, modulating the balance between proliferating and memory T cells to sustain an appropriate immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Manuela Flórido, Heni Muflihah, Leon C W Lin, Yingju Xia, Frederic Sierro, Mainthan Palendira, Carl G Feng, Patrick Bertolino, John Stambas, James A Triccas, Warwick J Britton
The lung is the primary site of infection with the major human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Effective vaccines against M. tuberculosis must stimulate memory T cells to provide early protection in the lung. Recently, tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM ) were found to be phenotypically and transcriptional distinct from circulating memory T cells. Here, we identified M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells induced by recombinant influenza A viruses (rIAV) vaccines expressing M. tuberculosis peptides that persisted in the lung parenchyma with the phenotypic and transcriptional characteristics of TRMs ...
August 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Luis Solans, Anne-Sophie Debrie, Lisa Borkner, Nacho Aguiló, Anaïs Thiriard, Loic Coutte, Santi Uranga, François Trottein, Carlos Martín, Kingston H G Mills, Camille Locht
BPZE1 is a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine for nasal administration to mimic the natural route of infection. Here, we studied the mechanism of BPZE1-induced immunity in the murine nasal cavity in contrast to acellular vaccine (aPV), although both vaccines protected against lung colonization. Transfer of splenocytes or serum from BPZE1-vaccinated or aPV-vaccinated mice protected naïve mice against lung colonization but not against nasal colonization. However, transfer of nasal washes from BPZE1-vaccinated mice resulted in protection against nasal colonization, which was lost in IgA-deficient or poly-Ig receptor-deficient mice, indicating that it depends on secretory IgA (SIgA) induction induced in the nose...
August 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Sudhanshu Agrawal, Edsel M Abud, Shikha Snigdha, Anshu Agrawal
BACKGROUND: The immune system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of age-related dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). An insight into age-associated changes in the immune response to amyloid-beta (Aβ) in individuals without AD may be beneficial in identifying mechanisms preventing accumulation of Aβ. METHODS: We examined the response of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy aged and young subjects to Aβ peptide 1-42, Aβ fibrils, and recombinant, nonaggregated tau-4 protein with a view to understand the role of peripheral immunity in AD...
August 16, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Michel Enamorado, Sofía C Khouili, Salvador Iborra, David Sancho
Tissue-resident memory CD8+ T (Trm) cells define a distinct non-recirculating subset. Trm cells constitute a first line of defense against local infections in barrier tissues, but they are also found in non-barrier tissues and play a role in antitumor immunity. Their differentiation in tissues and their phenotypical, transcriptional, and functional characteristics are the object of active research. Herein, we will discuss the potential existence of committed CD8+ Trm precursors and the genealogy of memory CD8+ T cell subsets...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hiroshi Itoh, Isao Kurihara, Kazutoshi Miyashita
In recent years, several post-interventional analyses of large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials have given us a new concept regarding the risk management of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The beneficial effects of intensive treatments were extended even after the interventions ended. This phenomenon is known as "metabolic memory" or "legacy effect", and we recognized its clinical significance. A certain level of evidence in human and animal studies employing organ transplantation techniques has indicated that this type of "memory" resides in each organ and could be transferrable, erasable, and rewritable, which is similar to neuronal and immune "memory"...
August 14, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Su-Hwa Lee, Hae-Ji Kang, Dong-Hun Lee, Sang-Moo Kang, Fu-Shi Quan
Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) and microneme protein 8 (MIC8) are important invasion factors that mediate parasite multiplication. The main objective of this study was to determine the immunogenicity and efficacy by virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines of T. gondii ROP18 VLPs and MIC8 VLPs in combination or individuals. Mice were intranasally immunized with single ROP18 VLPs or MIC8 VLPs, or a combination of ROP18 VLPs and MIC8 VLPs followed by challenge with T. gondii tachyzoites (GT1) through intraperitoneal injection or challenge with T...
August 11, 2018: Vaccine
Lisa Borkner, Alicja Misiak, Mieszko M Wilk, Kingston H G Mills
Treatment with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) is an important intervention for controlling infection of children with Bordetella pertussis and as a prophylaxis for preventing transmission to family members. However, antibiotics are known to have immunomodulatory effects independent of their antimicrobial activity. Here, we used a mouse model to examine the effects of AZM treatment on clearance of B. pertussis and induction of innate and adaptive immunity. We found that treatment of mice with AZM either 7 or 14 days post challenge effectively cleared the bacteria from the lungs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lela Kardava, Haewon Sohn, Christine Youn, James W Austin, Wei Wang, Clarisa M Buckner, J Shawn Justement, Valerie A Melson, Gwynne E Roth, Marissa A Hand, Kathleen R Gittens, Richard W Kwan, Michael C Sneller, Yuxing Li, Tae-Wook Chun, Peter D Sun, Susan K Pierce, Susan Moir
Immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) has an uncertain role in the response to infection with and vaccination against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we describe a regulatory role for IgG3 in dampening the immune system-activating effects of chronic HIV viremia on B cells. Secreted IgG3 was bound to IgM-expressing B cells in vivo in HIV-infected chronically viremic individuals but not in early-viremic or aviremic individuals. Tissue-like memory (TLM) B cells, a population expanded by persistent HIV viremia, bound large amounts of IgG3...
August 13, 2018: Nature Immunology
Kaitlin R Carroll, Eileen E Elfers, Joseph J Stevens, Jonathan P McNally, David A Hildeman, Michael B Jordan, Jonathan D Katz
Preserving endogenous insulin production is clinically advantageous and remains a vital unmet challenge in the treatment and reversal of type 1 diabetes. While broad immunosuppression has had limited success in prolonging the so-called remission period, it comes at the cost of compromising beneficial immunity. Here, we employed a novel strategy to specifically deplete the activated diabetogenic T cells that drive pathogenesis while preserving not only endogenous insulin production but also protective immunity...
August 13, 2018: Diabetes
Huanbin Xu, Widade Ziani, Jiasheng Shao, Lara A Doyle-Meyers, Kasi E Russell-Lodrigue, Marion S Ratterree, Ronald S Veazey, Xiaolei Wang
Germinal center (GC) CD4+ follicular Th (Tfh) cells are critical for cognate B cell help in humoral immune responses to pathogenic infections. Although Tfh cells are expanded or depleted in HIV/SIV-infected adults, the effects of pediatric HIV/SIV infection on Tfh cells remain unclear. In this study, we examined changes in lymphoid follicle formation in lymph nodes focusing on GC Tfh cells, B cell development, and differentiation in SIV-infected neonatal rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) compared with age-matched cohorts...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Anusha Thadi, Marian Khalili, William F Morano, Scott D Richard, Steven C Katz, Wilbur B Bowne
Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is an advanced stage malignancy largely refractory to modern therapy. Intraperitoneal (IP) immunotherapy offers a novel approach for the control of regional disease of the peritoneal cavity by breaking immune tolerance. These strategies include heightening T-cell response and vaccine induction of anti-cancer memory against tumor-associated antigens. Early investigations with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells), vaccine-based therapies, dendritic cells (DCs) in combination with pro-inflammatory cytokines and natural killer cells (NKs), adoptive cell transfer, and immune checkpoint inhibitors represent significant advances in the treatment of PM...
August 10, 2018: Vaccines
Cecilia T Costiniuk, Syim Salahuddin, Omar Farnos, Ron Olivenstein, Amélie Pagliuzza, Marianna Orlova, Erwin Schurr, Christina De Castro, Jean Bourbeau, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta, Nicolas Chomont, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian
BACKGROUND: The lungs were historically identified as one of the major anatomic sites for HIV replication in the pre-ART era. However, their contribution to HIV persistence in individuals under suppressive ART remains understudied. DESIGN: We assessed HIV persistence and comprehensively characterized pulmonary mucosal CD4 T-cells in HIV individuals receiving long-term suppressive ART versus uninfected participants. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), bronchial biopsies and matched peripheral blood were obtained from n=24 HIV-infected adults receiving long-term suppressive ART (median: 9 years) and n = 8 healthy volunteers without respiratory symptoms...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
Charlotte Blanc, Sophie Hans, Thi Tran, Clemence Granier, Antonin Saldman, Marie Anson, Stephane Oudard, Eric Tartour
A novel population of memory CD8+ T cells called resident memory T cells (TRM ) has been identified based on their phenotype (CD103, CD69) and on their local tissue residency without recirculating in the blood. These cells have been implicated in protective immune response against pathogens in both animal models and humans. Their role in cancer is just emerging as a key player in tumor immunosurveillance. Many properties of these cells suggest that they could control tumor growth: (i) they respond much faster to reexposure to cognate antigen than circulating memory cells, (ii) they express high levels of cytotoxic molecules, and (iii) they are enriched in tumor-specific T cells in close contact with tumor cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Patricia Rivera, María Del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Daniel Silva-Peña, Eduardo Blanco, Antonio Vargas, María Dolores López-Ávalos, Jesús M Grondona, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Juan Suárez
Changes in endogenous cannabinoid homeostasis are associated with both ethanol-related neuroinflammation and memory decline. Extensive research is still required to unveil the role of endocannabinoid signaling activation on hippocampal microglial cells after ethanol exposure. Either microglial morphology, phenotype and recruitment may become notably altered after chronic alcohol-related neurodegeneration. Here, we evaluated the pharmacological effects of fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0...
August 8, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xiao-Hua Luo, Qingda Meng, Martin Rao, Zhenjiang Liu, Georgia Paraschoudi, Ernest Dodoo, Markus Maeurer
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous, persistent beta herpesvirus. CMV infection contributes to the accumulation of functional antigen (Ag)-specific CD8+ T-cell pools with an effector-memory phenotype and enrichment of these immune cells in peripheral organs. We review here this "memory T-cell inflation" phenomenon and associated factors including age and sex. 'Collateral damage' due to CMV-directed immune reactivity may occur in later stages of life - arising from CMV-specific immune responses that were beneficial in earlier life...
August 11, 2018: Immunology
Naomi C Bull, Daryan A Kaveh, M C Garcia-Pelayo, Elena Stylianou, Helen McShane, Philip J Hogarth
Tuberculosis (TB) is the biggest cause of human mortality from an infectious disease. The only vaccine currently available, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), demonstrates some protection against disseminated disease in childhood but very variable efficacy against pulmonary disease in adults. A greater understanding of protective host immune responses is required in order to aid the development of improved vaccines. Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM ) are a recently-identified subset of T cells which may represent an important component of protective immunity to TB...
August 7, 2018: Vaccine
M Patricia D'Souza, Mary A Allen, Jane A G Baumblatt, Cesar Boggiano, Shane Crotty, Christine Grady, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Antje Heit, Dale J Hu, Nina Kunwar, M Juliana McElrath
Phase 1 clinical studies will soon evaluate novel HIV-1 envelope immunogens targeting distinct 'germline' and memory B cell receptors to ultimately elicit HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) recently convened a panel of US-based expert scientists, clinicians, sponsors and ethicists to discuss the role of sampling draining lymph nodes within preventive HIV vaccine trials. The meeting addressed the importance of evaluating germinal center (GC) responses following immunization to predict bNAb potency and breadth, and reviewed key aspects of this procedure within the clinical research setting, including informed consent, adverse event monitoring, study participant acceptability, medical expertise and training...
August 7, 2018: Vaccine
María Q Marín, Patricia Pérez, Carmen E Gómez, Carlos Óscar S Sorzano, Mariano Esteban, Juan García-Arriaza
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major global health problem for which a vaccine is not available. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-HCV is a unique HCV vaccine candidate based in the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing the nearly full-length genome of HCV genotype 1a that elicits CD8⁺ T-cell responses in mice. With the aim to improve the immune response of MVA-HCV and because of the importance of interferon (IFN) in HCV infection, we deleted in MVA-HCV the vaccinia virus (VACV) C6L gene, encoding an inhibitor of IFN-β that prevents activation of the interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3 and IRF7)...
August 8, 2018: Viruses
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