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Immune memory

María A Natale, Gonzalo A César, María G Alvarez, Melisa D Castro Eiro, Bruno Lococo, Graciela Bertocchi, María C Albareda, Susana A Laucella
BACKGROUND: The severity of cardiac disease in chronic Chagas disease patients is associated with different features of T-cell exhaustion. Here, we assessed whether the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ in response to T. cruzi was linked to disruption in immune homeostasis and inflammation in patients with chronic Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PBMCs from chronic Chagas disease patients and uninfected controls were examined for frequencies of T...
December 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Verena Moosbrugger-Martinz, Robert Gruber, Katharina Ladstätter, Marion Bellutti, Stefan Blunder, Matthias Schmuth, Sandrine Dubrac
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have previously been studied in AD, their role remains controversial, likely owing to patient heterogeneity. Thus, we recruited adult AD patients and age-matched healthy controls, and assessed their filaggrin (FLG) genotype, serum IgE level, and eczema area and severity index (EASI). We found increased proportions of all circulating Treg subpopulations in AD patients. Moreover, we show positive correlations between circulating Tregs and serum IgE FLG null mutations limited the expansion of both memory and effector Tregs and enhanced that of recently thymus-emigrated Tregs...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Corona Solana, Raquel Tarazona, Rafael Solana
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Although the aetiology of AD is not clear, both environmental factors and heritable predisposition may contribute to disease occurrence. In addition, inflammation and immune system alterations have been linked to AD. The prevailing hypothesis as cause of AD is the deposition in the brain of amyloid beta peptides (A β ). Although A β have a role in defending the brain against infections, their accumulation promotes an inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes...
2018: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Chiara Farroni, Emiliano Marasco, Valentina Marcellini, Ezio Giorda, Diletta Valentini, Stefania Petrini, Valentina D'Oria, Marco Pezzullo, Simona Cascioli, Marco Scarsella, Alberto G Ugazio, Giovanni C De Vincentiis, Ola Grimsholm, Rita Carsetti
Children with Down Syndrome (DS) suffer from immune deficiency with a severe reduction in switched memory B cells (MBCs) and poor response to vaccination. Chromosome 21 (HSA21) encodes two microRNAs (miRs), miR-125b, and miR-155, that regulate B-cell responses. We studied B- and T- cell subpopulations in tonsils of DS and age-matched healthy donors (HD) and found that the germinal center (GC) reaction was impaired in DS. GC size, numbers of GC B cells and Follicular Helper T cells (TFH ) expressing BCL6 cells were severely reduced...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Soizic Garaud, Pawel Zayakin, Laurence Buisseret, Undine Rulle, Karina Silina, Alexandre de Wind, Gert Van den Eyden, Denis Larsimont, Karen Willard-Gallo, Aija Linē
An important role for tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes (TIL-B) in the immune response to cancer is emerging; however, very little is known about the antigen specificity of antibodies produced in situ . The presence of IgA antibodies in the tumor microenvironment has been noted although their biological functions and clinical significance are unknown. This study used a 91-antigen microarray to examine the IgG and IgA autoantibody repertoires in breast cancer (BC). Tumor and adjacent breast tissue supernatants and plasma from BC patients together with normal breast tissue supernatants and plasma from healthy controls (patients undergoing mammary reduction and healthy blood donors) were analyzed to investigate relationships between autoantibodies and the clinical, histological and immunological features of tumors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mario Salvi, Danila Covelli
B cells have multiple actions on different phases of an immune reaction, mainly resulting in B and T cell-interaction (help), production of cytokines, regulation of dendritic cells and downregulation of regulatory B cells. The effectiveness of B cell depletion therapy is probably due to blockade of the antigen-presenting function of B cells, occurring very early in the setting of autoimmune reactions. B cells undergo a maturation process from stem cells during which the CD 20 antigen, which is the target of rituximab (RTX), is expressed from the stage of pre-B cells to mature and memory B cells, but not on plasma cells...
December 4, 2018: Eye
Xiumei Wei, Tianyu Zhao, Kete Ai, Yu Zhang, Huiying Li, Jialong Yang
RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (c-Raf) is a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) that participates in the Erk1/2 pathway and plays an important role in lymphocytes activation. However, the study on how c-Raf regulates adaptive immunity in non-mammal is still limited. In present study, based on analysis of sequence characteristics of c-Raf from Oreochromis niloticus (On-c-Raf), we investigated its regulation roles on teleost lymphocytes activation. The On-c-Raf was highly conserved during evolution, which was composed of a Raf-like Ras-binding domain (RBD), a protein kinase C conserved region 1 (C1) domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic (S_TKc) domain...
December 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sandra Lilliebladh, Åsa Johansson, Åsa Pettersson, Sophie Ohlsson, Thomas Hellmark
T cell-mediated immune responses are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- (ANCA-) associated vasculitides (AAV). CD4+ T cells can be divided into subsets depending on their expression of chemokine receptors. In this study, different CD4+ T cell populations in patients with AAV were analysed and compared to healthy blood donors as well as therapy controls. 18 patients with active AAV, 46 in remission, 21 healthy controls (HBD), and 15 therapy controls (TC) were enrolled...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Katharina Bomans, Judith Schenz, Isabella Sztwiertnia, Dominik Schaack, Markus Alexander Weigand, Florian Uhle
Innate immune memory describes the functional reprogramming of innate immune cells after pathogen contact, leading to either a boosted (trained immunity) or a diminished (immune tolerance) response to a secondary stimulus. Immune tolerance or "sepsis-induced immunosuppression" is a typical hallmark of patients after sepsis survival, characterized by hypo-responsiveness of the host's immune system. This condition renders the host vulnerable for a persisting infection or the occurrence of secondary, often opportunistic infections, along with an increased mortality rate...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
S Rameeza Allie, John E Bradley, Uma Mudunuru, Michael D Schultz, Beth A Graf, Frances E Lund, Troy D Randall
Memory B cells are found in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, suggesting that some may be tissue-resident cells. Here we show that pulmonary influenza infection elicited lung-resident memory B cells (BRM cells) that were phenotypically and functionally distinct from their systemic counterparts. BRM cells were established in the lung early after infection, in part because their placement required local antigen encounter. Lung BRM cells, but not systemic memory B cells, contributed to early plasmablast responses following challenge infection...
December 3, 2018: Nature Immunology
Ximei Sun, Giuseppe Stefanetti, Francesco Berti, Dennis L Kasper
Glycoconjugate vaccines are among the most effective interventions for preventing several serious infectious diseases. Covalent linkage of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide to a carrier protein provides CD4+ T cells with epitopes that facilitate a memory response to the polysaccharide. Classically, the mechanism responsible for antigen processing was thought to be similar to what was known for hapten-carrier conjugates: protease digestion of the carrier protein in the endosome and presentation of a resulting peptide to the T cell receptor on classical peptide-recognizing CD4+ T cells...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alistair J P Brown, Neil A R Gow, Adilia Warris, Gordon D Brown
By analogy with Pavlov's dogs, certain pathogens have evolved anticipatory behaviours that exploit specific signals in the human host to prepare themselves against imminent host challenges. This adaptive prediction, a type of history-dependent microbial behaviour, represents a primitive form of microbial memory. For fungal pathogens, adaptive prediction helps them circumvent nutritional immunity, protects them against phagocytic killing, and activates immune evasion strategies. We describe how these anticipatory responses, and the contrasting lifestyles and evolutionary trajectories of fungal pathogens, have influenced the evolution of such adaptive behaviours, and how these behaviours affect host colonisation and infection...
November 30, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Silvia Piconese, Ilenia Cammarata, Vincenzo Barnaba
In the present review, we analyzed the various overlapping and non-mutually exclusive mechanisms that intersect and form complex and highly flexible immunological networks allowing the defense against liver infections and tumors. Liver immunity results from the combination of the skills of systemic and local immune system(s) to sense and recognize pathogen or tumor antigens, to sensitize a wide range of innate and adaptive immune cells, and to clear the "invaders", through the establishment of a transient liver immunopathology state undergoing resolution/control of infections or tumors, and memory development...
December 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Zhifeng Chen, Kara S Cox, Aimin Tang, Jeanette Roman, Malorie Fink, Robin M Kaufhold, Liming Guan, Andy Xie, Melissa A Boddicker, Debra Mcguinness, Xiao Xiao, Hualin Li, Julie M Skinner, Thorsten Verch, Mary Retzlaff, Kalpit A Vora
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization. A few vaccines exist to prevent pneumococcal disease in adults, including a pneumococcal polysaccharide unconjugated vaccine and a protein conjugated polysaccharide vaccine. Previous studies on the human immune response to the unconjugated vaccine showed that the vaccine boosted the existing memory B cells. In the present study, we investigated the human B cell immune response following pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccination...
December 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jiang Cao, Changxiao Zhang, Xiao Han, Hai Cheng, Wei Chen, Kunming Qi, Jianlin Qiao, Zengtian Sun, Qingyun Wu, Lingyu Zeng, Mingshan Niu, Li Li, Kailin Xu
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-mediated platelet destruction. Multiple factors have been implicated in ITP pathogenesis, including T-lymphocyte dysfunctions. Increasing studies have indicated that stem cell memory-like T cell (TSCM) plays an important role in the development of multiple autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to explore the clinical correlation between the TSCM subset and ITP. The percentages of peripheral blood naïve T cells (TNs), TSCMs, central memory T cells (TCMs), effector memory T cells (TEMs), and effector T cells (TEs) among CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 20 ITP patients before and after treatment were detected using flow cytometry...
December 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Oliver Grauer, Mohammed Jaber, Katharina Hess, Matthias Weckesser, Wolfram Schwindt, Stephan Maring, Johannes Wölfer, Walter Stummer
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in local tumor ablative treatment modalities that induce immunogenic cell death and the generation of antitumor immune responses. METHODS: We report six recurrent glioblastoma patients who were treated with intracavitary thermotherapy after coating the resection cavity wall with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles ("NanoPaste" technique). Patients underwent six 1-h hyperthermia sessions in an alternating magnetic field and, if possible, received concurrent fractionated radiotherapy at a dose of 39...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yanhua Gao, Ira Bergman
BACKGROUND: Late developing breast cancer metastases are common and lethal despite treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy at the time of primary tumor excision. Stimulation of an antitumor immune response is an alternative strategy for preventing this devastating development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu)-positive mammary cancer was used to compare the antitumor memory T-cell response following tumor cure by viral oncolytic immunotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical excision, or surgical excision plus virus infection...
December 2018: Anticancer Research
Sider Penkov, Ioannis Mitroulis, George Hajishengallis, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Memory was traditionally considered an exclusive hallmark of adaptive immunity. This dogma was challenged by recent reports that myeloid cells can retain 'memory' of earlier challenges, enabling them to respond strongly to a secondary stimulus. This process, designated 'trained immunity', is initiated by modulation of precursors of myeloid cells in the bone marrow. The ancestral innate immune system of lower organisms (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans) can build long-lasting memory that modifies responses to secondary pathogen encounters...
November 29, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Imogen Moran, Abigail K Grootveld, Akira Nguyen, Tri Giang Phan
Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages are strategically positioned at the lymph-tissue interface in the lymph node to trap and present antigen to B cells. Recent murine data has shown that SCS macrophages also prevent the systemic spread of lymph-borne pathogens and are capable of activating a diverse range of innate effector and adaptive memory cells, including follicular memory T cells and memory B cells (Bmems ), that are either pre-positioned or rapidly recruited to the subcapsular niche following infection and inflammation...
November 27, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Vladi Juric, Chris O'Sullivan, Erin Stefanutti, Maria Kovalenko, Andrew Greenstein, Vivian Barry-Hamilton, Igor Mikaelian, Jeremiah Degenhardt, Peng Yue, Victoria Smith, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), whose expression is frequently dysregulated in cancer, promotes tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by multiple mechanisms, including extracellular matrix remodeling and growth-factor and cytokine activation. We developed a monoclonal antibody against murine MMP-9, which we found decreased growth of established primary tumors in an orthotopic model of HER2-driven breast cancer (HC11-NeuT) in immunocompetent mice. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) profiling of NeuT tumors and additional mouse model tumors revealed that anti-MMP-9 treatment resulted in upregulation of immune signature pathways associated with cytotoxic T-cell response...
2018: PloS One
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