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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113114/sustained-versus-instantaneous-connectivity-differentiates-cognitive-functions-of-processing-speed-and-episodic-memory
#1
Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson
Synchrony of brain activity over time describes the functional connectivity between brain regions but does not address the temporal component of this relationship. We propose a complementary method of analysis by introducing the width of cross-correlation curves between functional MRI (fMRI) time series as a metric of the relative duration of synchronous activity between brain regions, or "sustained connectivity". Using resting-state fMRI, cognitive, and demographics data from 1,003 subjects included in the Human Connectome Project, we find that sustained connectivity is a reproducible trait in individuals, heritable, more transient in females, and shows changes with age in early adulthood...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113111/modulation-of-network-to-network-connectivity-via-spike-timing-dependent-noninvasive-brain-stimulation
#2
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Davide Momi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Francesco Neri, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alessandro Rossi, Simone Rossi
Human cognitive abilities and behavior are linked to functional coupling of many brain regions organized in distinct networks. Gaining insights on the role those networks' dynamics play in cognition and pathology requires their selective, reliable, and reversible manipulation. Here we document the possibility to manipulate the interplay between two brain networks in a controlled manner, by means of a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol inducing spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). Pairs of TMS pulses at specific inter-stimulus intervals, repeatedly delivered over two negatively correlated nodes of the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network (TPN) defined on the basis of individual functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, induced a modulation of network-to-network connectivity, even reversing correlation from negative to slightly positive in 30% of cases...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112813/altered-physiological-brain-variation-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#3
Janne Kananen, Timo Tuovinen, Hanna Ansakorpi, Seppo Rytky, Heta Helakari, Niko Huotari, Lauri Raitamaa, Ville Raatikainen, Aleksi Rasila, Viola Borchardt, Vesa Korhonen, Pierre LeVan, Maiken Nedergaard, Vesa Kiviniemi
INTRODUCTION: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG-fMRI) has become a major tool in mapping epilepsy sources. In the absence of detectable epileptiform activity, the resting state fMRI may still detect changes in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal, suggesting intrinsic alterations in the underlying brain physiology. METHODS: In this study, we used coefficient of variation (CV) of critically sampled 10 Hz ultra-fast fMRI (magnetoencephalography, MREG) signal to compare physiological variance between healthy controls (n = 10) and patients (n = 10) with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE)...
August 15, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110668/pragmatic-abilities-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-contribution-of-the-temporo-parietal-junction
#4
Antonio Carotenuto, Sirio Cocozza, Mario Quarantelli, Giorgio Arcara, Roberta Lanzillo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Ilaria Cerillo, Enrico Tedeschi, Giuseppe Orefice, Valentina Bambini, Arturo Brunetti, Rosa Iodice
Recent studies showed that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients might experience communicative deficits, specifically in pragmatics (i.e., the ability to integrate the context-dependent aspects of language). A crucial region for pragmatics is the temporo-parietal junction, in particular the so-called Geschwind's area (GA), which is involved in high-level language processes, including the comprehension of narratives, metaphor, and irony. We evaluated the relationship between pragmatic abilities, measured through the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test, and the functional connectivity (FC) of the bilateral GAs, assessed through a seed-based analysis of Resting-State fMRI in patients with MS...
August 11, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108526/aberrant-dynamic-functional-network-connectivity-and-graph-properties-in-major-depressive-disorder
#5
Dongmei Zhi, Vince D Calhoun, Luxian Lv, Xiaohong Ma, Qing Ke, Zening Fu, Yuhui Du, Yongfeng Yang, Xiao Yang, Miao Pan, Shile Qi, Rongtao Jiang, Qingbao Yu, Jing Sui
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex mood disorder characterized by persistent and overwhelming depression. Previous studies have identified abnormalities in large scale functional brain networks in MDD, yet most of them were based on static functional connectivity. In contrast, here we explored disrupted topological organization of dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) in MDD based on graph theory. One hundred and eighty-two MDD patients and 218 healthy controls were included in this study, all Chinese Han people...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108525/borderline-personality-disorder-with-cocaine-dependence-impulsivity-emotional-dysregulation-and-amygdala-functional-connectivity
#6
Thania Balducci, Jorge J González-Olvera, Diego Angeles-Valdez, Isabel Espinoza-Luna, Eduardo A Garza-Villarreal
Background: Borderline personality disorder is present in 19% of cocaine dependence cases; however, this dual pathology is poorly understood. We wished to characterize the dual pathology and find its functional connectivity correlates to better understand it. Methods: We recruited 69 participants divided into 4 groups: dual pathology ( n = 20), cocaine dependence without borderline personality disorder ( n = 19), borderline personality without cocaine dependence ( n = 10) and healthy controls ( n = 20). We used self-reported instruments to measure impulsivity and emotional dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106263/cerebellar-activation-during-a-motor-task-in-conversion-disorder-with-motor-paralysis-a-case-report-and-fmri-study
#7
Takamitsu Shimada, Kazutaka Ohi, Toshiki Yasuyama, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Motor conversion disorders are characterized by movement symptoms without a neurological cause. A psychogenic etiology is presumed for these disorders, but little is known about their underlying neural mechanisms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been utilized to understand the mechanisms associated with unexplained motor symptoms. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the cerebral response to motor stimulation in a patient with conversion disorder with motor paralysis to determine the underlying neural mechanisms of this disorder...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104727/network-changes-associated-with-transdiagnostic-depressive-symptom-improvement-following-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-mdd-and-ptsd
#8
Zhen Yang, Shi Gu, Nicolas Honnorat, Kristin A Linn, Russell T Shinohara, Irem Aselcioglu, Steven Bruce, Desmond J Oathes, Christos Davatzikos, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Danielle S Bassett, Yvette I Sheline
Despite widespread use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinical practice, its mechanisms with respect to brain networks remain sparsely described. In this study, we applied tools from graph theory and network science to better understand the transdiagnostic neural mechanisms of this treatment for depression. A sample of 64 subjects was included in a study of network dynamics: 33 patients (15 MDD, 18 PTSD) received longitudinal fMRI resting state scans before and after 12 weeks of CBT. Depression severity was rated on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104429/a-distributed-brain-network-predicts-general-intelligence-from-resting-state-human-neuroimaging-data
#9
Julien Dubois, Paola Galdi, Lynn K Paul, Ralph Adolphs
Individual people differ in their ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, plan and learn. A reliable measure of this general ability, also known as intelligence, can be derived from scores across a diverse set of cognitive tasks. There is great interest in understanding the neural underpinnings of individual differences in intelligence, because it is the single best predictor of long-term life success. The most replicated neural correlate of human intelligence to date is total brain volume; however, this coarse morphometric correlate says little about function...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101061/functional-and-structural-connectivity-of-the-amygdala-underpins-locus-of-control-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Ping Ren, Benjamin Chapman, Zhengwu Zhang, Giovanni Schifitto, Feng Lin
Locus of control (LOC) is an important personality trait. LOC over cognitive competency reflects an individual's perceived control of desired cognitive outcomes, which is critical for maintaining successful cognitive aging. It is important to understand the neural substrates of LOC over cognitive competency in older adults, especially for individuals at high risk of dementia. Here, we characterized a cohesive functional and structural connectivity profile underlying LOC among 55 older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101058/neurodevelopmental-changes-in-the-relationship-between-stress-perception-and-prefrontal-amygdala-functional-circuitry
#11
Jingsong Wu, Xiujuan Geng, Robin Shao, Nichol M L Wong, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen, Chetwyn C H Chan, Tatia M C Lee
Our brain during distinct developmental phases may show differential responses to perceived psychological stress, yet existing research specifically examining neurodevelopmental changes in stress processing is scarce. To fill in this research gap, this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the relationship between perceived stress and resting-state neural connectivity patterns among 67 healthy volunteers belonging to three age groups (adolescents, young adults and adults), who were supposed to be at separate neurodevelopmental phases and exhibit different affect regulatory processes in the brain...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100884/functional-connectivity-density-local-brain-spontaneous-activity-and-their-coupling-strengths-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#12
Xiaoxia Lei, Yunjie Liao, Mingtian Zhong, Wanrong Peng, Qian Liu, Shuqiao Yao, Xiongzhao Zhu, Changlian Tan, Jinyao Yi
In this study, combining degree centrality (DC) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) analyses of resting state (rs)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we aimed to explore functional connectivity density, local brain spontaneous activity, and their coupling strengths in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Forty-three BPD patients and 39 demographically-matched controls underwent rs-fMRI after completing a series of psychological tests. Two-sample t -tests were performed to compare DC and fALFF between these two groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099077/multi-modal-brain-fingerprinting-a-manifold-approximation-based-framework
#13
Kuldeep Kumar, Matthew Toews, Laurent Chauvin, Olivier Colliot, Christian Desrosiers
This work presents an efficient framework, based on manifold approximation, for generating brain fingerprints from multi-modal data. The proposed framework represents images as bags of local features which are used to build a subject proximity graph. Compact fingerprints are obtained by projecting this graph in a low-dimensional manifold using spectral embedding. Experiments using the T1/T2-weighted MRI, diffusion MRI, and resting state fMRI data of 945 Human Connectome Project subjects demonstrate the benefit of combining multiple modalities, with multi-modal fingerprints more discriminative than those generated from individual modalities...
August 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099030/neural-correlates-of-liraglutide-effects-in-persons-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Kathleen T Watson, Tonita E Wroolie, Gabby Tong, Lara C Foland-Ross, Sophia Frangou, Manpreet Singh, Roger McIntyre, Siena Roat-Shumway, Alison Myoraku, Allan L Reiss, Natalie L Rasgon
Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic state preceding development of type 2 diabetes (DM2), cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP) agonist, is an insulin-sensitizing agent with neuroprotective properties, as shown in animal studies. The purpose of this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to examine the neural effects of administration of liraglutide in cognitively normal late middle-aged individuals with subjective cognitive complaints (half of subjects had family history of AD)...
August 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097579/brain-computer-interface-based-intervention-re-normalizes-brain-functional-network-topology-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Xing Qian, Beatrice Rui Yi Loo, Francisco Xavier Castellanos, Siwei Liu, Hui Li Koh, Xue Wei Wendy Poh, Ranga Krishnan, Daniel Fung, Michael Wl Chee, Cuntai Guan, Tih-Shih Lee, Choon Guan Lim, Juan Zhou
A brain-computer-interface (BCI)-based attention training game system has shown promise for treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with inattentive symptoms. However, little is known about brain network organizational changes underlying behavior improvement following BCI-based training. To cover this gap, we aimed to examine the topological alterations of large-scale brain functional networks induced by the 8-week BCI-based attention intervention in ADHD boys using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging method...
August 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097133/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-anxiety-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-design-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-assess-clinical-effectiveness-and-changes-in-cerebral-connectivity
#16
A E P Mulders, A J H Moonen, K Dujardin, M L Kuijf, A Duits, B Flinois, R L H Handels, R Lopes, A F G Leentjens
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders occur in up to 35% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a negative effect on motor symptoms and quality of life. To date, no clinical trials specifically targeting anxiety in PD patients have been published. OBJECTIVE: To describe the rationale and methodology of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that aims to study the clinical effectiveness, alterations in brain circuitry, and cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety in PD...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095079/comparing-brain-connectivity-metrics-a-didactic-tutorial-with-a-toy-model-and-experimental-data
#17
Christine Beauchene, Subhradeep Roy, Rosalyn Moran, Alexander Leonessa, Nicole Abaid
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to didactically compare resting state connectivity networks computed using two different methods called Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Convergent Cross-Mapping (CCM). PLV is a ubiquitous measure of connectivity in electrophysiological research, but is less often applied to fMRI BOLD time series since this model-based metric assumes that oscillatory coupling is a sufficient condition for connectivity. Alternatively, CCM is a model-free method, which detects potentially nonlinear causal influences based on the ability to estimate one time-series with another and does not assume an oscillatory structure...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094555/altered-intra-and-inter-hemispheric-functional-dysconnectivity-in-schizophrenia
#18
Yuan Zhang, Zhongxiang Dai, Yu Chen, Kang Sim, Yu Sun, Rongjun Yu
Despite convergent evidence suggesting that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, it remains unclear whether intra- or inter-hemispheric deficits or their combination underlie the dysconnection. This study examined the source of the functional dysconnection in schizophrenia. Resting-state fMRI was performed in 66 patients with schizophrenia and 73 matched healthy controls. Functional brain networks were constructed for each participant and further partitioned into intra- and inter-hemispheric connections...
August 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094335/neuro-cognitive-effects-of-acute-tyrosine-administration-on-reactive-and-proactive-response-inhibition-in-healthy-older-adults
#19
Mirjam Bloemendaal, Monja Isabel Froböse, Joost Wegman, Bram Bastiaan Zandbelt, Ondine van de Rest, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
The aging brain is characterized by altered dopamine signaling. The amino acid tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, is known to improve cognitive performance in young adults, especially during high environmental demands. Tyrosine administration might also affect catecholamine transmission in the aging brain, thereby improving cognitive functioning. In healthy older adults, impairments have been demonstrated in two forms of response inhibition: reactive inhibition (outright stopping) and proactive inhibition (anticipatory response slowing) under high information load...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094174/subdivisions-of-the-posteromedial-cortex-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#20
Yue Cui, Ming Song, Darren M Lipnicki, Yi Yang, Chuyang Ye, Lingzhong Fan, Jing Sui, Tianzi Jiang, Jianghong He
Evidence suggests that disruptions of the posteromedial cortex (PMC) and posteromedial corticothalamic connectivity contribute to disorders of consciousness (DOCs). While most previous studies treated the PMC as a whole, this structure is functionally heterogeneous. The present study investigated whether particular subdivisions of the PMC are specifically associated with DOCs. Participants were DOC patients, 21 vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS), 12 minimally conscious state (MCS), and 29 healthy controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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