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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515914/tracking-the-dynamic-functional-connectivity-structure-of-the-human-brain-across-the-adult-lifespan
#1
Yunman Xia, Qunlin Chen, Liang Shi, MengZe Li, Weikang Gong, Hong Chen, Jiang Qiu
The transition from early adulthood to the elder is marked by functional and structural brain transformations. Many previous studies examined the correlation between the functional connectivity (FC) and aging using resting-state fMRI. Results showed that the changes in FC are linked to aging as well as the cognitive ability changes. However, some researchers proposed that the FC is not static but dynamic changes during the resting-state fMRI scan. In this study, we examined the correlation between the resting-state dynamic functional network connectivity and age using resting scan data of 434 subjects...
December 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515682/aberrant-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-patients-with-and-without-psychotic-symptoms
#2
Yuan Zhong, Chun Wang, Weijia Gao, Qian Xiao, Dali Lu, Qing Jiao, Linyan Su, Guangming Lu
Mood disorders/psychosis have been associated with dysfunctions in the default mode network (DMN). However, the relative contributions of DMN regions to state and trait disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of PBD through brain imaging and explore the influence of psychotic symptoms on functional alterations in PBD patients. Twenty-nine psychotic and 26 non-psychotic PBD patients, as well as 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and the data were analyzed by independent component analysis...
December 4, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514410/the-devil-is-in-the-detail-exploring-the-intrinsic-neural-mechanisms-that-link-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptomatology-to-ongoing-cognition
#3
Deniz Vatansever, Natali S Bozhilova, Philip Asherson, Jonathan Smallwood
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition that profoundly affects quality of life. Although mounting evidence now suggests uncontrolled mind-wandering as a core aspect of the attentional problems associated with ADHD, the neural mechanisms underpinning this deficit remains unclear. To that extent, competing views argue for (i) excessive generation of task-unrelated mental content, or (ii) deficiency in the control of task-relevant cognition...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511114/reconfigured-functional-network-dynamics-in-adult-moyamoya-disease-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#4
Yu Lei, Benshen Song, Liang Chen, Jiabin Su, Xin Zhang, Wei Ni, Yuguo Yu, Bin Xu, Lianchun Yu, Yuxiang Gu, Ying Mao
Treatment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) is still unclear because of its unveiled neural synchronization. This study introduced a dynamic measurement of connectivity number entropy (CNE) to characterize both spatial and temporal dimensions of network interactions. Fifty-one patients with MMD were recruited (27 with VCI and 24 with intact cognition), as well as 26 normal controls (NCs). Static network properties were first examined to confirm its aberrance in MMD with VCI...
December 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511111/nicotine-in-action-cigarette-smoking-modulated-homotopic-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#5
Wei Liao, Siqi Yang, Jiao Li, Yun-Shuang Fan, Xujun Duan, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen
Cigarette smoking is intimately associated with both early onset and increased severity of schizophrenia. The self-medication hypothesis suggests that nicotine can relieve or restore neurocognitive deficits and symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects who smoked showed deficits in communication between their hemispheres. These homotopic connectivity mechanisms associated with both schizophrenia and smoking comorbidity were largely unknown until now. A mixed sample including patients with schizophrenia (22 smokers and 27 non-smokers) and healthy controls (22 smokers and 21 non-smokers) based on clinical diagnoses and cigarette dependence were recruited for the current study...
December 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510506/dimensional-complexity-of-the-resting-brain-in-healthy-aging-using-a-normalized-mpse
#6
Norman Scheel, Eric Franke, Thomas F Münte, Amir Madany Mamlouk
Spontaneous fluctuations of resting-state functional connectivity have been studied in many ways, but grasping the complexity of brain activity has been difficult. Dimensional complexity measures, which are based on Eigenvalue (EV) spectrum analyses (e.g., Ω entropy) have been successfully applied to EEG data, but have not been fully evaluated on functional MRI recordings, because only through the recent introduction of fast multiband fMRI sequences, feasable temporal resolutions are reached. Combining the Eigenspectrum normalization of Ω entropy and the scalable architecture of the so called Multivariate Principal Subspace Entropy (MPSE) leads to a new complexity measure, namely normalized MPSE (nMPSE)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510165/replication-of-resting-state-task-network-correspondence-and-novel-findings-on-brain-network-activation-during-task-fmri-in-the-human-connectome-project-study
#7
Lisa D Nickerson
There have been many recent reports highlighting a crisis in replication and reliability of research in psychology, neuroscience, and neuroimaging. After a series of reports uncovered various methodological problems with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research, considerable attention has been given to principles and practices to improve reproducibility of neuroimaging findings, including promotion of openness, transparency, and data sharing. However, much less attention has been given to use of open access neuroimaging datasets to conduct replication studies...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508806/predictive-connectome-subnetwork-extraction-with-anatomical-and-connectivity-priors
#8
Colin J Brown, Steven P Miller, Brian G Booth, Jill G Zwicker, Ruth E Grunau, Anne R Synnes, Vann Chau, Ghassan Hamarneh
We present a new method to identify anatomical subnetworks of the human connectome that are optimally predictive of targeted clinical variables, developmental outcomes or disease states. Given a training set of structural or functional brain networks, derived from diffusion MRI (dMRI) or functional MRI (fMRI) scans respectively, our sparse linear regression model extracts a weighted subnetwork. By enforcing novel backbone network and connectivity based priors along with a non-negativity constraint, the discovered subnetworks are simultaneously anatomically plausible, well connected, positively weighted and reasonably sparse...
August 25, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508134/a-dissociation-in-effects-of-risperidone-monotherapy-on-functional-and-anatomical-connectivity-within-the-default-mode-network
#9
Xiaofen Zong, Maolin Hu, Spiro P Pantazatos, J John Mann, Gaohua Wang, Yanhui Liao, Zhong-Chun Liu, Wei Liao, Tao Yao, Zongchang Li, Ying He, Luxian Lv, Deen Sang, Jinsong Tang, Huafu Chen, Junjie Zheng, Xiaogang Chen
Respective changes in functional and anatomical connectivities of default mode network (DMN) after antipsychotic treatment have been reported. However, alterations in structure-function coupling after treatment remain unknown. We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in 42 drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients (FESP) both at baseline and after 8-weeks risperidone monotherapy, and in 38 healthy volunteers. Independent component analysis was used to assess voxel-wise DMN synchrony...
December 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507492/alternating-diffusion-map-based-fusion-of-multimodal-brain-connectivity-networks-for-iq-prediction
#10
Li Xiao, Julia M Stephen, Tony W Wilson, Vince D Calhoun, Yuping Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explain individual differences in development, behavior, and cognition, most previous studies focused on projecting resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) based functional connectivity (FC) data into a low-dimensional space via linear dimensionality reduction techniques, followed by executing analysis operations. However, linear dimensionality analysis techniques may fail to capture nonlinearity of brain neuroactivity. Moreover, besides resting-state FC, FC based on task fMRI can be expected to provide complementary information...
November 29, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506458/cerebral-resting-state-markers-of-biased-perception-in-social-anxiety
#11
Benjamin Kreifelts, Lena Weigel, Thomas Ethofer, Carolin Brück, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety (SA) comprises a multitude of persistent fears around the central element of dreaded negative evaluation and exclusion. This very common anxiety is spectrally distributed among the general population and associated with social perception biases deemed causal in its maintenance. Here, we investigated cerebral resting state markers linking SA and biased social perception. To this end, resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) was assessed as the neurobiological marker in a study population with greatly varying SA using fMRI in the first step of the experiment...
December 1, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506341/a-single-blinded-trial-using-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-brain-activity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-painful-neuropathy
#12
Qing Zhang, Peng Zhang, Rui Yan, Xianghong Xu, Cunnan Mao, Xiaomei Liu, Fengfei Li, Jianhua Ma, Lei Ye, Zhijian Yao, Jindan Wu
About two-thirds of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) suffer from anxiety and/or depression disorders. However, the pathogenesis of PDN is unclear, in particular with respect to the mechanism associated with the central nervous system. We used the neuroimaging techniques of fraction amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and regional homogeneity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the brain activity in patients with PDN. The symptoms, signs and mental conditions of 19 patients with PDN and of 18 patients with non-pain neuropathy were assessed separately and compared...
November 30, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30505720/regional-cerebral-metabolism-alterations-affect-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Hui Su, Chuantao Zuo, Huiwei Zhang, Fangyang Jiao, Bin Zhang, Weijun Tang, Daoyin Geng, Yihui Guan, Shenxun Shi
Background: 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) is a reliable technique to quantify regional neural glucose metabolism even with major depressive disorder (MDD) heterogeneous features. Previous study proposed that in the resting-state (RS), pairs of brain regions whose regional glucose metabolic rates were significantly correlated were functionally associated. This synchronicity indicates a neuronal metabolic and functional interaction in high energy efficient brain regions. In this study, a multimode method was used to identify the RS-FC patterns based on regional metabolism changes, and to observe its relationship with the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD patients...
October 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30505063/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-with-large-scale-granger-causality-analysis-on-resting-state-functional-mri
#14
Udaysankar Chockanathan, Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), coupled with advanced multivariate time-series analysis methods such as Granger causality, is a promising tool for the development of novel functional connectivity biomarkers of neurologic and psychiatric disease. Recently large-scale Granger causality (lsGC) has been proposed as an alternative to conventional Granger causality (cGC) that extends the scope of robust Granger causal analyses to high-dimensional systems such as the human brain. In this study, lsGC and cGC were comparatively evaluated on their ability to capture neurologic damage associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504928/methylphenidate-s-effects-on-thalamic-metabolism-and-functional-connectivity-in-cannabis-abusers-and-healthy-controls
#15
Şükrü Barış Demiral, Dardo Tomasi, Corinde E Wiers, Peter Manza, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Yana Studentsova, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line treatment for ADHD and is also misused as a purported cognitive enhancer, yet its effects on brain function are still poorly understood. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that MPH altered cortico-striatal resting functional connectivity (RFC). Here we investigated the effects of MPH in thalamic connectivity since the thalamus modulates striato-cortical signaling. We hypothesized that MPH would increase thalamic connectivity and metabolism, and that this response would be blunted in cannabis abusers...
December 1, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504281/a-posterior-anterior-distinction-between-scene-perception-and-scene-construction-in-human-medial-parietal-cortex
#16
Edward H Silson, Adrian W Gilmore, Sarah E Kalinowski, Adam Steel, Alexis Kidder, Alex Martin, Chris I Baker
Human retrosplenial complex (RSC), located in medial parietal cortex, has been implicated in numerous cognitive functions, including scene perception, spatial navigation, and autobiographical memory retrieval. Recently, a posterior-anterior distinction within RSC was proposed, such that posterior aspects process scene-related visual information (constituting a "medial place area;" MPA), whereas anterior aspects process information that is vividly retrieved from memory, thereby supporting remembering and potentially navigation...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503934/neural-substrates-of-cognitive-reserve-in-alzheimer-s-disease-spectrum-and-normal-aging
#17
Dong Hyuk Lee, Peter Lee, Sang Won Seo, Jee Hoon Roh, Minyoung Oh, Jungsu S Oh, Seung Jun Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Yong Jeong
The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) originated from discrepancies between the degree of brain pathology and the severity of clinical manifestations. CR has been characterized through CR proxies, such as education and occupation complexity; however, such approaches have inherent limitations. Although several methods have been developed to overcome these limitations, they fail to reflect the entire Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Meanwhile, graph theory analysis, one of most powerful and flexible approaches, have established remarkable network properties of the brain...
November 29, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503214/multi-echo-fmri-resting-state-connectivity-and-high-psychometric-schizotypy
#18
Maria Waltmann, Owen O'Daly, Alice Egerton, Katrina McMullen, Veena Kumari, Gareth J Barker, Steve C R Williams, Gemma Modinos
Disrupted striatal functional connectivity is proposed to play a critical role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies typically reported disrupted striatal connectivity in patients with psychosis and in individuals at clinical and genetic high risk of the disorder relative to healthy controls. This has not been widely studied in healthy individuals with subclinical psychotic-like experiences (schizotypy). Here we applied the emerging technology of multi-echo rs-fMRI to examine corticostriatal connectivity in this group, which is thought to drastically maximize physiological noise removal and increase BOLD contrast-to-noise ratio...
November 20, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502227/spatial-characteristics-of-spontaneous-and-stimulus-induced-individual-functional-connectivity-networks-in-severe-disorders-of-consciousness
#19
Ranganatha Sitaram, Tao Yu, Ulrike Halsband, Dominik Vogel, Friedemann Müller, Simone Lang, Niels Birbaumer, Boris Kotchoubey
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity (fcMRI) analyses of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data revealed substantial differences between states of consciousness. The underlying cause-effect linkage, however, remains unknown to the present day. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between fcMRI measures and Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) in resting state and under adequate stimulation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: fMRI data from thirteen patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, eight patients in minimally conscious state, and eleven healthy controls were acquired in rest and during the application of nociceptive and emotional acoustic stimuli...
November 27, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500946/identification-of-common-thalamocortical-dysconnectivity-in-four-major-psychiatric-disorders
#20
Pei-Chi Tu, Ya Mei Bai, Cheng-Ta Li, Mu-Hong Chen, Wei-Chen Lin, Wan-Chen Chang, Tung-Ping Su
Background: Recent genetic and imaging analyses of large datasets suggested that common biological substrates exist across psychiatric diagnoses. Functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities of thalamocortical circuits were consistently found in patients with schizophrenia but have been less studied in other major psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to examine thalamocortical FC in 4 major psychiatric disorders to identify the common connectivity abnormalities across major psychiatric disorders...
December 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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