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resting—state fmri

(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEThe neurocognitive course of patients who have undergone cerebral revascularization has been the subject of many studies, and the reported effects of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on cognitive function have varied from study to study. The authors hypothesized that cognitive amelioration after CAS is associated with alteration of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity, and they investigated the correlation between functional connectivity (FC) of the DMN and post-CAS changes in cognitive function in order to find a clinical marker that can be used to predict the effect of cerebral revascularization on patients' cognitive function in this preliminary exploratory study...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Jong-Hoon Kim, Yo-Han Joo, Young-Don Son, Jeong-Hee Kim, Yun-Kwan Kim, Hang-Keun Kim, Sang-Yoon Lee, Tatsuo Ido
There has been increasing interest in glutamatergic neurotransmission as a putative underlying mechanism of depressive disorders. We performed [11 C]ABP688 positron emission tomography (PET) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in drug-naïve young adult patients with major depression to examine alterations in metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) availability, and to investigate their functional significance relating to neural systems-level changes in major depression. Sixteen psychotropic drug-naïve patients with major depression without comorbidity (median age: 22...
December 12, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Paige Greenwood, John Hutton, Jon Dudley, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus
Reading is an acquired skill that relies on cognitive-control and language abilities. Home reading environment has been positively correlated with activation in parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex supporting mental imagery and narrative comprehension during a story-listening task in preschool-age children. However, the degree to which maternal reading ability influences early brain development, specifically neural circuits involved with language and reading, is not well understood. The current study explored the relationship between maternal reading ability and functional connectivity within the language network, between the language network and networks related to cognitive control and visual processing, as well as between the language network and the entire brain (network-to-voxel analysis) of preschool-age children during a resting state...
December 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Zhengjia Dai, Qixiang Lin, Tao Li, Xiao Wang, Huishu Yuan, Xin Yu, Yong He, Huali Wang
Studies have demonstrated that the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with abnormal connections in either functional connectivity networks (FCNs) or structural connectivity networks (SCNs). However, the FCN and SCN of AD have usually been examined separately, and the results were inconsistent. In this multimodal study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 patients with AD and 39 matched healthy controls (HCs)...
November 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Shruti Agarwal, Haris I Sair, Sachin K Gujar, Jun Hua, Hanzhang Lu, Jay J Pillai
AIM: To demonstrate that a novel resting state BOLD ALFF (the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation)-based correction method can substantially enhance the detectability of motor task activation in the presence of tumor-induced neurovascular uncoupling (NVU). METHODS: Twelve de novo brain tumor patients who underwent comprehensive clinical BOLD fMRI exams including task fMRI and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) were evaluated. Each patient displayed decreased/absent task fMRI activation in the primary ipsilesional primary motor cortex in the absence of corresponding motor deficit or suboptimal task performance, consistent with NVU...
December 14, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Sabine Oligschläger, Ting Xu, Blazej M Baczkowski, Marcel Falkiewicz, Arnaud Falchier, Gary Linn, Daniel S Margulies
Cortical connectivity conforms to a series of organizing principles that are common across species. Spatial proximity, similar cortical type, and similar connectional profile all constitute factors for determining the connectivity between cortical regions. We previously demonstrated another principle of connectivity that is closely related to the spatial layout of the cerebral cortex. Using functional connectivity from resting-state fMRI in the human cortex, we found that the further a region is located from primary cortex, the more distant are its functional connections with the other areas of the cortex...
December 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yun-Hui Chen, Su-Fang Li, Dan Lv, Gui-Dong Zhu, Yu-Hua Wang, Xin Meng, Qiang Hu, Cheng-Chong Li, Liang-Tang Zhang, Xiang-Ping Chu, Xiao-Ping Wang, Ping Li
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have difficulty in switching between obsessive thought and compulsive behavior, which may be related to the dysfunction of the salience network (SN). However, little is known about the changes in intra- and inter- intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the SN in patients with OCD. In this study, we parceled the SN into 19 subregions and investigated iFC changes for each of these subregions in 40 drug-naïve patients with OCD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) using seed-based functional connectivity resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Christina B Johns, Cheryl Lacadie, Betty Vohr, Laura R Ment, Dustin Scheinost
Survivors of preterm birth experience long-lasting behavioral problems characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety, and impairments in social functioning. The amygdala is a key region for social functioning and alterations in amygdala structure and connectivity are thought to underlie social functioning deficits in many disorders, including preterm birth. However, functional connectivity of the amygdala and its association with social impairments is not well-studied in preterm participants (PTs)...
December 3, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEEssential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard stereotactic deep brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy or, alternatively, minimally invasive techniques, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and high-intensity focused ultrasound, at the level of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). The aim of the present study was to evaluate potential correlations between pretherapeutic interconnectivity (IC), as depicted on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and MR signature volume at 1 year after Vim SRS for tremor, to be able to potentially identify hypo- and hyperresponders based only on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Anine P Skibsted, Moshgan Amiri, Patrick M Fisher, Annette Sidaros, Melita Cacic Hribljan, Vibeke Andrée Larsen, Joan Lilja S Højgaard, Miki Nikolic, John Hauerberg, Martin E Fabricius, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Kirsten Møller, Daniel Kondziella
Aims and Objectives: To facilitate individualized assessment of unresponsive patients in the intensive care unit for signs of preserved consciousness after acute brain injury. Background: Physicians and neuroscientists are increasingly recognizing a disturbing dilemma: Brain-injured patients who appear entirely unresponsive at the bedside may show signs of covert consciousness when examined by functional MRI (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG). According to a recent meta-analysis, roughly 15% of behaviorally unresponsive brain-injured patients can participate in mental tasks by modifying their brain activity during EEG- or fMRI-based paradigms, suggesting that they are conscious and misdiagnosed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Keith M McGregor, Bruce Crosson, Lisa C Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy, Kyle Hortman, Kaundinya Gopinath, Kevin M Mammino, Javier Omar, Joe R Nocera
Objective: We have previously demonstrated that aerobic exercise improves upper extremity motor function concurrent with changes in motor cortical activity using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is currently unknown how a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention affects resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in motor networks. Previous work has shown that over a 6-month or 1-year exercise intervention, older individuals show increased resting state connectivity of the default mode network and the sensorimotor network (Voss et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Marcel Prestel, Tim Paul Steinfath, Michael Tremmel, Rudolf Stark, Ulrich Ott
Goal : We aimed to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) signal fluctuations within independent components (ICs) that correlate to spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in regions of the default mode network (DMN) during eyes-closed resting state. Methods : We analyzed simultaneously acquired EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) eyes-closed resting state data in a convenience sample of 30 participants. IC analysis (ICA) was used to decompose the EEG time-series and common ICs were identified using data-driven IC clustering across subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Robert X Smith, Kay Jann, Mirella Dapretto, Danny J J Wang
Background: Two approaches to understanding the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) involve network level functional connectivity (FC) and the dynamics of neuronal signaling. The former approach has revealed both increased and decreased FC in individuals with ASD. The latter approach has found high frequency EEG oscillations and higher levels of epilepsy in children with ASD. Together, these findings have led to the hypothesis that atypical excitatory-inhibitory neural signaling may lead to imbalanced association pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mohsen Mazrooyisebdani, Veena A Nair, Po-Ling Loh, Alexander B Remsik, Brittany M Young, Brittany S Moreno, Keith C Dodd, Theresa J Kang, Justin C William, Vivek Prabhakaran
Despite the established effectiveness of the brain-computer interface (BCI) therapy during stroke rehabilitation (Song et al., 2014a, 2015; Young et al., 2014a,b,c, 2015; Remsik et al., 2016), little is understood about the connections between motor network reorganization and functional motor improvements. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the network reorganization of the motor cortex during BCI therapy. Graph theoretical approaches are used on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from stroke patients to evaluate these changes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Benjamin Baird, Anna Castelnovo, Olivia Gosseries, Giulio Tononi
Humans typically lack awareness that they are dreaming while dreaming. However, at times a remarkable exception occurs and reflective consciousness can be regained while dreaming, referred to as lucid dreaming. While most individuals experience lucid dreams rarely there is substantial variance in lucid dream frequency. The neurobiological basis of lucid dreaming is unknown, but evidence points to involvement of anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) and parietal cortex. This study evaluated the neuroanatomical/neurofunctional correlates of frequent lucid dreams and specifically whether functional connectivity of aPFC is associated with frequent lucid dreams...
December 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Keri S Rosch, Stewart H Mostofsky, Mary Beth Nebel
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with atypical fronto-subcortical neural circuitry and heightened delay discounting, or a stronger preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards. Recent evidence of ADHD-related sex differences in brain structure and function suggests anomalies in fronto-subcortical circuitry may differ among girls and boys with ADHD. The current study examined whether the functional connectivity (FC) within fronto-subcortical neural circuitry differs among girls and boys with ADHD compared to same-sex typically developing (TD) controls and relates to delay discounting...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Huan Liu, Shu Zhang, Xi Jiang, Tuo Zhang, Heng Huang, Fangfei Ge, Lin Zhao, Xiao Li, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
The human cerebral cortex is highly folded into diverse gyri and sulci. Accumulating evidences suggest that gyri and sulci exhibit anatomical, morphological, and connectional differences. Inspired by these evidences, we performed a series of experiments to explore the frequency-specific differences between gyral and sulcal neural activities from resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Specifically, we designed a convolutional neural network (CNN) based classifier, which can differentiate gyral and sulcal fMRI signals with reasonable accuracies...
December 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Leah H Rubin, Siyi Li, Li Yao, Sarah K Keedy, James L Reilly, Scot K Hill, Jeffrey R Bishop, C Sue Carter, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Lauren L Drogos, Elliot Gershon, Godfrey D Pearlson, Carol A Tamminga, Brett A Clementz, Matcheri S Keshavan, Su Lui, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert sexually dimorphic effects on cognition and emotion processing. Abnormalities in these hormones are observed in schizophrenia and may contribute to multiple established sex differences associated with the disorder. Here we examined sex-dependent hormone associations with resting brain activity and their clinical associations in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: OT and AVP serum concentrations were assayed in 35 individuals with schizophrenia (23 men) and 60 controls (24 men) from the Chicago BSNIP study site...
December 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Beate Rassler, Andreas Schwerdtfeger, Christoph Stefan Aigner, Gert Pfurtscheller
A group of 23 healthy scanner naïve participants of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with increased state anxiety exhibited 0.1 Hz oscillations in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals, heart rate (HR) beat-to-beat intervals (RRI) and respiration. The goal of the present paper is to explore slow oscillations in respiration and RRI and their phase-coupling by applying the dynamic "wave-by-wave" analysis. Five participants with either high or moderate levels of fMRI-related anxiety (age 23...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Daihong Liu, Lihua Chen, Shanshan Duan, Xuntao Yin, Wu Yang, Yanshu Shi, Jiuquan Zhang, Jian Wang
Previous studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can accelerate the rate of cognitive decline in patients. As an organ with high energy consumption, the brain network balances between lower energy consumption and higher information transmission efficiency. However, T2DM may modify the proportion of short- and long-range connections to adapt to the inadequate energy supply and to respond to various cognitive tasks under the energy pressure caused by homeostasis alterations in brain glucose metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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