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Consciousness Integration and Complexity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332584/considerations-used-by-desert-isopods-to-assess-scorpion-predation-risk
#1
Moshe Zaguri, Yaara Zohar, Dror Hawlena
Animals adjust behaviors to balance changes in predation risk against other vital needs. Animals must therefore collect sensory information and use a complex risk-assessment process that estimates risks and weighs costs and benefits entailed in different reactions. Studying this cognitive process is challenging, especially in nature, because it requires inferring sensory abilities and conscious decisions from behavioral reactions. Our goal was to address this empirical challenge by implementing psychophysical principles to field research that explores considerations used by desert isopods (Hemilepistus reaumuri) to assess the risk of scorpions that hunt exclusively from within their burrows...
November 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307973/integrated-information-as-a-metric-for-group-interaction
#2
David Engel, Thomas W Malone
Researchers in many disciplines have previously used a variety of mathematical techniques for analyzing group interactions. Here we use a new metric for this purpose, called "integrated information" or "phi." Phi was originally developed by neuroscientists as a measure of consciousness in brains, but it captures, in a single mathematical quantity, two properties that are important in many other kinds of groups as well: differentiated information and integration. Here we apply this metric to the activity of three types of groups that involve people and computers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266289/rubber-hand-illusion-survives-ventral-premotor-area-inhibition-a-rtms-study
#3
V Peviani, F G Magnani, A Ciricugno, T Vecchi, G Bottini
The sense of body ownership is a fundamental feature that refers to the ability to recognize our body as our own, allowing us to interact properly with the outside world. Usually, it is explored by means of the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) during which a dummy hand is incorporated in the mental representation of one's own body throughout a multisensory (visuo-tactile) integration mechanism. Particular attention has been paid to the neurofunctional counterparts of this mechanism highlighting the pivotal role of an occipito-parieto-frontal network involving the Ventral Premotor area (PMv)...
September 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142359/integration-of-intracellular-signaling-biological-analogues-of-wires-processors-and-memories-organized-by-a-centrosome-3d-reference-system
#4
Nadezhda Barvitenko, Alfons Lawen, Muhammad Aslam, Antonella Pantaleo, Carlota Saldanha, Elisaveta Skverchinskaya, Marco Regolini, Jack A Tuszynski
BACKGROUND: Myriads of signaling pathways in a single cell function to achieve the highest spatio-temporal integration. Data are accumulating on the role of electromechanical soliton-like waves in signal transduction processes. Theoretical studies strongly suggest feasibility of both classical and quantum computing involving microtubules. AIM: A theoretical study of the role of the complex composed of the plasma membrane and the microtubule-based cytoskeleton as a system that transmits, stores and processes information...
August 22, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120988/critical-dynamics-anesthesia-and-information-integration-lessons-from-multi-scale-criticality-analysis-of-voltage-imaging-data
#5
Tomer Fekete, David B Omer, Kazunori O'Hashi, Amiram Grinvald, Cees van Leeuwen, Oren Shriki
Critical dynamics are thought to play an important role in neuronal information-processing: near critical networks exhibit neuronal avalanches, cascades of spatiotemporal activity that are scale-free, and are considered to enhance information capacity and transfer. However, the exact relationship between criticality, awareness, and information integration remains unclear. To characterize this relationship, we applied multi-scale avalanche analysis to voltage-sensitive dye imaging data collected from animals of various species under different anesthetics...
August 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089135/pre-sleep-treatment-with-galantamine-stimulates-lucid-dreaming-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#6
Stephen LaBerge, Kristen LaMarca, Benjamin Baird
Lucid dreaming is a remarkable state of consciousness in which one is aware of the fact that one is dreaming while continuing to dream. Based on the strong relationship between physiological activation during rapid eye-movement sleep and lucid dreaming, our pilot research investigated whether enhancing cortical activation via acetylcholinesterease inhibition (AChEI) would increase the frequency of lucid dreams and found AChEI to be a promising method for lucid dream induction. In the current study we sought to quantify the size and reliability of the effect of AChEI on lucid dreaming, dream recall and dream content as well as to test the effectiveness of an integrated lucid dream induction protocol which combined cholinergic stimulation with other methods for lucid dream induction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027599/novel-insights-into-the-spatial-and-temporal-complexity-of-hypothalamic-organization-through-precision-methods-allowing-nanoscale-resolution
#7
A Alpár, T Harkany
The mammalian hypothalamus contains an astounding heterogeneity of neurons to achieve its role in coordinating central responses to virtually any environmental stressor over the life-span of an individual. Therefore, while core features of intrahypothalamic neuronal modalities and wiring patterns are stable during vertebrate evolution, integration of the hypothalamus into hierarchical brain-wide networks evolved to coordinate its output with emotionality, cognition and conscious decision-making. The advent of single-cell technologies represents a recent milestone in the study of hypothalamic organization by allowing the dissection of cellular heterogeneity and establishing causality between opto- and chemogenetic activity modulation of molecularly-resolved neuronal contingents and specific behaviours...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997565/do-patients-thought-to-lack-consciousness-retain-the-capacity-for-internal-as-well-as-external-awareness
#8
Amelie Haugg, Rhodri Cusack, Laura E Gonzalez-Lara, Bettina Sorger, Adrian M Owen, Lorina Naci
It is well established that some patients, who are deemed to have disorders of consciousness, remain entirely behaviorally non-responsive and are diagnosed as being in a vegetative state, yet can nevertheless demonstrate covert awareness of their external environment by modulating their brain activity, a phenomenon known as cognitive-motor dissociation. However, the extent to which these patients retain internal awareness remains unknown. To investigate the potential for internal and external awareness in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC), we asked whether the pattern of juxtaposition between the functional time-courses of the default mode (DMN) and fronto-parietal networks, shown in healthy individuals to mediate the naturally occurring dominance switching between internal and external aspects of consciousness, was present in these patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997472/measuring-the-complexity-of-consciousness
#9
Xerxes D Arsiwalla, Paul Verschure
The grand quest for a scientific understanding of consciousness has given rise to many new theoretical and empirical paradigms for investigating the phenomenology of consciousness as well as clinical disorders associated to it. A major challenge in this field is to formalize computational measures that can reliably quantify global brain states from data. In particular, information-theoretic complexity measures such as integrated information have been proposed as measures of conscious awareness. This suggests a new framework to quantitatively classify states of consciousness...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980635/heartbeat-enhanced-immersive-virtual-reality-to-treat-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#10
Marco Solcà, Roberta Ronchi, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Thomas Schmidlin, Bruno Herbelin, François Luthi, Michel Konzelmann, Jean-Yves Beaulieu, François Delaquaize, Armin Schnider, Adrian G Guggisberg, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
OBJECTIVES: To develop and test a new immersive digital technology for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that combines principles from mirror therapy and immersive virtual reality and the latest research from multisensory body processing. METHODS: In this crossover double-blind study, 24 patients with CRPS and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were immersed in a virtual environment and shown a virtual depiction of their affected limb that was flashing in synchrony (or in asynchrony in the control condition) with their own online detected heartbeat (heartbeat-enhanced virtual reality [HEVR])...
July 31, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977211/multimodal-treatment-with-ect-for-identity-integration-in-a-patient-with-dissociative-identity-disorder-complex-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder-a-rare-case-report
#11
Kyle D Webster, Susan Michalowski, Thomas E Hranilovich
The legitimacy and etiology of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) remains a controversial topic within Psychiatry. The two schools of thought are the Post-Traumatic Model (PTM) and the Socio-Cognitive Model (SCM). This case highlights the validity of PTM in an individual who suffered severe and prolonged physical, psychological, and sexual abuse from 2 years old through adulthood. The reported abuse was corroborated and proven on two separate occasions via medical professionals/rape kit and the police. This resulted in the incarceration of one of her abusers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932486/transmission-of-unidirectional-molecular-motor-rotation-to-a-remote-biaryl-axis
#12
Edgar Uhl, Stefan Thumser, Peter Mayer, Henry Dube
Molecular motors undergo repetitive directional motions upon external energy input. A profound challenge is the defined transfer of directional motor motions to remote entities at the molecular scale. Herein, we present a molecular setup that allows for the transfer of the directional rotation of a light-powered motor unit onto a remote biaryl axis via an ethylene glycol chain link. Based on a combination of X-ray crystallographic analysis, ECD, and NMR experiments as well as a comprehensive theoretical assessment, we provide evidence for the coupled stepwise directional motions of both molecular units...
June 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621072/a-comprehensive-onboarding-and-orientation-plan-for-neurocritical-care-advanced-practice-providers
#13
Tamra M Langley, Jeremy Dority, Justin F Fraser, Kevin W Hatton
BACKGROUND: As the role of advanced practice providers (APPs) expands to include increasingly complex patient care within the intensive care unit, the educational needs of these providers must also be expanded. An onboarding process was designed for APPs in the neurocritical care service line. METHODS: Onboarding for new APPs revolved around 5 specific areas: candidate selection, proctor assignment, 3-phased orientation process, remediation, and mentorship. To ensure effective training for APPs, using the most time-conscious approach, the backbone of the process is a structured curriculum...
June 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609007/intra-hemispheric-integration-underlies-perception-of-tilt-illusion
#14
Chen Song, Geraint Rees
The integration of inputs across the entire visual field into a single conscious experience is fundamental to human visual perception. This integrated nature of visual experience is illustrated by contextual illusions such as the tilt illusion, in which the perceived orientation of a central grating appears tilted away from its physical orientation, due to the modulation by a surrounding grating with a different orientation. Here we investigated the relative contribution of local, intra-hemispheric and global, inter-hemispheric integration mechanisms to perception of the tilt illusion...
July 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601274/revisiting-the-safe-place-method-and-regulatory-aspects-in-psychotherapy-when-easing-allostatic-overload-in-traumatized-patients
#15
Anna Gerge
Safe-place inductions are considered important altered states of consciousness (ASC) to be (re)installed during trauma-informed psychotherapy. Coregulation aimed at changing implicit relational knowing and increasing integration and coherence through relational work and hypnotic techniques is crucial, as clients' abilities to self-soothe and regulate have become seriously impaired. Thus, resource-oriented metaphors as inner strength imagery is advocated. Also, methods such as creative-arts therapy and neurofeedback will induce ASCs, as most methods used with complex traumatized clients, due to their high hypnotizability...
April 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575425/degrees-of-functional-connectome-abnormality-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#16
Dmitry O Sinitsyn, Liudmila A Legostaeva, Elena I Kremneva, Sofya N Morozova, Alexandra G Poydasheva, Elizaveta G Mochalova, Oksana G Chervyakova, Julia V Ryabinkina, Natalia A Suponeva, Michael A Piradov
Understanding the neuronal basis of disorders of consciousness can help improve the accuracy of their diagnosis, indicate potential targets for therapeutic interventions, and provide insights into the organization of normal conscious information processing. Measurements of brain activity have been used to find associations of the levels of consciousness with brain complexity, topological features of functional connectomes, and disruption of resting-state networks. However, obtainment of a detailed picture of activity patterns underlying the vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and the minimally conscious state remains a work in progress...
July 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491041/cerebral-organoids-ethical-issues-and-consciousness-assessment
#17
Andrea Lavazza, Marcello Massimini
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485290/concussion-history-is-negatively-associated-with-visual-motor-force-complexity-evidence-for-persistent-effects-on-visual-motor-integration
#18
Adam C Raikes, Sydney Y Schaefer, Breanna E Studenka
OBJECTIVES: Long-term monitoring of concussion recovery requires time- and cost-effective methods. Physiologic complexity may be useful in evaluating visual-motor integration following concussion. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent to which prior number of concussions influenced visual-motor tracking force complexity. METHODS: Thirty-five individuals with a self-reported concussion history (age: 20.92 ± 1.98) and 15 without (age: 20.92 ± 2...
2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458312/reflections-on-researcher-departure-closure-of-prison-relationships-in-ethnographic-research
#19
Laura Abbott, Tricia Scott
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom has the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe. It is known that women in prison are a vulnerable female population who are at risk of mental ill-health due to disadvantaged and chaotic life experiences. Accurate numbers of pregnant women held in UK prisons are not recorded, yet it is estimated that 6%-7% of the female prison population are at varying stages of pregnancy and around 100 babies are born to incarcerated women each year. There are limited published papers that document the departure of the researcher following closure of fieldwork with women in prison...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351398/visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-optogenetic-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-conscious-rats
#20
Anthony C Johnson, Rocco Latorre, Casey O Ligon, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
In vivo optogenetics identifies brain circuits controlling behaviors in conscious animals by using light to alter neuronal function and offers a novel tool to study the brain-gut axis. Using adenoviral-mediated expression, we aimed to investigate whether photoactivation with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or photoinhibition with halorhodopsin (HR3.0) of fibers originating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) had any effect on colonic sensitivity. We also investigated whether there was any deleterious effect of the adenovirus on the neuronal population or the neuronal phenotype within the CeA-BNST circuitry activated during the optogenetic stimulation...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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