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Xing-Pan Guo, Yi Yang, Zuo-Shun Niu, Da-Pei Lu, Chun-Hong Zhu, Jing-Nan Feng, Jia-Yuan Wu, Yu-Ru Chen, Fei-Yun Tou, Min Liu, Lijun Hou
In the contaminated coastal sediments, variations of microbial community can reflect the impact of anthropogenic activities. The identification, evaluation and monitoring of the potential bio-indicator species and biomarker communities are vital for the ecological studies in sedimentary environments. Based on the high-throughput sequencing, the microbial communities were characterized in the sediments along the Yangtze Estuary and its coastal area. The results showed that the structure and composition of microbial communities varied greatly among different sampling sites at the phyla level, especially for Euryarchaeota...
August 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jingkun Li, Huijuan Li, Yanfang Zhao, Shanshan Wang, Xiangfeng Chen, Ru-Song Zhao
A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with a hollow microporous organic network (H-MON) was fabricated for the analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). The sorbent was prepared by reacting tetra(4-ethynylphenyl)methane and 1,4-diiodobenzene using bis-(triphenylphosphine) palladium(II) as the catalyst in the presence of silica sphere templates, which then were removed by hydrofluoric acid. The SCCPs were quantified by GC-MS working in the negative chemical ionization mode. The H-MON has a high specific surface (701 m2 ·g-1 ) and microporosity (pore size <2 nm)...
August 17, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Yue Wang, Xinrong Li, Jinfeng Yang, Zhuang Tian, Qinping Sun, Wentao Xue, Hongmin Dong
Beef cattle production systems are the largest contributors of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3 ) emissions in the livestock industry. Here, we present the first meta-analysis and integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for a typical beef cattle feedlot system, including methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O), and NH3 losses from enteric fermentation and manure management based on data from 104 studies. Fourteen integrated emission factors (EF) and the mitigation efficiencies (ME) of 17 available options were provided...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Azeem Tariq, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Bjoern Ole Sander, Stephane de Tourdonnet, Per Lennart Ambus, Phan Huu Thanh, Mai Van Trinh, Andreas de Neergaard
Water drainage is an important mitigation option for reducing CH4 (methane) emissions from residue-amended paddy soils. Several studies have indicated a long-term reduction in CH4 emissions, even after re-flooding, suggesting that the mechanism goes beyond creating temporary oxidized conditions in the soil. In this pot trial, the effects of different drainage patterns on straw-derived CH4 and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions were compared to identify the balance between straw-carbon CH4 and CO2 emissions influenced by soil aeration over different periods, including effects of drainage on emissions during re-flooding...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Bing Gao, Tao Huang, Xiaotang Ju, Baojing Gu, Wei Huang, Lilai Xu, Robert M Rees, David S Powlson, Pete Smith, Shenghui Cui
Soil carbon sequestration is being considered as a potential pathway to mitigate climate change. Cropland soils could provide a sink for carbon that can be modified by farming practices, however, they can also act as a source of greenhouse gases (GHG), including not only nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ), but also the upstream carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions associated with agronomic management. These latter emissions are also sometimes termed "hidden" or "embedded" CO2 . In this paper, we estimated the net GHG balance for Chinese cropping systems by considering the balance of soil carbon sequestration, N2 O and CH4 emissions, and the upstream CO2 emissions of agronomic management from a life cycle perspective during 2000-2017...
August 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
Pedro Henrique de Araujo Carvalho, Ana Luiza da Costa Cruz Borges, Ricardo Reis E Silva, Helena Ferreira Lage, Paolo Antônio Dutra Vivenza, José Reinaldo Mendes Ruas, Elias Jorge Facury Filho, Rodrigo Liberio Araújo Palhano, Lúcio Carlos Gonçalves, Iran Borges, Eloísa de Oliveira Simões Saliba, Diogo Gonzaga Jayme, Antônio Último de Carvalho
The aim of this study was to determine the energy metabolism and partition of lactating Gyr and F1 Holstein x Gyr (F1 HxG) cows in different planes of nutrition. Six F1 HxG and six Gyr cows with 130 days in milking (DIM) fed corn silage and concentrate were evaluated. The experiment consisted of four periods with different levels of feeding: 1st ad libitum dry matter intake (DMI) and the others with 5, 10 and 20% restricted DMI, related to the first one. An apparent digestibility assay was performed before measurements in the respiration chamber...
2018: PloS One
Gilberto Martins, Andreia Filipa Salvador, Luciana Pereira, Maria Madalena Alves
Conductive materials (CM) have been extensively reported to enhance methane production in anaerobic digestion processes. The occurrence of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in microbial communities, as an alternative or complementary to indirect electron transfer (via hydrogen or formate), is the main explanation given to justify the improvement of methane production. Not disregarding that DIET can be promoted in the presence of certain CM, it surely does not explain all the reported observations...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xu Zhang, Weiqi Jin, Li Li, Xia Wang, Ji Chen, Yuchao Jia
This publisher's note amends the author listing in Appl. Opt.57, 3991 (2018)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.57.003991.
July 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Alexander S Savvichev, Vladislav V Babenko, Olga N Lunina, Maria A Letarova, Daria I Boldyreva, Elena F Veslopolova, Nikolay A Demidenko, Natalia M Kokryatskaya, Elena D Krasnova, Vasil A Gaysin, Elena S Kostryukova, Vladimir M Gorlenko, Andrey V Letarov
Located on the shore of Kandalaksha Bay (White Sea, Russia) and previously separated from it, Trekhtzvetnoe Lake (average depth 3.5 m) is one of the shallowest meromictic lakes known. Despite its shallowness, it features completely developed water column stratification with high-density microbial chemocline community (bacterial plate) and high rates of major biogeochemical processes. A sharp halocline stabilizes the stratification. Chlorobium phaeovibrioides dominated the bacterial plate, which reached a density of 2×108 cell ml-1 and almost completely intercepts H2 S diffusion from the anoxic monimolimnion...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Andisheh Yazdanpanah, Dara S M Ghasimi, Min Gu Kim, George Nakhla, Hisham Hafez, Michele Keleman
Trace elements (TEs) play an indispensable role in enhancing the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW). Significant research on AD of FW with TE supplementation has been conducted with low Fe content inoculum. However, the use of Fe-rich inoculum is inevitable due to chemical phosphorous removal from wastewater in North America. We conducted comprehensive mesophilic batch tests to investigate the effect of TEs (Fe, Ni, Co, Se, and Mo) on FW digestion inoculated with Fe-rich sludge (≥ 1000 mg Fe L-1 )...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Andrea Söllinger, Alexander Tøsdal Tveit, Morten Poulsen, Samantha Joan Noel, Mia Bengtsson, Jörg Bernhardt, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Katharina Riedel, Christa Schleper, Ole Højberg, Tim Urich
Ruminant livestock is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas methane. The complex rumen microbiome, consisting of bacteria, archaea, and microbial eukaryotes, facilitates anaerobic plant biomass degradation in the cow rumen, leading to methane emissions. Using an integrated approach combining multidomain quantitative metatranscriptomics with gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiling, we aimed at obtaining the most comprehensive picture of the active rumen microbiome during feed degradation to date. Bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic biomass, but also methane emissions and VFA concentrations, increased drastically within an hour after feed intake...
July 2018: MSystems
Nirmal K Shee, Chang Seop Hong, Woo Ram Lee, Hee-Joon Kim
The asymmetric unit of the solvated title complex, [Ir(C11 H8 N)2 (C15 H14 NO3 )]·2CH2 Cl2 , consists of two complex mol-ecules together with four di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecules, one of which is disordered. In each complex mol-ecule, the IrIII ion has a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment defined by two 2-phenyl-pyridine ligands, through two phenyl C and two pyridine N atoms, and by one N , O -bidentate 2-[(2,4-di-meth-oxy-phenyl-imino)-meth-yl]phenolate anion. The IrIII ions lie almost in the equatorial planes with deviations of 0...
August 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Jiří Schulz, Zdeněk Leitner, Ivana Císařová, Petr Štěpnička
A symmetrical flexible bis(phosphinoferrocene) derivative, viz. bis[1'-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]methane ( 1 ), was prepared and studied as a ligand in Pd(II) and Au(I) complexes. The reactions of 1 with [PdCl₂(cod)] (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene) and [Pd(μ-Cl)(LNC )]₂ (LNC = [2-(dimethylamino-κ N )methyl]phenyl-κ C ¹) produced bis(phosphine) complex trans -[PdCl₂( 1 -κ²P,P')] ( 4 ), wherein the ligand spans trans positions in the square-planar coordination sphere of Pd(II) and the tetranuclear, P,P-bridged complex [(μ(P,P')- 1 ){PdCl(LNC )}₂] ( 5 ), respectively...
August 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Weihua Li, Yingjie Sun, Huawei Wang, Ya-Nan Wang
Landfill aeration efficiently accelerates municipal solid waste (MSW) stabilization. This method also impacts methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions during aeration. In this study, the effects of three pre-aeration strategies on leachate quality variations and CH4 and N2 O emissions from three lab-scale pre-aerated semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills, which were filled with MSW, were investigated: low frequency and high frequency intermittent aeration (LIA and HIA) and continuous micro-aeration (CMA)...
October 2018: Chemosphere
Aiguo Wang, Hua Song
Maximizing the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from lignin conversion by coupling methane activation without solvent was investigated over Zn-Ga modified zeolite catalyst. The co-loading of Zn and Ga greatly improves lignin conversion, arene yield along with BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) selectivity, which gives 37.4 wt% yield of aromatic hydrocarbons with 62.2 wt% selectivity towards BTEX at 400 °C and 3.0 MPa. Methane presence has a negligible impact on lignin conversion, but improves arene yield and BTEX selectivity...
August 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Luke R Anderson, Quan Yang, Andrew M Ediger
People use polymers as materials for preparing separation media or containers. It is necessary to have a molecular level profound knowledge of gas transport in e bulk and interface regimes of different polymers, but few researchers have done a molecular level study of the bulk and interface behavior of gases in several types of non-homologen polymers thoroughly or developed expressions to correlate gas transport properties with cavity size distribution and chain oscillation flexibility. Therefore, in this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was employed to study the transport of methane and n-butane molecules in the bulk and interface region of polyethylene (PE), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
August 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dewang Kong, Keqiang Zhang, Junfeng Liang, Wenxuan Gao, Lianzhu Du
Three anaerobic reactors using pig manure (PM), maize straw (MS), and a mixture of the two as substrates were compared for archaeal community structure and diversity, and for methanogens response to increased organic loading rate (OLR, expressed in the mass of volatile solid (VS)). Methanogenic archaeal richness during codigestion of pig manure with maize straw (ACE: 2412) was greater than that during the others (ACE: 1225, 1467) at an OLR of 4 g L-1  day-1 , accompanied by high specific methane yield. Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota predominated during overall digestion of different substrates; with relative abundances of 63...
August 15, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Katey Walter Anthony, Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Ingmar Nitze, Steve Frolking, Abraham Emond, Ronald Daanen, Peter Anthony, Prajna Lindgren, Benjamin Jones, Guido Grosse
Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century...
August 15, 2018: Nature Communications
M Riedel, M Scherwath, M Römer, M Veloso, M Heesemann, G D Spence
Widespread gas venting along the Cascadia margin is investigated from acoustic water column data and reveals a nonuniform regional distribution of over 1100 mapped acoustic flares. The highest number of flares occurs on the shelf, and the highest flare density is seen around the nutrition-rich outflow of the Juan de Fuca Strait. We determine ∼430 flow-rates at ∼340 individual flare locations along the margin with instantaneous in situ values ranging from ∼6 mL min-1 to ∼18 L min-1 . Applying a tidal-modulation model, a depth-dependent methane density, and extrapolating these results across the margin using two normalization techniques yields a combined average in situ flow-rate of ∼88 × 106  kg y-1 ...
August 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Katriana A Popichak, Sean L Hammond, Julie A Moreno, Maryam F Afzali, Donald S Backos, Richard D Slayden, Steven Safe, Ronald B Tjalkens
Inflammatory activation of glial cells promotes loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB), regulates the expression of multiple neuroinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in activated glial cells that are damaging to neurons. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB signaling in glial cells could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of neuroinflammatory injury. Nuclear orphan receptors in the NR4A family, including NR4A1 (Nur77) and NR4A2 (Nurr1), can inhibit the inflammatory effects of NFκB but there are no approved drugs that target these receptors...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
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