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Hale Ozgun
Anaerobic digestion of sludge is considered to be one of the most appropriate technologies for energy production via conversion of organic matter into methane containing biogas. Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge can be utilized as fuel to offset heat and electricity consumption of wastewater treatment facilities. Modeling can be used effectively to evaluate the impact of different process and operation variables on the performance of the treatment processes including complex ones such as anaerobic digestion...
October 17, 2018: Biodegradation
Tomo-O Watsuji, Kaori Motoki, Emi Hada, Yukiko Nagai, Yoshihiro Takaki, Asami Yamamoto, Kenji Ueda, Takashi Toyofuku, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Ken Takai
The hydrothermal vent squat lobster Shinkaia crosnieri Baba & Williams harbors an epibiotic bacterial community, which is numerically and functionally dominated by methanotrophs affiliated with Methylococcaceae and thioautotrophs affiliated with Sulfurovum and Thiotrichaceae. In the present study, shifts in the phylogenetic composition and metabolic function of the epibiont community were investigated using S. crosnieri individuals, which were reared for one year in a tank fed with methane as the energy and carbon source...
October 17, 2018: Microbes and Environments
R Muñoz-Tamayo, J F Ramírez Agudelo, R J Dewhurst, G Miller, T Vernon, H Kettle
Large efforts have been deployed in developing methods to estimate methane emissions from cattle. For large scale applications, accurate and inexpensive methane predictors are required. Within a livestock precision farming context, the objective of this work was to integrate real-time data on animal feeding behaviour with an in silico model for predicting the individual dynamic pattern of methane emission in cattle. The integration of real-time data with a mathematical model to predict variables that are not directly measured constitutes a software sensor...
October 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Shuli Liu, Guang Yang, Jinwei Fu, Guangming Zhang
In order to enhance the efficiency and benefits of the sludge anaerobic digestion process, K2 FeO4 was added to a sludge anaerobic digestion system, and its effects on the system were comprehensively investigated. Results showed that sludge anaerobic digestion was greatly improved by adding 500 mg/L K2 FeO4 . Biogas and methane productions were increased by 26.6 and 28.4%, respectively. Sludge reduction, protein removal, and the conversion efficiency of dissolved organics were all improved. The mechanism revealed that the disintegration of sludge flocs, enhancement of protease activity, and decrease of soluble sulfide toxicity on microorganisms contributed to biogas production and sludge reduction...
October 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mária Szabó, Gyula Halasi, András Sápi, Koppány L Juhász, János Kiss, Ákos Kukovecz, Zoltán Kónya
Pt nanoparticles with controlled size of 1.5 and 6.5 nm were anchored onto the surface of WO₃ nanowires (WO₃NW) as well as on MCF-17 silica. In the case of WO₃NW and MCF-17 supported nanoparticles, 1.5 nm Pt nanoparticles were more active in ethanol decomposition reaction at 533 K. 6.5 nm Pt/WO₃NW catalyst showed ~6 times higher activity compared to MCF-17 supported 6.5 nm Pt nanoparticles. While MCF-17 supported catalysts produced hydrogen, methane, carbon-monoxide and acetaldehyde, the tungsten-oxide supported Pt nanoparticles produced a huge amount of acetone as well as ethene with a high acetaldehyde selectivity besides H₂, CH₄ and CO...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
András Sápi, Gyula Halasi, András Grósz, János Kiss, Albert Kéri, Gergőo Ballai, Gábor Galbács, Ákos Kukovecz, Zoltán Kónya
Controlled size Pt nanoparticles were anchored onto the surface of 3D mesoporous cobalt-oxide support and was tested in CO₂ hydrogenation reactions compared to commercial cobalt-oxide supported Pt nanoparticles prepared by the wet impregnation method as well as SBA-15 silica supported nanoparticles. Designed Pt/mesoporous cobalt-oxide catalysts showed the highest activity as well as the highest methane selectivity. Such catalyst was active at 573 K, while other catalysts showed activity >673 K.
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Shuo Yang, Fengkui Duan, Yongliang Ma, Kebin He, Lidan Zhu, Tao Ma, Siqi Ye, Hui Li, Tao Huang, Takashi Kimoto
Organic aerosol (OA) are always the most abundant species in terms of relative proportion to PM2.5 concentration in Beijing, while in previous studies, poor link between carbonaceous particles and their gaseous precursors were established based on field observation results. Through this study, we provided a comprehensive analysis of critical carbonaceous species in the atmosphere. The concentrations, diurnal variations, conversions, and gas-particle partitioning (F-factor) of 8 carbonaceous species, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), in Beijing were analyzed synthetically...
October 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
George Shaw, Brian Atkinson, William Meredith, Colin Snape, David Lever, Andrew Hoch
Small quantities of radioactive methane (14 CH4 ) may be released over prolonged periods from geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The impact of this release depends on the capacity of soil to oxidise 14 CH4 to 14 CO2 during transport from the sub-surface to the atmosphere. We investigated this capacity by pulse-injecting isotopically-enriched methane 50 cm below the surface of an agricultural soil in central England. Three sequential injections were made during growth of a spring wheat crop...
October 16, 2018: Scientific Data
Xingdong Qiu, Sugata P Tan, Morteza Dejam, Hertanto Adidharma
A novel method for measuring the onset of vapor-liquid phase transition applying an isochoric procedure in a high-pressure micro differential scanning calorimeter is introduced for the first time. Isochoric dew-point measurement is used to measure vapor pressures of CO2 at different boiling temperatures and dew points of a methane/ethane gas mixture at different pressures or temperatures. The isochoric two-phase bubble-point measurement, similar to the isobaric method, is also demonstrated to measure vapor pressures of methanol at different boiling temperatures...
October 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hai-Feng Zheng, Shuang Yu, Tian-Ding Hu, Jing Xu, Yi-Hong Ding
As a perpetual chemical curiosity, planar tetracoordinate carbon (ptC) that violates the traditional tetrahedral carbon (thC) has made enormous achievements. In particular, the 18-valence-electron (18ve) counting rule has been found to be very effective in predicting ptC structures, as in CX42- (X = Al/Ga/In/Tl). By contrast, the corresponding neutral CX4 with 16ve each takes the thC form like methane. Herein, we report a mono-substituted neutral 16ve-CAl3X (X = Al/Ga/In/Tl). Our theoretical results showed that the competition between thC and ptC can be well tuned upon variation of X, and for X = In and Tl, the ptC structure becomes isoenergetic to and even more stable than thC, respectively...
October 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fan Chen, Zhiling Li, Jiaqi Yang, Bin Liang, Cong Huang, Weiwei Cai, Jun Nan, Aijie Wang
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are regarded as a promising approach for the enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). However, the electron distribution and transfer considering dechlorination, methanogenesis, and other bioprocesses in these systems are little understood. This study investigated the electron fluxes in biocathode BES performing dechlorination of three typical CAHs, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene (PCE), 1,1,2-trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA). Anaerobic sludge was inoculated to cathode and biocathode was acclimated by the direct acclimation and selection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Oriana S Fisher, Grace E Kenney, Matthew O Ross, Soo Y Ro, Betelehem E Lemma, Sharon Batelu, Paul M Thomas, Victoria C Sosnowski, Caroline J DeHart, Neil L Kelleher, Timothy L Stemmler, Brian M Hoffman, Amy C Rosenzweig
Methane-oxidizing microbes catalyze the oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane using the copper-dependent enzyme particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Isolated pMMO exhibits lower activity than whole cells, however, suggesting that additional components may be required. A pMMO homolog, ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), converts ammonia to hydroxylamine in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which produce another potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide. Here we show that PmoD, a protein encoded within many pmo operons that is homologous to the AmoD proteins encoded within AOB amo operons, forms a copper center that exhibits the features of a well-defined CuA site using a previously unobserved ligand set derived from a cupredoxin homodimer...
October 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Sabrina Beckmann, Alison W S Luk, Maria-Luisa Gutierrez-Zamora, Nur Hazlin Hazrin Chong, Torsten Thomas, Matthew Lee, Michael Manefield
Despite the significance of biogenic methane generation in coal beds, there has never been a systematic long-term evaluation of the ecological response to biostimulation for enhanced methanogenesis in situ. Biostimulation tests in a gas-free coal seam were analysed over 1.5 years encompassing methane production, cell abundance, planktonic and surface associated community composition and chemical parameters of the coal formation water. Evidence is presented that sulfate reducing bacteria are energy limited whilst methanogenic archaea are nutrient limited...
October 15, 2018: ISME Journal
Stuart N Riddick, Denise L Mauzerall, Michael A Celia, Mary Kang, Kara Bressler, Christopher Chu, Caleb D Gum
Recent studies have reported methane (CH4 ) emissions from abandoned and active oil and gas infrastructure across the United States, where measured emissions show regional variability. To investigate similar phenomena in West Virginia, we measure and characterize emissions from abandoned and active conventional oil and gas wells. In addition, we reconcile divergent regional CH4 emissions estimates by comparing our West Virginia emissions estimates with those from other states in the United States. We find the CH4 emission factors from 112 plugged and 147 unplugged wells in West Virginia are 0...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tommi Mikkonen, Caroline Amiot, Antti Aalto, Kim Patokoski, Goëry Genty, Juha Toivonen
We demonstrate cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the mid-infrared using a supercontinuum source. The approach is broadband and allows for higher photoacoustic signal intensity and an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio as compared to systems employing conventional black body radiation sources. Using this technique, we perform spectroscopic measurements of the full ro-vibrational band structure of water vapor at 1900 nm and methane at 3300 nm with relative signal enhancement factors of 70 and 19, respectively, when compared to measurements that use the black body radiation source...
October 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Caroline Amiot, Piotr Ryczkowski, Ari T Friberg, John M Dudley, Goëry Genty
Ghost imaging is a technique that generates high-resolution images by correlating the intensity of two light beams, neither of which independently contains useful information about the shape of the object. Ghost imaging has been demonstrated in both the spatial and temporal domains, using incoherent classical light sources or entangled photon pairs. Here we exploit the recent progress in ultrafast real-time measurement techniques to demonstrate ultrafast, scan-free, ghost imaging in the frequency domain using a continuous spectrum from an incoherent supercontinuum light source with random spectral fluctuations...
October 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Hongwei Zhang, Yasuo Izumi
Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into mainly methane using Pd/TiO2 photocatalyst proceeded faster at 0.80 MPa using water rather than hydrogen as a reductant. The former reaction (CO2 + water) consists of two steps: first, water photosplitting and second, the latter reaction (CO2 + hydrogen). It was paradoxical that total steps proceeded faster than each step based on simple kinetics. To elucidate the reason, Pd and Ti K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) was monitored during CO2 photoconversion using H2 or moisture and the exchange reaction of 13 CO2 at Pd/TiO2 surface was also monitored...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Roland Wirth, Gyula Kádár, Balázs Kakuk, Gergely Maróti, Zoltán Bagi, Árpád Szilágyi, Gábor Rákhely, József Horváth, Kornél L Kovács
The cow rumen harbors a great variety of diverse microbes, which form a complex, organized community. Understanding the behavior of this multifarious network is crucial in improving ruminant nutrient use efficiency. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge by examining 10 Holstein dairy cow rumen fluid fraction whole metagenome and transcriptome datasets. DNA and mRNA sequence data, generated by Ion Torrent, was subjected to quality control and filtering before analysis for core elements. The taxonomic core microbiome consisted of 48 genera belonging to Bacteria (47) and Archaea (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Catherine Tays, Michael T Guarnieri, Dominic Sauvageau, Lisa Y Stein
Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, and methanol, commonly called wood alcohol, are common by-products of modern industrial processes. They can, however, be consumed as a feedstock by bacteria known as methanotrophs, which can serve as useful vectors for biotransformation and bioproduction. Successful implementation in industrial settings relies upon efficient growth and bioconversion, and the optimization of culturing conditions for these bacteria remains an ongoing effort, complicated by the wide variety of characteristics present in the methanotroph culture collection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sharon A Huws, Christopher J Creevey, Linda B Oyama, Itzhak Mizrahi, Stuart E Denman, Milka Popova, Rafael Muñoz-Tamayo, Evelyne Forano, Sinead M Waters, Matthias Hess, Ilma Tapio, Hauke Smidt, Sophie J Krizsan, David R Yáñez-Ruiz, Alejandro Belanche, Leluo Guan, Robert J Gruninger, Tim A McAllister, C Jamie Newbold, Rainer Roehe, Richard J Dewhurst, Tim J Snelling, Mick Watson, Garret Suen, Elizabeth H Hart, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Nigel D Scollan, Rodolpho M do Prado, Eduardo J Pilau, Hilario C Mantovani, Graeme T Attwood, Joan E Edwards, Neil R McEwan, Steven Morrisson, Olga L Mayorga, Christopher Elliott, Diego P Morgavi
The rumen is a complex ecosystem composed of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa, fungi, methanogenic archaea and phages. These microbes interact closely to breakdown plant material that cannot be digested by humans, whilst providing metabolic energy to the host and, in the case of archaea, producing methane. Consequently, ruminants produce meat and milk, which are rich in high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals, and therefore contribute to food security. As the world population is predicted to reach approximately 9...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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