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brain aging

Shai Shoham, Michal Linial, Marta Weinstock
Effect of age and ladostigil treatment (1 mg/kg/day), given for 6 months to 16 month old rats, was investigated on microglial morphology in brain regions associated with control of spatial learning. This was assessed in the Morris water maze (MWM). Microglial morphology was assessed with diaminobenzidine and fluorescent staining with Iba1 and CD11b in these brain regions. Aging did not change the number of microglia in the parietal cortex (PC) or hippocampal CA1 region (CA1-HC), but decreased microglial process tips in the CA1-HC, increased the area fraction stained by CD11b and number of bulbs on processes in PC and CA1-HC and thickness of microglial processes in corpus callosum (CC) and fornix (Fx)...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Sara A Heyn, Taylor J Keding, Marisa C Ross, Josh M Cisler, Jeanette A Mumford, Ryan J Herringa
BACKGROUND: Prior studies of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have reported cross-sectional and age-related structural and functional brain abnormalities in networks associated with cognitive, affective, and self-referential processing. However, no reported studies have comprehensively examined longitudinal gray matter development and its intrinsic functional correlates in pediatric PTSD. METHODS: Twenty-seven youths with PTSD and 21 nontraumatized typically developing (TD) youths were assessed at baseline and 1-year follow-up...
August 16, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Maya A Reiter, Lisa E Mash, Annika C Linke, Christopher H Fong, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging research on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been largely limited to individuals with near-average intelligence. Although cognitive impairment is common in ASDs, functional network connectivity in this population remains poorly understood. Specifically, it remains unknown whether lower-functioning individuals exhibit exacerbated connectivity abnormalities similar to those previously detected in higher-functioning samples or specific divergent patterns of connectivity...
August 30, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jane Tan, Kartik K Iyer, Alexander D Tang, Asif Jamil, Ralph N Martins, Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael A Nitsche, Mark R Hinder, Hakuei Fujiyama
Response inhibition, the ability to withhold a dominant and prepotent response following a change in circumstance or sensory stimuli, declines with advancing age. While non-invasive brain stimulation (NiBS) has shown promise in alleviating some cognitive and motor functions in healthy older individuals, NiBS research focusing on response inhibition has mostly been conducted on younger adults. These extant studies have primarily focused on modulating the activity of distinct neural regions known to be critical for response inhibition, including the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA)...
October 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Jie Jin, Hui Wang, Xiaoying Hua, Dongjian Chen, Chao Huang, Zhuo Chen
Icariin is a major active component of the traditional herb Epimedium, also known as Horny Goat Weed. It has been extensively studied throughout the past several years and is known to exert anti-oxidative, anti-neuroinflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. It is now being considered as a potential therapeutic agent for a wide variety of disorders, ranging from neoplasm to cardiovascular disease. More recent studies have shown that icariin exhibits potential preventive and/or therapeutic effects in the nervous system...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Shinichi Magara, Takao Komatsubara, Moemi Hojo, Yu Kobayashi, Mihoko Yoshino, Akihiko Saitoh, Jun Tohyama
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (ECSWS) is associated with cognitive deficits. The underlying mechanism is thought to relate to disturbance of functions of the foci by the persistent epileptic activity. However, the relationship between epileptic foci and cognitive deficits remains largely unknown, except for in Landau-Kleffner syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of epileptic foci estimated from magnetoencephalography (MEG) with cognitive functions at the period of diagnosis in non-lesional ECSWS children, excluding those with Landau-Kleffner syndrome...
October 17, 2018: Brain & Development
Ishita P Miah, Dana C Holl, Wilco C Peul, Robert Walchenbach, Nyika Kruyt, Karlijn de Laat, Radboud W Koot, Victor Volovici, Clemens M F Dirven, Fop van Kooten, Kuan H Kho, Heleen M den Hertog, Joukje van der Naalt, Bram Jacobs, Rob J M Groen, Hester F Lingsma, Ruben Dammers, Korné Jellema, Niels A van der Gaag
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is a common neurological disease with a rapidly rising incidence due to increasing age and widespread use of anticoagulants. Surgical intervention by burr-hole craniotomy (BHC) is the current standard practice for symptomatic patients, but associated with complications, a recurrence rate of up to 30% and increased mortality. Dexamethasone (DXM) therapy is, therefore, used as a non-surgical alternative but considered to achieve a lower success rate...
October 20, 2018: Trials
Giuseppe G Miranda, Karen M Rodrigue, Kristen M Kennedy
Proper dopamine (DA) signaling is likely necessary for maintaining optimal cognitive performance as we age, particularly in prefrontal-parietal networks and in fronto-striatal networks. Thus, reduced DA availability is a salient risk factor for accelerated cognitive aging. A common polymorphism that affects DA D1 receptor dopamine availability, COMT Val158 Met (rs4680), influences enzymatic breakdown of DA, with COMT Val carriers having a 3- to 4-fold reduction in synaptic DA compared to COMT Met carriers. Furthermore, dopamine receptors and postsynaptic availability are drastically reduced with aging, as is executive function performance that ostensibly relies on these pathways...
September 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Ryan Gise, Timothy Truong, David M Poulsen, Yssra Soliman, Afshin Parsikia, Joyce N Mbekeani
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of pediatric disability and mortality. Together with sight-threatening ocular injuries, TBIs may lead to devastating consequences in developing children and complicate rehabilitation. We sought to investigate this relationship in pediatric patients admitted with major trauma. METHODS: The records of pediatric patients admitted with ocular injury and concomitant TBI were reviewed retrospectively using the National Trauma Data Bank (2008-2014)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Yu-Ji Wu, Zheng-Xun Wei, Fu-Ming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Pei-Long Sun, An-Qiang Zhang
Tremella fuciformis is an important edible mushroom that has been widely cultivated and used as food and medicinal ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. In the past decades, many researchers have reported that T. fuciformis polysaccharides (TPS) possess various bioactivities, including anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidation, anti-aging, repairing brain memory impairment, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic. The structural characteristic of TPS has also been extensively investigated using advanced modern analytical technologies such as NMR, GC-MS, LC-MS and FT-IR to dissect the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the TPS biomacromolecule...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mulin Xu, Yu Liu, Yi Huang, Jinli Wang, Jinhua Yan, Le Zhang, Cuntai Zhang
Frontal cortical dysfunction is a fundamental pathology contributing to age-associated behavioral and cognitive deficits that predispose older adults to neurodegenerative diseases. It is established that aging increases the risk of frontal cortical dysfunction; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we used an integrative meta-analysis to combine five frontal cortex microarray studies with a combined sample population of 161 younger and 155 older individuals. A network-based analysis was used to describe an outline of human frontal cortical aging to identify core genes whose expression changes with age and to reveal the interrelationships among these genes...
October 20, 2018: Aging
Veronica Cartocci, Claudia Tonini, Tiziana Di Pippo, Florenzia Vuono, Sara Schiavi, Maria Marino, Viviana Trezza, Valentina Pallottini
Here, we investigated the protein network regulating cholesterol metabolism in the liver and brain of adolescent and adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to valproate (VPA), a well validated experimental model of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We were aimed at studying whether prenatal VPA exposure affected the proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis in a sex-dependent manner. To this aim the protein network of cholesterol metabolism, in term of synthesis and plasma membrane trafficking, was analyzed by western blot in the liver and different brain areas (amygdala, cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum) of adolescent and adult male and female rats prenatally exposed to VPA...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anitha Swamy, Ratnakar Gogineni, Animesh Ray, Milind Jha, Smita Manchanda, Sudheer Arava, Rakesh Kumar, Kiran Kumar Dvs, Harsh Sahu, Piyush Ranjan, Ranveer S Jadon, Naval K Vikram, Rita Sood
A 56 year old lady, presented to our institute with six months history of low grade fever, generalized weakness, decreased food intake and fluctuating sensorium. Initial investigations revealed hypercalcemia, renal dysfunction and anemia. Initial working diagnosis of likely underlying hematological malignancy such as lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM) was kept after hyperparathyroidism was ruled out. Her skeletal survey revealed lytic lesions in the skull, bone marrow aspirate showed 12% plasma cells and beta-two microglobulin level was markedly elevated...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Corinne Ammann-Reiffer, Caroline H G Bastiaenen, Hubertus J A Van Hedel
AIM: To examine the responsiveness and minimal important change (MIC) of two gait performance measures, the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire walking scale (FAQ), in a paediatric inpatient setting. METHOD: Sixty-four children and adolescents with a motor disorder, including cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, or stroke (25 females, 39 males; mean age [SD] 12y 6mo [3y 2mo], range 6-18y 6mo), were recruited. Physiotherapists scored the FMS and FAQ at the start and end of active gait rehabilitation...
October 19, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Aurelie Leplus, Inger Lauritzen, Christophe Melon, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, Denys Fontaine, Frederic Checler
Recent studies have suggested deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a promising therapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Particularly, the stimulation of the forniceal area was found to slow down the cognitive decline of some AD patients, but the biochemical and anatomical modifications underlying these effects remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of chronic forniceal stimulation on amyloid burden, inflammation, and neuronal loss in a transgenic Alzheimer rat model TgF344-AD, as well as in age-matched control rats...
October 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Na Luo, Jing Sui, Jiayu Chen, Fuquan Zhang, Lin Tian, Dongdong Lin, Ming Song, Vince D Calhoun, Yue Cui, Victor M Vergara, Fanfan Zheng, Jingyu Liu, Zhenyi Yang, Nianming Zuo, Lingzhong Fan, Kaibin Xu, Shengfeng Liu, Jian Li, Yong Xu, Sha Liu, Luxian Lv, Jun Chen, Yunchun Chen, Hua Guo, Peng Li, Lin Lu, Ping Wan, Huaning Wang, Huiling Wang, Hao Yan, Jun Yan, Yongfeng Yang, Hongxing Zhang, Dai Zhang, Tianzi Jiang
BACKGROUND: In the past decades, substantial effort has been made to explore the genetic influence on brain structural/functional abnormalities in schizophrenia, as well as cognitive impairments. In this work, we aimed to extend previous studies to explore the internal mediation pathway among genetic factor, brain features and cognitive scores in a large Chinese dataset. METHODS: Gray matter (GM) volume, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and 4522 schizophrenia-susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 905 Chinese subjects were jointly analyzed, to investigate the multimodal association...
October 16, 2018: EBioMedicine
Kristina Nadine Heye, Valentin Rousson, Walter Knirsch, Ingrid Beck, Rabia Liamlahi, Vera Bernet, Hitendu Dave, Beatrice Latal
OBJECTIVE: To determine growth and its relationship to IQ in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery within the first year of life. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective single-center cohort study on 143 children (91 males) with different types of CHD (29 univentricular). Children with recognized genetic disorders were excluded. Growth (weight, height, and head circumference [HC]) was assessed at birth, before surgery, and at 1, 4, and 6 years and compared with Swiss growth charts...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Alejandra Darling, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa, Cristina Aisha Tello, Mercedes Serrano, Miguel Tomás, Rafael Camino-León, Joaquín Fernández-Ramos, Adriano Jiménez-Escrig, Pilar Poó, Mar O'Callaghan, Carlos Ortez, Andrés Nascimento, Ramón Candau Fernández Mesaque, Marcos Madruga, Luisa Arrabal, Susana Roldan, Hilario Gómez-Martín, Cristina Garrido, Teresa Temudo, Cristina Jou-Muñoz, Jordi Muchart, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti, Vincenzo Lupo, Carmen Espinós, Belén Pérez-Dueñas
INTRODUCTION: PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features. METHODS: Observational clinical study in a cohort of infantile and childhood onset PLAN patients and genetic analysis of the PLA2G6 gene. We analysed chronological evolution in terms of age at onset and disease course through a 66-item questionnaire. We performed qualitative and quantitative assessment of MRI abnormalities and searched for clinical and radiological phenotype and genotype correlations...
October 13, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Qingyi Ma, Zhen Zhao, Abhay P Sagare, Yingxi Wu, Min Wang, Nelly Chuqui Owens, Philip B Verghese, Joachim Herz, David M Holtzman, Berislav V Zlokovic
BACKGROUND: Clearance at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in removal of Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) toxin from brain both in humans and animal models. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), the major genetic risk factor for AD, disrupts Aβ clearance at the BBB. The cellular and molecular mechanisms, however, still remain unclear, particularly whether the BBB-associated brain capillary pericytes can contribute to removal of aggregated Aβ from brain capillaries, and whether removal of Aβ aggregates by pericytes requires apoE, and if so, is Aβ clearance on pericytes apoE isoform-specific...
October 19, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Myriam Vezain, Matthieu Lecuyer, Marina Rubio, Valérie Dupé, Leslie Ratié, Véronique David, Laurent Pasquier, Sylvie Odent, Sophie Coutant, Isabelle Tournier, Laetitia Trestard, Homa Adle-Biassette, Denis Vivien, Thierry Frébourg, Bruno J Gonzalez, Annie Laquerrière, Pascale Saugier-Veber
Extreme microcephaly and rhombencephalosynapsis represent unusual pathological conditions, each of which occurs in isolation or in association with various other cerebral and or extracerebral anomalies. Unlike microcephaly for which several disease-causing genes have been identified with different modes of inheritance, the molecular bases of rhombencephalosynapsis remain unknown and rhombencephalosynapsis presents mainly as a sporadic condition consistent with de novo dominant variations. We report for the first time the association of extreme microcephaly with almost no sulcation and rhombencephalosynapsis in a fœtus for which comparative patient-parent exome sequencing strategy revealed a heterozygous de novo missense variant in the ADGRL2 gene...
October 19, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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