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brain aging

Joel Tehse, Changiz Taghibiglou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading major cause of morbidity and mortality in youth and individuals under 45 year age. A wide variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified contributing to the pathogenesis of TBI. A better understanding of the pathophysiology behind TBI is essential for providing more effective treatment. Excitotoxicity as one of the secondary molecular events is a major contributing factor in apoptosis and neuronal death following the initial injury in TBI. Excitotoxicity is the rapid overload and influx of calcium into the cell cytoplasm, activating a series of deleterious signaling cascades causing the cell to undergo apoptosis...
December 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Matthew C H J Morrall, Rosa Reed-Berendt, Kate Moss, Helen Stocks, Alexandra L Houston, Poppy Siddell, Susan Picton, Richard Grundy
PURPOSE: This is the first UK multi-centre case-controlled study with follow-up in excess of 10 years to report the neurocognitive, academic and psychological outcomes of individuals diagnosed with a brain tumour in early childhood. Children enrolled into the UKCCSG CNS 9204 trial, diagnosed with intracranial ependymoma when aged ≤ 36 months old, who received a primary chemotherapy strategy to defer or avoid radiotherapy, were recruited. METHODS: Outcomes of those who relapsed and subsequently received radiotherapy (n = 13) were compared to those enrolled who did not relapse (n = 16), age-matched controls-diagnosed with solid non-central nervous system (SN-CNS; n = 15) tumours or low-grade posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma (PFPA; n = 15), and normative data...
December 15, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Natalia M Kleinhans, Melissa Reilly, Matthew Blake, Gabriella Greco, Julia Sweigert, Greg E Davis, Francisco Velasquez, Fredrick Reitz, Dennis Shusterman, Stephen R Dager
Human olfactory processing is understudied relative to other sensory modalities, despite its links to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. To address this limitation, we developed a fast, robust fMRI odor paradigm that is appropriate for all ages and levels of cognitive functioning. To test this approach, thirty-four typically developing children aged 7-12 underwent fMRI during brief, repeated exposure to phenylethyl alcohol, a flower-scented odor. Prior to fMRI scanning, olfactory testing (odor detection and identification) was conducted...
December 2, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Maureen A Mealy, Sarah E Mossburg, Su-Hyun Kim, Silvia Messina, Nadja Borisow, Reydmar Lopez-Gonzalez, Juan Pablo Ospina, Michael Scheel, Anusha K Yeshokumar, Amine Awad, M Isabel Leite, JorgeA Jimenez Arango, Friedemann Paul, Jacqueline Palace, Ho Jin Kim, Michael Levy
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that preferentially targets the spinal cord and optic nerves. Increasing disability is accrued with each inflammatory attack. Disability has been shown to be an independent predictor of poor quality of life in those with NMOSD. Factors associated with increasing disability need further systematic investigation. METHODS: We performed a multi-center retrospective chart analysis of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) seropositive NMOSD patients with a history of myelitis seen at five large referral centers for patients with NMOSD worldwide for whom thorough records including relapse history and corresponding imaging were available...
December 9, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Asli Aykac, Dilek Ozbeyli, Murat Uncu, Büşra Ertaş, Olca Kılınc, Ali Şen, Oya Orun, Goksel Sener
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing common health problem with increasing age. Evidences show that the key symptoms of AD are mainly caused by cholinergic system dysfunction which has a role in cognitive disorders. Cholinergic pathways especially muscarinic receptors like M1 subtype also have a major role in learning, memory, cognitive functions and emotional state. There is no available permanent treatment currently to cure AD or to change its progression. This study was designed to investigate the factors that play important role in pathogenesis of AD and to compare the effects of Galantamine treatment with effects of Myrtus communis treatment...
December 13, 2018: Gene
Lin Chen, Zhiliang Wei, Kannie Chan, Shuhui Cai, Guanshu Liu, Hanzhang Lu, Philip C Wong, Peter C M van Zijl, Tong Li, Jiadi Xu
The goal of this study was to develop a molecular biomarker for the detection of protein aggregation involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by exploiting the features of the water saturation transfer spectrum (Z-spectrum), the CEST signal of which is sensitive to the molecular configuration of proteins. A radial-sampling steady-state sequence based ultrashort echo time (UTE) readout was implemented to image the Z-spectrum in the mouse brain, especially the contributions from mobile proteins at the frequency offsets for the composite protein amide proton (+3...
December 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Katja Bertsch, Marlene Krauch, Karin Roelofs, Sylvia Cackowski, Sabine C Herpertz, Inge Volman
Difficulty in anger control and anger-related aggressive outbursts against others are frequently reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although male sex is a known predictor for aggression, hardly any study has addressed the neural correlates of deficient anger control in male patients with BPD. Building on previous reports in female BPD, we investigated the involvement of lateral antero- and dorsal prefrontal cortex in the control of fast emotional actions and its relation to self-reported tendencies to act out anger...
December 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Arnd Sörensen, Ganna Blazhenets, Gerta Rücker, Florian Schiller, Philipp Tobias Meyer, Lars Frings
AIM: The value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the prognosis of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is controversial. In the present work, the identification of cerebral metabolic patterns with significant prognostic value for conversion of MCI patients to AD is investigated with voxel-based Cox regression, which in contrast to common categorical comparisons also utilizes time information. METHODS: FDG PET data of 544 MCI patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were randomly split into two equally-sized datasets (training and test)...
December 10, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Paige Greenwood, John Hutton, Jon Dudley, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus
Reading is an acquired skill that relies on cognitive-control and language abilities. Home reading environment has been positively correlated with activation in parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex supporting mental imagery and narrative comprehension during a story-listening task in preschool-age children. However, the degree to which maternal reading ability influences early brain development, specifically neural circuits involved with language and reading, is not well understood. The current study explored the relationship between maternal reading ability and functional connectivity within the language network, between the language network and networks related to cognitive control and visual processing, as well as between the language network and the entire brain (network-to-voxel analysis) of preschool-age children during a resting state...
December 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Jessica Tressou, Benjamin Buaud, Noëmie Simon, Stéphane Pasteau, Philippe Guesnet
BACKGROUND: The French National survey INCA2 pointed out that the majority of the French population (children, adolescents, adults and elderly) ingest low quantities of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the form of both precursor (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) and long-chain (mainly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). However, we don't know whether such inadequate n-3 PUFA consumption is also found again in pregnant and lactating women. METHODS: Dietary lipid and PUFA intakes were determined from 28 pregnant and 21 lactating French women by using the most recent set of national robust data on food (National Survey INCA2 performed in 2006 and 2007), and compared with that of 742 women of childbearing age...
January 2019: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Hualu Han, Runhua Zhang, Gaifen Liu, Huiyu Qiao, Zhensen Chen, Yang Liu, Xiaoyi Chen, Dongye Li, Yongjun Wang, Xihai Zhao
Reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), one of the major metrics for cerebral perfusion, is associated with many brain disorders. Therefore, early characterization of CBF prior to occurrence of symptoms is essential for prevention of cerebral ischemic disorders. We hypothesized that large artery atherosclerosis might be a potential indicator for decline in cerebral perfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between large artery atherosclerosis and CBF in asymptomatic adults. A total of 134 asymptomatic subjects (mean age, 56...
December 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Bjekić Jovana, Čolić V Marija, Živanović Marko, Milanović D Sladjan, Filipović R Saša
Associative memory plays a key role in everyday functioning, but it declines with normal aging as well as due to various pathological states and conditions, thus impairing quality of life. Associative memory enhancement via neurostimulation over frontal areas resulted in limited success, while posterior stimulation sites seemed to be more promising. We hypothesized that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of parietal areas would lead to higher performance in associative memory due to high connectivity between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and hippocampus...
December 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Joanna Wilson, Liesl Allcock, Ríona Mc Ardle, John-Paul Taylor, Lynn Rochester
Gait is complex, described by diverse characteristics underpinned by widespread central nervous system networks including motor and cognitive functions. Despite this, neural substrates of discrete gait characteristics are poorly understood, limiting understanding of gait impairment in ageing and disease. This structured review aims to map gait characteristics, defined from a pre-specified model reflecting independent gait domains, to brain imaging parameters in older adults. Fifty-two studies of 38,029 yielded were reviewed...
December 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Inmaculada Lopez-Font, Guillermo Iborra-Lazaro, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, José-Luis Molinuevo, Inmaculada Cuchillo-Ibañez, Javier Sáez-Valero
Reelin is a glycoprotein associated with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. The malfunctioning of reelin signaling in the brain is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reelin binding to Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) activates downstream signaling and induces the proteolytic cleavage of ApoER2, resulting in the generation of soluble fragments. To evaluate the efficiency of reelin signaling in AD, we have quantified the levels of reelin and soluble ectodomain fragments of ApoER2 (ectoApoER2) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
December 12, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Ali Alkhaibary, Ali H Alassiri, Fahd AlSufiani, Mohammed A Alharbi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Ki-67 is a nonhistone nuclear protein that is expressed by cells entering the mitotic cycle and is associated with the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In gliomas, the extent of expression of Ki-67 is roughly proportional to the histologic grade. Over the years, association studies were conducted trying to link the poor outcome in different types of malignant tumors to the Ki-67 proliferative index...
December 8, 2018: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
Apurva Shah, Shweta Prasad, Bharti Rastogi, Santosh Dash, Jitender Saini, Pramod Kumar Pal, Madhura Ingalhalikar
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the structural connectivity of the motor subnetwork in multiple system atrophy with cerebellar features (MSA-C), a distinct subtype of MSA, characterized by predominant cerebellar symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with MSA-C and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited for the study. Disease severity was quantified using the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS). Diffusion MRI images were acquired and used to compute the structural connectomes (SCs) using probabilistic fiber tracking...
December 14, 2018: European Radiology
Thomas Huber, Lukas Rotkopf, Benedikt Wiestler, Wolfgang G Kunz, Stefanie Bette, Jens Gempt, Christine Preibisch, Jens Ricke, Claus Zimmer, Jan S Kirschke, Wieland H Sommer, Kolja M Thierfelder
OBJECTIVES: Parameter maps based on wavelet-transform post-processing of dynamic perfusion data offer an innovative way of visualizing blood vessels in a fully automated, user-independent way. The aims of this study were (i) a proof of concept regarding wavelet-based analysis of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI data and (ii) to demonstrate advantages of wavelet-based measures compared to standard cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps in patients with the initial diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM)...
December 14, 2018: European Radiology
Mark D Underwood, Suham A Kassir, Mihran J Bakalian, Hanga Galfalvy, Andrew J Dwork, J John Mann, Victoria Arango
Serotonin neurotransmitter deficits are reported in suicide, major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). To compare pathophysiology in these disorders, we mapped brain serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptor binding throughout prefrontal cortex and in anterior cingulate cortex postmortem. Cases and controls died suddenly minimizing agonal effects and had a postmortem interval ≤24 h to avoid compromised brain integrity. Neuropathology and toxicology confirmed absence of neuropathology and psychotropic medications...
December 14, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Florian Schöberl, Stephanie Irving, Cauchy Pradhan, Stanislavs Bardins, Christoph Trapp, Erich Schneider, Günter Kugler, Peter Bartenstein, Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt, Andreas Zwergal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term recovery of allocentric and egocentric spatial orientation as a sensitive marker for hippocampal and extrahippocampal network function in transient global amnesia (TGA). METHODS: A group of 18 patients with TGA performed an established real-space navigation paradigm, requiring allo- and egocentric spatial orientation abilities, 3 days (postacute stage) and 3 months (follow-up) after symptom onset. Visual exploration behavior and navigation strategy were documented by a gaze-controlled, head-fixed camera...
December 14, 2018: Neurology
Renee Y Hsia, Amy J Markowitz, Feng Lin, Joanna Guo, Debbie Y Madhok, Geoffrey T Manley
OBJECTIVE: To describe visits and visit rates of adults presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI is a major cause of death and disability in the USA; yet, current literature is limited because few studies examine longer-term ED revisits and hospital readmission patterns of TBI patients across a broad spectrum of injury severity, which can help inform potential unmet healthcare needs. DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
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