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brain aging

Anna Marseglia, Laura Fratiglioni, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Rui Wang, Lars Bäckman, Weili Xu
INTRODUCTION: The impact of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive decline and the potential underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether prediabetes and diabetes accelerate cognitive decline and brain aging, and the initial pathological changes linked to microvascular processes. METHODS: Nine-year longitudinal data from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (n = 2746, age ≥60 years) and the magnetic resonance imaging subsample (n = 455) were used...
August 13, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Katharina Limbach, Jürgen M Kaufmann, Holger Wiese, Otto W Witte, Stefan R Schweinberger
A common cognitive problem reported by older people is compromised face recognition, which is often paralleled by age-related changes in face-sensitive and memory-related components in event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We developed a new training using photorealistic caricatures based on evidence that caricatures are beneficial for people with compromised face processing. Twenty-four older participants (62-75yrs, 13 female) completed 12 training sessions (3 per week, 60min each) and 24 older participants (61-76yrs, 12 female) acted as controls...
August 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ivana Jovčevska
Glioblastomas account for the majority of primary brain tumors. Although glioblastomas are considered as rare diseases, they represent 60%-70% of all gliomas and in most cases have fatal consequences. Genetic analyses show great heterogeneity both intratumor and intertumor. This notion opens up debates about glioblastoma origin. Different brain cells including astrocytes, neural stem cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and glioblastoma stem cells are proposed as capable of initiation and reseeding a tumor; however data is still inconclusive...
August 14, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Lu Qian, Yao Wang, KangKang Chu, Yun Li, ChaoYong Xiao, Ting Xiao, Xiang Xiao, Ting Qiu, YunHua Xiao, Hui Fang, XiaoYan Ke
Little is currently known about the longitudinal developmental patterns of hubs in the whole-brain white matter (WM) structural networks among toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic tractography to map the WM structural networks in 37 ASD toddlers and 27 age-, gender- and developmental quotient-matched controls with developmental delay (DD) toddlers aged 2-3 years old at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). Furthermore, graph-theoretical methods were applied to investigate alterations in the network hubs in these patients at the two time points...
August 16, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Onder Albayram, Frank Ativie, Safak Chasan, Till Zimmer, Karsten Bach, Andreas Zimmer
Astrocytes, key regulators of brain homeostasis, interact with neighboring glial cells, neurons and the vasculature through complex processes involving different signaling pathways. It is not entirely clear how these interactions change in the ageing brain and which factors influence astrocyte ageing. Here, we investigate the role of endocannabinoid signaling, because it is an important modulator of neuron and astrocyte functions, as well as brain ageing. We demonstrate that mice with a specific deletion of CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons (GABA-Cnr1-/- mice), which show a phenotype of accelerated brain ageing, affects age-related changes in the morphology of astrocytes in the hippocampus...
2018: PloS One
Ernesto Pereda, Miguel García-Torres, Belén Melián-Batista, Soledad Mañas, Leopoldo Méndez, Julián J González
Functional connectivity (FC) characterizes brain activity from a multivariate set of N brain signals by means of an NxN matrix A, whose elements estimate the dependence within each possible pair of signals. Such matrix can be used as a feature vector for (un)supervised subject classification. Yet if N is large, A is highly dimensional. Little is known on the effect that different strategies to reduce its dimensionality may have on its classification ability. Here, we apply different machine learning algorithms to classify 33 children (age [6-14 years]) into two groups (healthy controls and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients) using EEG FC patterns obtained from two phase synchronisation indices...
2018: PloS One
Toru Yoshihara, Hiroyuki Satake, Toshikazu Nishie, Nozomu Okino, Toshihisa Hatta, Hiroki Otani, Chie Naruse, Hiroshi Suzuki, Kazushi Sugihara, Eikichi Kamimura, Noriyo Tokuda, Keiko Furukawa, Koichi Fururkawa, Makoto Ito, Masahide Asano
It is uncertain which β4-galactosyltransferase (β4GalT; gene name, B4galt), β4GalT-5 and/or β4GalT-6, is responsible for the production of lactosylceramide (LacCer) synthase, which functions in the initial step of ganglioside biosynthesis. Here, we generated conditional B4galt5 knockout (B4galt5 cKO) mice, using Nestin-Cre mice, and crossed these with B4galt6 KO mice to generate B4galt5 and 6 double KO (DKO) mice in the central nervous system (CNS). LacCer synthase activity and major brain gangliosides were completely absent in brain homogenates from the DKO mice, although LacCer synthase activity was about half its normal level in B4galt5 cKO mice and B4galt6 KO mice...
August 2018: PLoS Genetics
Nicholas J Lemme, Benjamin Johnston, Steven F DeFroda, Brett D Owens, Peter K Kriz
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the incidence and characteristics of traumatic brain injuries [mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)] presenting to the emergency department as a result of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts (MA). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study of MTBI in combat sport athletes who were evaluated in emergency departments in the United States. SETTING: Patient data were taken from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Xin Huang, Fu-Qing Zhou, Han-Dong Dan, Yin Shen
The study aimed to determine alterations in intrinsic brain activity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) individuals using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method. Sixteen RP individuals (10 men and six women) and 14 healthy controls (HCs) (six men and eight women) closely matched in age, sex, and education were enrolled in the study. The ALFF/fALFF method was applied to compare different intrinsic brain activities between the RP group and the HC group...
August 15, 2018: Neuroreport
Nadia Gosselin, Andrée-Ann Baril, Ricardo S Osorio, Marta Kaminska, Julie Carrier
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk factors is currently the main intervention for reducing the incidence of dementia, how obstructive sleep apnea affects brain health and whether its treatment can slow neurodegeneration are relevant questions...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Andrea Lakatos, Márton Kolossváry, Miklós Szabó, Ágnes Jermendy, Zsolt Bagyura, Péter Barsi, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák
Background and purpose: To develop an evidence-based, standardized structured reporting (SR) method for brain MRI examinations in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suitable both for clinical and research use. Methods: SR template development was based on comprehensive review of the pertinent literature with the basic sections and subdivisions of the template defined according to MRI sequences (both conventional and diffusion-weighted, MR-spectroscopy (MRS), and T2*-weighted imaging), and the items targeted on age-related imaging patterns of HIE...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
János Nikl
The new antiepileptic drugs have not changed the basic pharmacological treatment principles of epilepsy, but they have given greater choice in focal and in generalized epilepsies as well. The new drugs are not necessarily more effective than traditional drugs, but they have favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics, fewer interactions and better adverse effect profile in the acute and chronic phase of the treatment. They generally show a lower teratogenicity risk than the standard antiepileptics, although carbamazepine, one of the standard drugs can be used and zonisamide, a new one must be avoid in pregnancy...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
G A Tavartkiladze
The problems concerning the registration of late latency auditory responses to electric stimulation in the patients wearing cochlear implants are considered. The renewed interest to this class of evoked potentials is due to unexplained differences in the results of cochlear implantation in the patients with the similar audiological data, etiology, age and the history of deafness as well as cochlear implant surgery in children of first years of life and the extended possibilities for speech processor programming...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Chenchen Wei, Shuting Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Ruozhen Yuan, Ming Liu
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), which are common in elderly people and contribute to age-related disability, can coexist with cardiac injury. It remains unclear whether cardiac biomarkers are associated with WMHs.To investigate this question, we prospectively recruited patients with cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Four cardiac biomarkers were measured: myoglobin, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), creatine kinase-MB, and terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Catherine Landry-Roy, Annie Bernier, Jocelyn Gravel, Miriam H Beauchamp
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during childhood is known to impact children's executive functioning. However, few studies have focused specifically on executive functioning after preschool TBI. TBI has also been associated with sleep disturbances, which are known to impair executive functions in healthy children. The aim of this study was to investigate executive functions in preschoolers with mild TBI, and to determine the role of sleep in the links between TBI and executive functioning...
August 16, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Joseph K McLaughlan, Leia Vos, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Tanya Sherman, Scott R Millis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread use of the Cognitive Log, information regarding normative performance is only available in individuals with known brain injury and in healthy college students. The purpose of the current research is to provide information about Cognitive Log performance in a regional group of rehabilitation patients without history of brain injury. Secondarily, non-neurological factors that may predict performance are considered. Research Method/Design: Participants included in this study were 121 consecutive patients admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital spinal cord and orthopedic floor...
August 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Sien Hu, Jaime S Ide, Herta H Chao, Brittney Castagna, Kimberly A Fischer, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Inhibitory control or the ability to refrain from incorrect responses is a critical executive function known to diminish during aging. Imaging studies have elucidated cerebral changes that may underlie the age-related deficits. However, it remains unclear whether the structural and functional changes occur in the same brain regions and whether reduced gray matter volumes (GMV) mediate decreased activation during inhibition. Here, in a sample of 149 participants, we addressed the issues using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson
Synchrony of brain activity over time describes the functional connectivity between brain regions but does not address the temporal component of this relationship. We propose a complementary method of analysis by introducing the width of cross-correlation curves between functional MRI (fMRI) time series as a metric of the relative duration of synchronous activity between brain regions, or "sustained connectivity". Using resting-state fMRI, cognitive, and demographics data from 1,003 subjects included in the Human Connectome Project, we find that sustained connectivity is a reproducible trait in individuals, heritable, more transient in females, and shows changes with age in early adulthood...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
S Lucibello, T Verdolotti, F M Giordano, L Lapenta, A Infante, F Piludu, T Tartaglione, D Chieffo, C Colosimo, E Mercuri, R Battini
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to use a combined imaging and clinical approach to identify possible patterns of clinical and imaging findings in a cohort of preschool age Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to identify imaging patterns that could be related to specific clinical features, a selected group of ASD patients (age range 3-6 years) without dysmorphic features, epilepsy or other major neurological signs, malformations or other lesions at MRI was subjected to brain volumetric analysis using semiautomatic brain segmentation...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Jiaqi Li, Yuzhi Zhou, Guanhua Du, Xuemei Qin, Li Gao
Background Aging is a complex process accompanied with the decline of the different physiological functions. Numerous differentially expressed genes (DEGs) have been found in the aging brain of senescence-accelerated mouse P8 (SAMP8), however, it was challenging to screen out the crucial ones. Objective This study aimed to explore the crucial genes and pathways in aging brain of SAMP8 mice, which would be beneficial for understanding the pathogenesis of brain aging. Method Firstly, 430 genes that are differentially expressed in SAMP8 mice versus SAMR1 mice were obtained from 9 gene expression studies, and gene-gene network was constructed...
August 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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