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measles virus

Miles H Beaman
Meningitis and encephalitis are medical emergencies. Patients need prompt evaluation and immediate empiric therapy to reduce the likelihood of fatal outcomes and chronic neurological sequelae. Conjugate bacterial vaccines have significantly reduced the incidence of bacterial meningitis, especially in children. As the results of changes in patterns of bacterial drug sensitivity, ceftriaxone is now part of the recommended empiric treatment for bacterial meningitis and should be administered as early as possible...
October 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Minsun Kwak, Hye-Ryun Yeh, Mi-Sun Yum, Hyun-Jin Kim, Su Jeong You, Ko Tae Sung
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, and fatal central nervous system disorder resulting from persistent measles virus infection. Long-term data are scarce, with a maximum follow-up period of 10 years. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a protein that exerts its antiviral activity via enhancement of cellular immune response and is reported to be an effective drug for the treatment of SSPE. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the optimal duration of IFN-α therapy. Here, we present a case report of a patient with SSPE treated with long-term intraventricular IFN-α therapy, which facilitated clinical improvement and neurological stabilization without causing serious adverse effects...
September 18, 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
David Kalbermatter, Neeta Shrestha, Nadine Ader-Ebert, Michael Herren, Pascal Moll, Richard K Plemper, Karl-Heinz Altmann, Johannes P Langedijk, Flavio Gall, Urs Lindenmann, Rainer Riedl, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Philippe Plattet
Morbilliviruses (e.g. measles virus [MeV] or canine distemper virus [CDV]) employ the attachment (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins for cell entry. H protein engagement to a cognate receptor eventually leads to F-triggering. Upon activation, F proteins transit from a prefusion to a postfusion conformation; a refolding process that is associated with membrane merging. Small-molecule morbilliviral fusion inhibitors such as the compound 3 G (a chemical analog in the AS-48 class) were previously generated and mechanistic studies revealed a stabilizing effect on morbilliviral prefusion F trimers...
October 5, 2018: Virus Research
K Pabbaraju, K Fonseca, S Wong, M W Koch, J T Joseph, G A Tipples, R Tellier
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive and eventually fatal neurological disease arising from a persistent infection with measles virus (MV) acquired at a young age. SSPE measles virus strains are defective and unable to produce progeny virions, due to multiple and extensive mutations in a number of key genes. We sequenced the full MV genome from our recently reported SSPE case, which typed as genotype D6, and compared it with other genotype D6 wild type and SSPE sequences. The Alberta D6 strain was significantly different from other reported SSPE D6 sequences...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Hiroyuki Onodera, Risa Nakagawa, Hitoshi Nakagawa, Takeru Urayama, Katsuyuki Haino, Mikihiro Yunoki
BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains immunoglobulin G against various viruses, except those that have been screened, such as human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses. Antivirus titers reflect the serostatus of the blood donor population in the collection region and are of clinical interest. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: During the past 10 years, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella-zoster, hepatitis A and B, Epstein-Barr, and human respiratory syncytial viruses; human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3; human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2; human herpesvirus 6; cytomegalovirus (CMV); human adenoviruses (HAdVs) 1, 2, 3, 7, and 11; human parvovirus B19; and human echovirus 9 and 11 titers in IVIG lots have been measured by a commercial testing facility...
October 4, 2018: Transfusion
Susanne Rauch, Edith Jasny, Kim E Schmidt, Benjamin Petsch
Ever since the development of the first vaccine more than 200 years ago, vaccinations have greatly decreased the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, famously leading to the eradication of small pox and allowing the restriction of diseases such as polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and measles. A multitude of research efforts focuses on the improvement of established and the discovery of new vaccines such as the HPV (human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. However, radical changes in the density, age distribution and traveling habits of the population worldwide as well as the changing climate favor the emergence of old and new pathogens that bear the risk of becoming pandemic threats...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jicai Huang, Shigui Ruan, Xiao Wu, Xuelei Zhou
Measles, a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus, is a major public health problem in China. The reported measles cases decreased dramatically from 2004 to 2012 due to the mandatory measles vaccine program started in 2005 and the goal of eliminating measles by 2012. However, after reaching its lowest level in 2012, measles has resurged again since 2013. Since the monthly data of measles cases exhibit a seasonally fluctuating pattern, based on the measles model in Earn et al. (Science 287:667-670, 2000), we propose a susceptible, exposed, infectious, and recovered model with periodic transmission rate to investigate the seasonal measles epidemics and the effect of vaccination...
September 27, 2018: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Lamprini Veneti, Katrine Borgen, Kaja Sverdrup Borge, Kostas Danis, Margrethe Greve-Isdahl, Kirsten Konsmo, Gro Njølstad, Svein Arne Nordbø, Kari Stidal Øystese, Rikard Rykkvin, Eli Sagvik, Øystein Rolandsen Riise
From 6 September 2015-May 2016, a large mumps outbreak occurred among vaccinated students in Norway. A case was defined as a person presenting with a clinical mumps infection, notified between 1 September 2015 and 30 June 2016. Confirmed cases had positive laboratory confirmation and probable cases had an epidemiological link; PCR-positive specimens were genotyped. A total of 232 cases were notified (230 confirmed) with median age of 23 years (range 4-81) and 61% were male. Of 68 (30%) confirmed cases that were genotyped, 66 were genotype G and associated with the outbreak...
September 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Amravi Shah, Rajesh Babu, Jyotirmoy Biswas
Measles virus is a rare but important cause for acute retinitis as it can eventually lead to the fulminant complication of SSPE. We report a case of a young Indian male with acute viral retinitis who subsequently developed SSPE. It is of paramount importance to consider measles virus and SSPE as a cause in an immunocompetent young adult with necrotizing viral retinitis.
October 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
A Kc Leung, K L Hon, K F Leong, C M Sergi
Measles (rubeola) is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable disease caused by the measles virus-a virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. The illness typically begins with fever, runny nose, cough, and pathognomonic enanthem (Koplik spots) followed by a characteristic erythematous, maculopapular rash. The rash classically begins on the face and becomes more confluent as it spreads cephalocaudally. Laboratory confirmation of measles virus infection can be based on a positive serological test for measles-specific immunoglobulin M antibody, a four-fold or greater increase in measles-specific immunoglobulin G between acute and convalescent sera, isolation of measles virus in culture, or detection of measles virus ribonucleic acid by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
September 24, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Nurshariza Abdullah, James T Kelly, Stephen C Graham, Jamie Birch, Daniel Gonçalves-Carneiro, Tim Mitchell, Robin N Thompson, Katrina A Lythgoe, Nicola Logan, Margaret J Hosie, Vassiliy N Bavro, Brian J Willett, Michael P Heaton, Dalan Bailey
Morbilliviruses infect a broad range of mammalian hosts including ruminants, carnivores and humans. The recent eradication of rinderpest virus (RPV), as well as active campaigns for the human-specific measles virus (MeV), have raised significant concerns that the remaining morbilliviruses may emerge in so-called vacated ecological niches. Seeking to assess the zoonotic-potential of non-human morbilliviruses within human populations we identified that peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) - the small ruminant morbillivirus - is restricted at the point of entry into human cells due to deficient interactions with human SLAMF1 - the immune cell receptor for morbilliviruses...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tiago N Figueira, Diogo A Mendonça, Diana Gaspar, Manuel N Melo, Anne Moscona, Matteo Porotto, Miguel A R B Castanho, Ana Salomé Veiga
Measles remains one of the leading causes of child mortality worldwide and is re-emerging in some countries due to poor vaccine coverage, concomitant with importation of measles virus (MV) from endemic areas. The lack of specific chemotherapy contributes to negative outcomes, especially in infants or immunodeficient individuals. Fusion inhibitor peptides derived from the MV Fusion protein C-terminal Heptad Repeat (HRC) targeting MV envelope fusion glycoproteins block infection at the stage of entry into host cells, thus preventing viral multiplication...
September 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Shumpei Watanabe, Yuta Shirogane, Yuma Sato, Takao Hashiguchi, Yusuke Yanagi
Measles virus (MeV) may persist in the brain, causing fatal neurodegenerative diseases, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and measles inclusion-body encephalitis. However, the mechanism of MeV propagation in the brain remains unexplained because human neurons affected by the diseases do not express the known receptors for MeV. Recent studies have revealed that certain changes in the ectodomain of the MeV fusion (F) protein play a key role in MeV spread in the brain. These changes destabilize the prefusion form of the F protein and render it hyperfusogenic, which in turn allows the virus to propagate in neurons...
September 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Sarah S Cherian, A M Walimbe, Karan Moolpani, Amruta Shirode, Sunil R Vaidya
Measles viruses (MeV) circulating in India mainly belong to genoypes D4 and D8 of clade D. In the context of measles elimination goal 2020 in India, molecular clock and phylogeography studies would help to identify the timescales of evolution and track the transmission pathways of MeV. We used nucleoprotein gene sequences (n = 756) from GenBank, representing 86 countries (1973-2016), to study the spatiotemporal transmission dynamics of clade D. Genotype D4 was introduced into India around 1991 and genotype D8 around 1994...
September 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Robert Alexander, Connie Nugent, Kenneth Nugent
The Dust Bowl occurred in the Central Plains states in the United States between 1930 and 1940. Prolonged drought, intense recurrent dust storms and economic depression had profound effects on human welfare. The causes included increased farming on marginal land, poor land management, and prolonged drought. There was a significant increase in the number of cases of measles, increased hospitalization for respiratory disorders and increased infant and overall mortality in Kansas during the Dust Bowl. Recent scientific studies have demonstrated that dust transmits measles virus, influenza virus and Coccidioides immitis, and that mortality in the United States increases following dust storms with 2-3-day lag periods...
August 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Manoj Murhekar, Ashish Bavdekar, Asha Benakappa, Sridhar Santhanam, Kuldeep Singh, Sanjay Verma, Gajanan N Sapkal, Nivedita Gupta, Valsan Philip Verghese, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Asha Mary Abraham, Shyama Choudhary, Gururajrao N Deshpande, Suji George, Garima Goyal, Parul Chawla Gupta, Ishani Jhamb, Deepa John, Swetha Philip, Sandeep Kadam, Ravinder Kaur Sachdeva, Praveen Kumar, Anjali Lepcha, S Mahantesh, S Manasa, Urvashi Nehra, Sanjay Kumar Munjal, Vijaya Lakshmi Nag, Sadanand Naik, Naga Raj, Jagat Ram, R K Ratho, C G Raut, Manoj Kumar Rohit, R Sabarinathan, Sanjay Shah, Pratibha Singh, Mini P Singh, Ashish Tiwari, Neelam Vaid
Rubella infection during pregnancy can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or a constellation of congenital malformations known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The 11 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are committed to the elimination of measles and control of rubella and CRS by 2020. Until 2016, when the Government of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated surveillance for CRS in five sentinel sites, India did not conduct systematic surveillance for CRS...
September 14, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sara Mercader, Marcia McGrew, Sun B Sowers, Nobia J Williams, William J Bellini, Carole J Hickman
Waning mumps IgG antibody and incomplete IgG avidity maturation may increase susceptibility to mumps virus infection in some vaccinees. To measure mumps IgG avidity, serum specimens serially diluted to the endpoint were incubated on a commercial mumps-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay and treated with the protein denaturant diethylamine (60 mM, pH 10). End titer avidity indices (etAIs [percent ratio of detected diethylamine-resistant IgG at endpoint]) were calculated. Unpaired serum specimens ( n = 108) from 15-month-old children living in a low-incidence setting were collected 1 month and 2 years after the first measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine dose (MMR1) and tested for mumps avidity...
September 12, 2018: MSphere
M Mura, C Ruffié, E Billon-Denis, C Combredet, J N Tournier, F Tangy
Measles virus has been successfully attenuated on chicken embryo cells to obtain a highly efficient and safe live attenuated vaccine, administered thus far to billions of children. Measles virus attenuation has long been described to involve a modification of cellular tropism with the use of human CD46 ubiquitous receptor. Nevertheless, the use of this receptor in vivo is not obvious. In this study we use four different mouse models to decipher the respective part of hCD46 receptor and type-I interferon response in measles host restriction...
November 2018: Virology
Azhar Hussain, Syed Ali, Madiha Ahmed, Sheharyar Hussain
There have been recent trends of parents in Western countries refusing to vaccinate their children due to numerous reasons and perceived fears. While opposition to vaccines is as old as the vaccines themselves, there has been a recent surge in the opposition to vaccines in general, specifically against the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine, most notably since the rise in prominence of the notorious British ex-physician, Andrew Wakefield, and his works. This has caused multiple measles outbreaks in Western countries where the measles virus was previously considered eliminated...
July 3, 2018: Curēus
Laure F Pittet, Charlotte M Verolet, Valérie A McLin, Barbara E Wildhaber, Maria Rodriguez, Pascal Cherpillod, Laurent Kaiser, Claire-Anne Siegrist, Klara M Posfay-Barbe
Live-attenuated vaccines are currently contraindicated in solid-organ transplant recipients. However, the risk of vaccine-preventable infections is lifelong, and can be particularly severe after transplantation. In this prospective interventional national cohort study, 44 pediatric liver transplant recipients with measles IgG antibodies <150 IU/L (below seroprotection threshold) received measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) at a median of 6.3 years posttransplantation (interquartile range, 4.0 to 10.9). A maximum of two additional doses were administered in nonresponders or when seroprotection was lost...
September 1, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
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