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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115692/in-vivo-estimation-of-oncolytic-virus-populations-within-tumors
#1
David Dingli, Mi-Yeon Jung, Chetan P Offord, Matthew K Ennis, Iris Kemler, Claudia Neuhauser
The use of replication-competent viruses as oncolytic agents is rapidly expanding, with several oncolytic viruses approved for cancer therapy. As responses to therapy are highly variable, understanding the dynamics of therapy is critical for optimal application of virotherapy in practice. Although mathematical models have been developed to understand the dynamics of tumor virotherapy, a scarcity of in vivo data has made difficult parametrization of these models. To tackle this problem, we studied the in vitro and in vivo spread of two oncolytic measles viruses that induce expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in cells...
August 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107992/rubella-virus-neutralizing-antibody-response-after-a-third-dose-of-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccine-in-young-adults
#2
Huong Q McLean, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Adaeze Ogee-Nwankwo, LiJuan Hao, Laura A Coleman, Adebola Adebayo, Joseph P Icenogle
BACKGROUND: Third doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine have been administered during mumps outbreaks and in various non-outbreak settings. The immunogenicity of the rubella component has not been evaluated following receipt of a third dose of MMR vaccine. METHODS: Young adults aged 18-31 years with documented two doses of MMR vaccine received a third dose of MMR vaccine between July 2009 and October 2010. Rubella neutralizing antibody titers were assessed before, 1 month, and 1 year after receipt of a third dose of MMR vaccine...
August 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107824/epidemiology-of-measles-in-the-metropolitan-setting-addis-ababa-ethiopia-2005-2014-a-retrospective-descriptive-surveillance-data-analysis
#3
Munira Nasser Hassen, Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Mekonen Getahun, Berhane Beyene, Lucy Buluanger, Ayesheshem Ademe, Alemayehu Bekele, Adamu Addissie, Amha Kebede, Daddi Jima
BACKGROUND: Measles is a highly infectious and serious respiratory viral disease which caused by a virus. It is a significant cause of illness and death worldwide. This data analysis was conducted to describe the trend and determine the reporting rate of measles cases in Addis Ababa to make recommendation for the government of the city to strengthening measles control interventions. METHODS: We obtained and extracted ten years (2005-2014) Addis Ababa city's measles surveillance data from national database...
August 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104117/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccine-at-two-different-potency-levels-administered-to-healthy-children-aged-12-15-months-a-phase-iii-randomized-non-inferiority-trial
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The potency of live viral vaccines decreases over time. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of GSK measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR-RIT) formulations at two different potencies with that of the commercially-available MMR II formulation. METHODS: In this phase III observer-blind clinical study (NCT01681992), 4516 healthy children aged 12-15 months were randomized (1:1:1 ratio) to receive one dose of MMR-RIT at the minimum potency used for this study (MMR-RIT-Min) or MMR-RIT at the second lowest potency used for this study (MMR-RIT-Med), or control MMR II vaccine...
August 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100962/treatment-interventions-for-diarrhoea-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-children-a-systematic-review
#5
Nkengafac Villyen Motaze, Chukwuemeka Nwachukwu, Eliza Humphreys
Introduction: Seventy percent of an estimated 10 million children less than five years of age in developing countries die each year of acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, measles, malaria, malnutrition or a combination of these conditions. Children living with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at risk of diarrhoea because of drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy and bottle feeding. This may be aggravated by malnutrition and other infectious diseases which are frequent in children living with HIV...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099510/precision-surveillance-for-viral-respiratory-pathogens-virome-capture-sequencing-for-the-detection-and-genomic-characterization-of-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-in-uganda
#6
Matthew J Cummings, Rafal Tokarz, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, John Kayiwa, Timothy Byaruhanga, Nicholas Owor, Barbara Namagambo, Allison Wolf, Barun Mathema, Julius J Lutwama, Neil W Schluger, W Ian Lipkin, Max R O'Donnell
Background: Precision public health is a novel set of methods to target disease prevention and mitigation interventions to high-risk subpopulations. We applied a precision public health strategy to syndromic surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Uganda by combining spatiotemporal analytics with genomic sequencing to detect and characterize viral respiratory pathogens with epidemic potential. Methods: Using a national surveillance network we identified patients with unexplained, influenza-negative SARI from 2010-2015...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096134/heterogeneity-and-longevity-of-antibody-memory-to-viruses-and-vaccines
#7
Alice Antia, Hasan Ahmed, Andreas Handel, Nichole E Carlson, Ian J Amanna, Rustom Antia, Mark Slifka
Determining the duration of protective immunity requires quantifying the magnitude and rate of loss of antibodies to different virus and vaccine antigens. A key complication is heterogeneity in both the magnitude and decay rate of responses of different individuals to a given vaccine, as well as of a given individual to different vaccines. We analyzed longitudinal data on antibody titers in 45 individuals to characterize the extent of this heterogeneity and used models to determine how it affected the longevity of protective immunity to measles, rubella, vaccinia, tetanus, and diphtheria...
August 10, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090962/protective-immunity-elicited-by-measles-vaccine-exerts-anti-tumor-effects-on-measles-virus-hemagglutinin-gene-modified-cancer-cells-in-a-mouse-model
#8
Yuan Qi, Kailin Xing, Lanlin Zhang, Fangyu Zhao, Ming Yao, Aiqun Hu, Xianghua Wu
PURPOSE: Measles vaccine is widely used in China to prevent the measles virus (MV) infection. People immunized with measles vaccine can obtain long-term protective immunity. Measles virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (H) can also induce MV-specific immune responses. However, little is known about whether the existence of the protective immune system against MV in the host can exert anti-tumor effects and whether the MV-H gene can serve as a therapeutic gene. METHODS: We first vaccinated mice with measles vaccine, then inoculated them with MV-H protein-expressing tumor cells and observed the rate of tumor formation...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087277/should-mumps-be-higher-up-on-the-public-health-agenda-in-india-a-concern-for-global-health-security
#9
Syed Manzoor Kadri, Saleem-Ur Rehman, Kausar Rehana, Ailbhe Helen Brady, Vijay Kumar Chattu
Mumps is a public health problem on a global scale caused by mumps virus, a member of family paramyxoviridae. An effective form of vaccination exists and is incorporated into routine immunization schedules in over 100 countries, usually in the form of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine. This is not the case in India, as mumps is not viewed as a significant enough public health problem by the government to warrant such an intervention. This original research paper discusses about outbreaks of mumps in Kashmir, India and aims to add to the body of literature to support the routine immunization with the mumps vaccine...
August 7, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077763/il28b-il29-and-micro-rna-548-in-subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-as-a-rare-disease
#10
Gunes Cakmak Genc, Ahmet Dursun, Sevim Karakas Celik, Mustafa Calik, Furuzan Kokturk, Ibrahim Etem Piskin
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which affects children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of defective measles virus. IFN-λs (IL-28A, IL-28B and IL-29) are a group of cytokines mediating antiviral responses. It has been shown that IL-29 levels are significantly higher in infected cells with defective measles virus. IL-29 expression is thought to be regulated at post-transcriptional level and miRNA-548 family targets the 3'UTR of the IFNL1 gene...
August 2, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073293/public-health-consequences-of-a-2013-measles-outbreak-in-new-york-city
#11
Jennifer B Rosen, Robert J Arciuolo, Amina M Khawja, Jie Fu, Francesca R Giancotti, Jane R Zucker
Importance: Internationally imported cases of measles into the United States can lead to outbreaks requiring extensive and rapid control measures. Importation of measles from an unvaccinated adolescent in 2013 led to what has been the largest outbreak of measles in New York City, New York, since 1992. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and public health burden in terms of resources and cost of the 2013 measles outbreak in New York City. Design, Setting, and Participants: This epidemiologic assessment and cost analysis conducted between August 15, 2013, and August 5, 2014, examined all outbreak-associated cases of measles among persons residing in New York City in 2013...
July 30, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073032/a-note-on-the-risk-of-infections-invading-unaffected-regions
#12
Marcos Amaku, Francisco Antonio Bezerra Coutinho, Margaret Armstrong, Eduardo Massad
We present two probabilistic models to estimate the risk of introducing infectious diseases into previously unaffected countries/regions by infective travellers. We analyse two distinct situations, one dealing with a directly transmitted infection (measles in Italy in 2017) and one dealing with a vector-borne infection (Zika virus in Rio de Janeiro, which may happen in the future). To calculate the risk in the first scenario, we used a simple, nonhomogeneous birth process. The second model proposed in this paper provides a way to calculate the probability that local mosquitoes become infected by the arrival of a single infective traveller during his/her infectiousness period...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065192/mumps-in-the-vaccination-age-global-epidemiology-and-the-situation-in-germany
#13
REVIEW
Andrea-Ioana Beleni, Stefan Borgmann
Vaccination against mumps virus (MuV) (mostly measles-mumps-rubella) is routinely performed in more than 120 countries and has resulted in a distinct decrease of mumps incidence. However, alteration of mumps epidemiology has been observed in several countries after implementation of the vaccine but is sparsely documented. Moreover, outbreaks have occurred after starting vaccination, even in highly vaccinated populations. In the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) mumps was a notifiable disease but vaccination against mumps was not implemented...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064948/vaccination-strategy-for-epidemic-viral-diseases-in-healthcare-workers-cut-off-for-optimal-immunization
#14
Nori Yoshioka, Matsuo Deguchi, Hideharu Hagiya, Masanori Kagita, Hiroko Tsukamoto, Miyuki Takao, Kazunori Tomono
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at an increased risk of being exposed to epidemic viral diseases (EVDs), such as measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella-zoster. Currently, in case of the absence of written records on previous immunizations, the Japanese Society for Infection Prevention and Control guidelines require HCWs to have antibody titers higher than laboratory thresholds, possibly leading to over-immunization. We report our vaccination strategy and the consequent incidences of EVDs at the Osaka University Hospital between 2000 and 2016...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062499/pulmonary-measles-disease-old-and-new-imaging-tools
#15
Fabrizio Albarello, Massimo Cristofaro, Elisa Busi Rizzi, Maria Letizia Giancola, Emanuele Nicastri, Vincenzo Schininà
BACKGROUND: Measles virus can cause lower respiratory tract infection, so that chest radiography is necessary to investigate lung involvement in patients with respiratory distress. PURPOSE: To assess measles pneumonia imaging during the measles outbreak occurred in 2016-2017 in Italy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively observed adult patients with a serological diagnosis of measles, who underwent chest-X rays for suspected pneumonia...
July 30, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062371/active-immunization-status-against-measles-mumps-rubella-hepatitis-b-in-internationally-adopted-children-surveyed-at-the-university-hospital-of-palermo-sicily
#16
D Giordano, S Provenzano, O E Santangelo, D Piazza, D Ferraro, C Colomba, G Corsello, S La Placa, A Firenze
INTRODUCTION: The internationally adopted child is a fragile subject who often shows an incomplete health documentation, which hinders the complete assessment of health status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2010 and June 2016, at the University Hospital "AOUP P. Giaccone" of Palermo, we reviewed the health documentations of 111 children recently arrived in Italy following the conclusion of the international adoption procedure. 62.2% of the children were male, of various nationalities and with an average age of 7 years (± 3...
September 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057285/subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-mortality-united-states-1979-2016-vaccine-induced-declines-in-sspe-deaths
#17
Lia B Pallivathucal, Andrew Noymer
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by measles virus. We estimate SSPE age-specific mortality in the United States, 1979-2016. The general decline in SSPE mortality reflects that of measles. Shifts, over time, in SSPE mortality by age echo changes in the age distribution of measles in the 1970s and in the 1989-91 outbreak. The current epidemiological situation is that autochthonous SSPE will disappear in the United States, assuming measles vaccination rates remain high...
August 23, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056034/the-development-of-a-bead-based-multiplex-immunoassay-for-the-detection-of-igg-antibodies-to-cmv-and-ebv
#18
Irina Tcherniaeva, Gerco den Hartog, Guy Berbers, Fiona van der Klis
Latent infection with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) is associated with compromised immune responses. The commercially available ELISA-kits provide a semi-quantitative or qualitative detection of IgG antibodies against either CMV or EBV. To reduce the amount of sample needed and improve throughput and range of quantitation compared to ELISAs, a multiplex immunoassay (MIA) for the simultaneous quantitative detection of antibodies against CMV and two antigens of EBV (EBV capsid antigen (EBV-VCA) and EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1)) was developed and standardized...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053915/human-genetic-variants-and-age-are-the-strongest-predictors-of-humoral-immune-responses-to-common-pathogens-and-vaccines
#19
Petar Scepanovic, Cécile Alanio, Christian Hammer, Flavia Hodel, Jacob Bergstedt, Etienne Patin, Christian W Thorball, Nimisha Chaturvedi, Bruno Charbit, Laurent Abel, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Darragh Duffy, Matthew L Albert, Jacques Fellay
BACKGROUND: Humoral immune responses to infectious agents or vaccination vary substantially among individuals, and many of the factors responsible for this variability remain to be defined. Current evidence suggests that human genetic variation influences (i) serum immunoglobulin levels, (ii) seroconversion rates, and (iii) intensity of antigen-specific immune responses. Here, we evaluated the impact of intrinsic (age and sex), environmental, and genetic factors on the variability of humoral response to common pathogens and vaccines...
July 27, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048422/mumps-outbreaks-at-four-universities-indiana-2016
#20
Mugdha Golwalkar, Brian Pope, Jill Stauffer, Ali Snively, Nakia Clemmons
From February to April 2016, the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) confirmed mumps outbreaks at four universities (three public and one private). All universities were located within 65 miles of Indianapolis; however, epidemiologic links among outbreaks were limited. ISDH and local health departments investigated the outbreaks and initiated control measures at all universities. A protocol describing recommended testing for mumps, testing priorities during the outbreak, and a preauthorization process for submitting specimens to the ISDH Laboratory (ISDHL) was developed and disseminated to providers and public health partners (1)...
July 27, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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