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measles virus

C Lioult, B Le Neindre, P Gauberti, B Clin, A Palix, A Vabret, R Morello, J Dina
BACKGROUND: France is facing a new resurgence of measles. Since November 2017, the number of cases has been increasing sharply. Immunization coverage in the general population, all ages combined, is below the threshold required for a rapid decline of the virus propagation. Regarding health professionals, the rate of immunization against this disease is insufficiently documented. In this context, the Occupational Health Service of the University Hospital of Caen has carried out an inventory of health personnel knowledge of immunization against measles in the units the most exposed to risk...
December 1, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Darja Kanduc
Analyses of the peptide sharing between five common human viruses (Borna disease virus, influenza A virus, measles virus, mumps virus and rubella virus) and the human proteome highlight a massive viral vs. human peptide overlap that is mathematically unexpected. Evolutionarily, the data underscore a strict relationship between viruses and the origin of eukaryotic cells. Indeed, according to the viral eukaryogenesis hypothesis and in light of the endosymbiotic theory, the first eukaryotic cell (our lineage) originated as a consortium consisting of an archaeal ancestor of the eukaryotic cytoplasm, a bacterial ancestor of the mitochondria and a viral ancestor of the nucleus...
December 3, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Tetsuo Nakayama
Vaccine adverse events and controversial safety issues have occurred in recent decades in Japan: aseptic meningitis following the measles-mumps-rubella combined vaccine (MMR), anaphylaxis after immunization with live virus vaccines and inactivated split influenza vaccine, an increased incidence of febrile illness following the simultaneous administration of inactivated vaccines, and chronic pain with neurological illness after immunization with the human papilloma virus vaccine (HPV). Vaccine adverse events are a matter of concern for the public as well as general practitioners; some are within the range of assumptions that adverse reactions after live attenuated vaccines are related to the nature of their parental wild-type viruses...
November 29, 2018: Vaccine
Tessa Vermeire, Cyril Barbezange, Aurélie Francart, Assia Hamouda, Amber Litzroth, Veronik Hutse, Lennart Martens, Elien Vandermarliere, Steven Van Gucht
OBJECTIVES: Mumps used to affect children between two and 15 years old. The MMR (mumps-measles-rubella) vaccine is available with vaccine coverage rate of about 85% after two vaccine doses. Recently, new mumps outbreaks emerged in highly vaccinated populations and the causes for these new outbreaks are yet unknown. We tested if a difference in seroneutralising capacity against the vaccine and wild type viruses exists and if waning immunity could be detected. METHODS: In this study, 570 serum samples (age group 2-3y (N=96), 8-9y (N=95), 13-14y (N=94), 18-20y (N=96), 24-26y (N=92) and 50+ (N=97)) in Belgium were tested in the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) for their neutralizing capacity against the vaccine and wild type viruses...
November 28, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Dihan Zhou, Yi Yang, Bali Zhao, Jie Yu, Yuan Cao, Hu Yan, Wei Zhao, Longyun Chen, Fang Chen, Xiaodan Li, Ejuan Zhang, Jingyi Yang, Maohua Zhong, Mingzhou Chen, Qinxue Hu, Li Deng, Huimin Yan
Secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody is unique for its capability to transit through epithelial cells by transcytosis and thus has opportunities and probabilities to interact with all viral components during viral replication which may result in the inhibition of viral replication intracellularly. Here, we report a novel IgA mAb 1D11-IgA against phosphoprotein (P) of measles virus (MV), which is able to interact specifically with P in MV infected Vero-pIgR cells grown in a two-chamber transwell system. The binding epitope of 1D11-IgA involves a key residue proline 23 in P protein, which is among the α-molecular recognition element (α-MoRE) of P and critical for N0 -P complex...
November 27, 2018: Antiviral Research
Christian K Pfaller, Ryan C Donohue, Stepan Nersisyan, Leonid Brodsky, Roberto Cattaneo
The interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune response is the first line of defense against viruses. However, an IFN-stimulated gene, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), favors the replication of several viruses. ADAR1 binds double-stranded RNA and converts adenosine to inosine by deamination. This form of editing makes duplex RNA unstable, thereby preventing IFN induction. To better understand how ADAR1 works at the cellular level, we generated cell lines that express exclusively either the IFN-inducible, cytoplasmic isoform ADAR1p150, the constitutively expressed nuclear isoform ADAR1p110, or no isoform...
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Fabrizio Angius, Heidi Smuts, Ksenia Rybkina, Debora Stelitano, Brian Eley, Jo Wilmshurst, Marion Ferren, Alexandre Lalande, Cyrille Mathieu, Anne Moscona, Branka Horvat, Takao Hashiguchi, Matteo Porotto, Diana Hardie
During a measles virus (MeV) epidemic in 2009 in South Africa, measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE) was identified in several HIV-infected patients. Years later, children are presenting with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). To investigate the features of established MeV neuronal infections, viral sequences were analysed from brain tissue samples of a single SSPE case and compared with MIBE sequences previously obtained from patients infected during the same epidemic. Both the SSPE and the MIBE viruses had amino acid substitutions in the ectodomain of the F protein that confer enhanced fusion properties...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Dorothea Matysiak-Klose, Sabine Santibanez, Christine Schwerdtfeger, Judith Koch, Horst von Bernuth, Hartmut Hengel, Martina Littmann, Martin Terhardt, Sabine Wicker, Annette Mankertz, Ulrich Heininger
Passive immunisation with immunoglobulins as post-exposure prophylaxis after contact with measles is recommended by the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) particularly for unprotected individuals at high risk of complications for whom active immunization is contraindicated, such as infants <6 months of age, immunocompromised patients and pregnant women. The efficacy of passive immunisation in preventing measles depends on how soon after exposure it is administered, the concentration of measles antibodies in the immunoglobulin products and dosage...
November 23, 2018: Vaccine
Brigitta M Laksono, Rory D de Vries, R Joyce Verburgh, Eline G Visser, Alwin de Jong, Pieter L A Fraaij, Wilhemina L M Ruijs, David F Nieuwenhuijse, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Marion P G Koopmans, Menno C van Zelm, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Rik L de Swart
Measles causes a transient immune suppression, leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In experimentally infected non-human primates (NHPs) measles virus (MV) infects and depletes pre-existing memory lymphocytes, causing immune amnesia. A measles outbreak in the Dutch Orthodox Protestant community provided a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of measles immune suppression in unvaccinated children. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of prodromal measles patients, we detected MV-infected memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and naive and memory B cells at similar levels as those observed in NHPs...
November 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Ruth E Mitchell, Hannah J Jones, Robert H Yolken, Glen Ford, Lorraine Jones-Brando, Susan M Ring, Alix Groom, Sophie FitzGibbon, George Davey Smith, Nicholas J Timpson
Antibodies against pathogens provide information on exposure to infectious agents and are meaningful measures of past and present infection. Antibodies were measured in the plasma of children that are the offspring in a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Plasma was collected during clinics at age 5, 7, 11 and 15 years. The antigens examined include: fungal ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ; protozoan ( Toxoplasma gondii and surface antigen 1 of  T. gondii) ; herpes viruses (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus type 1); common colds (influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2); other antigens (measles); animal (feline herpes virus, Theiler's virus); bacteria ( Helicobacter pylori ); dietary antigens (bovine casein alpha protein, bovine casein beta protein)...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Youichi Suzuki, Mami Kotoura, Shun Yashima, Hong Wu, Takashi Nakano, Kouichi Sano
At present, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is an indispensable tool for the detection and quantification of viral genomes in research laboratories, as well as for molecular diagnosis, because of its sensitivity, specificity, and convenience. However, in most cases, the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay generally used to detect virus infection has relied on the purification of viral nucleic acid prior to the PCR step. In this study, the fluorescence-based reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) assay is developed through the combination of a processing buffer and a one-step RT-PCR reagent so that the whole process, from the harvest of the culture supernatant of virus-infected cells until real-time detection, can be performed without viral RNA purification...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cindy Nürnberger, Bianca S Bodmer, Anna H Fiedler, Gülsah Gabriel, Michael D Mühlebach
The impact of the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic highlights the need for vaccines that reduce or prevent infection and reliably prevent teratogenic complications. The live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine strains are a promising vaccine platform since they induce robust humoral and cellular immune responses against additional antigens and have an excellent safety record. To explore its potential to protect against ZIKV, we compared a recombinant Schwarz strain MV that encodes ZIKV prM and soluble E proteins (MV-Zika-sE) with a prototypic alum-adjuvanted whole-inactivated ZIKV particle vaccine...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Karen Bohmwald, Nicolás M S Gálvez, Mariana Ríos, Alexis M Kalergis
Central Nervous System (CNS) infections are one of the most critical problems in public health, as frequently patients exhibit neurologic sequelae. Usually, CNS pathologies are caused by known neurotropic viruses such as measles virus (MV), herpes virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), among others. However, nowadays respiratory viruses have placed themselves as relevant agents responsible for CNS pathologies. Among these neuropathological viruses are the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), the influenza virus (IV), the coronavirus (CoV) and the human metapneumovirus (hMPV)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Emil C Reisinger, Roland Tschismarov, Eckhard Beubler, Ursula Wiedermann, Christa Firbas, Micha Loebermann, Andrea Pfeiffer, Matthias Muellner, Erich Tauber, Katrin Ramsauer
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya fever is an emerging viral disease and substantial threat to public health. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated, measles-vectored chikungunya vaccine (MV-CHIK). METHODS: In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled and active-controlled phase 2 trial, we enrolled healthy volunteers aged 18-55 years at four study sites in Austria and Germany. Participants were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular injections with MV-CHIK (5 × 104 or 5 × 105 50% tissue culture infectious dose), control vaccine, or measles prime and MV-CHIK, in two different administration regimens...
November 5, 2018: Lancet
Philipp Jent, Mafalda Trippel, Manuel Frey, Alexander Pöllinger, Sabina Berezowska, Rupert Langer, Hansjakob Furrer, Charles Béguelin
We report the case of a young patient treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy who was infected with measles despite previous vaccination. Treatment with vitamin A, ribavirin, and immunoglobulins was started; nevertheless he developed severe pneumonitis and deceased. Broad vaccination coverage is crucial in protecting vulnerable subjects.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Jiye Fu, Chu Jiang, Juguang Wang, Run Cai, Wei Cheng, Lifei Shi, Fan Zhang, Zhilan Xu, Yan Xing
BACKGROUND: Since the National Action Plan for Measles Elimination 2006-2012 was released in 2006, China has entered into an era of accelerated measles elimination. Despite substantial decline, measles outbreak continued to occur mainly in a non-targeted population, in particular health workers due to occupational exposure. We investigated a measles outbreak in a Chinese medicine hospital, Beijing, in March 2018. METHODS: Descriptive analysis was performed on epidemiology of the outbreak, clinical and laboratory evaluations, vaccination status of cases, and public health response...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Midori Taniguchi, Yusuke Yanagi, Shinji Ohno
Measles virus (MeV) first infects immune cells in the respiratory tract of a human host, spreads to lymphoid organs throughout the body, and finally enters and grows in respiratory epithelial cells before being released and transmitted to the next host. Thus, efficient growth in respiratory epithelial cells is important for the person-to-person transmission of MeV. Upon viral entry, host cells detect viral nucleic acids and produce interferons (IFNs) to control viral growth. Type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) IFNs have largely common induction and signaling mechanisms and stimulate expression of similar target genes but utilize distinct receptors...
November 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
Arun Venkatesan, Olwen C Murphy
Viruses are a frequent cause of encephalitis. Common or important viruses causing encephalitis include herpesviruses, arboviruses, enteroviruses, parechoviruses, mumps, measles, rabies, Ebola, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and henipaviruses. Other viruses may cause an encephalopathy. Host factors and clinical features of infection are important to consider in identifying the cause for encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation, serologic/polymerase chain reaction studies, and neuroimaging are cornerstones of diagnostic evaluation in encephalitis...
November 2018: Neurologic Clinics
Eva Avramovich, Viki Indenbaum, Meital Haber, Ziva Amitai, Evgeny Tsifanski, Sahar Farjun, Alona Sarig, Adi Bracha, Karina Castillo, Michal Perry Markovich, Inbal Galor
On August 6, 2017, the Israeli Defense Force Public Heath Branch (IDFPHB) was notified of two suspected measles cases. IDFPHB conducted an epidemiologic investigation, which identified nine measles cases in a population with high measles vaccination coverage. All measles patients had signs and symptoms consistent with modified measles (i.e., less severe disease with milder rash, fever, or both, with or without other mild typical measles symptoms). A total of 1,392 contacts were identified, and 162 received postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine; the remaining contacts were followed for 21 days (one incubation period)...
October 26, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Alina Tomescu-Baciu, Frode Vartdal, Trygve Holmøy, Christian A Vedeler, Andreas Lossius
We have previously shown that plasmablasts of the G1m1 allotype of IgG1 are selectively enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid of G1m1/G1m3 heterozygous patients with multiple sclerosis, whereas both allotypes are equally used in neuroborreliosis. Here, we demonstrate a strong preference for the G1m1 allotype in the intrathecal humoral immune responses against measles, rubella, and varicella zoster virus in G1m1/G1m3 heterozygous multiple sclerosis patients. Conversely, intrathecally synthesized varicella zoster virus-specific IgG1 in varicella zoster virus meningoencephalitis comprised both allotypes...
October 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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