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Jéssica Da Hora, Fernanda Fernandes Cavalcanti, Emilio Lanna
The main characteristic of sponges (Porifera) is the presence of the aquiferous system-a system formed by canals and choanocyte chambers, in which the sponges carry out most of their physiological functions. Despite of the importance for the biology of the group, the knowledge about this structure is still incipient, even when morphological investigations are taken in account. Here, we investigated the anatomy and ultrastructure of the tropical demosponge Cladocroce caelum (Haplosclerida, Demospongiae) using light and electron microscopy...
December 2018: Journal of Morphology
Bruna Codispoti, Massimo Marrelli, Francesco Paduano, Marco Tatullo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their great potential in clinical applications. In fact, MSCs can differentiate into several cell lineages and show paracrine behavior by releasing endogenous factors that stimulate tissue repair and modulate local immune response. Each MSC type is affected by specific biobanking issues-technical issues as well as regulatory and ethical concerns-thus making it quite tricky to safely and commonly use MSC banking for swift regenerative applications. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include a group of 150⁻1000 nm vesicles that are released by budding from the plasma membrane into biological fluids and/or in the culture medium from varied and heterogenic cell types...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
M Cristina DÍaz, Shirley A Pomponi
Pulley Ridge, a limestone ridge that extends nearly 300 km along the southwestern Florida shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, supports a mesophotic coral ecosystem (59 to 94 m deep), surrounded by deeper waters. An ongoing evaluation of Porifera biodiversity observed and collected during expeditions by Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute (2003-2015) have shown the existence of approximately 102 sponge species, with at least 20 species new to science. The present paper describes two novel Poecilosclerida from mesophotic reefs and deep escarpments in the Pulley Ridge Region, Eastern Gulf of Mexico, namely Discorhabdella ruetzleri n...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Linnet Busutil, MarÍa R GarcÍa-hernÁndez, M Cristina DÍaz, Shirley A Pomponi
This study presents the description of two Callyspongia species new to science, and the distribution of all Callyspongia species recorded during the first joint Cuba-U.S. expedition to characterize Cuban mesophotic coral ecosystems (May-June 2017). Additionally, we propose a key to identify thin branching species of the genus in the Greater Caribbean. The observations here presented are the result of underwater explorations with the Mohawk Remotely Operated Vehicle dives at 35 sites around the island, at depths of 25-188 m, recording images and videos, and collecting specimens...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Rob W M van Soest
A new species of the large genus Mycale Gray, 1867 is described, dredged from approximately 300 m depth in the Flores Sea region between the islands of Salayar and Bahuluang, Central Indonesia, during cruises of the Indonesian-Dutch Snellius II Expedition in 1984. Because its megascleres include oxeas the new species is classified as a member of the subgenus Oxymycale Hentschel, 1929, proposed to be named M. (O.) klausjanusorum sp. nov. to honour renowned colleagues Klaus Rützler and Jean ('Janus') Vacelet...
August 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Thaynà Cavalcanti, Carlos Santos Neto, Ulisses Pinheiro
Biemna Gray, 1867 is characterized by stylote or exceptionally oxeote megascleres arranged in a plumoreticulate skeleton, ectosomal skeleton consists of the brushed endings of choanosomal tracts, microscleres are sigmas, microxeas, commata and raphides (Hajdu Van Soest 2002). Currently, Biemna has 55 valid species (Van Soest et al. 2018). In Brazil, three species are known from northern region (Muricy 2018): Biemna microacanthosigma Mothes, Hajdu, Lerner Van Soest, 2004, Biemna spinomicroxea Mothes, Campos, Lerner, Carraro Van Soest, 2005, Biemna trisigmata Mothes Campos, 2004...
June 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Marwa M Hussein, Doaa M Mokhtar
Many studies have been carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution of telocytes (TCs) in many organs. However, their morphological development is still unclear. This study was performed to demonstrate the morphological development of TCs in rabbits' lung from fetal to postnatal life using light-, electron- microscopy, immunohistochemistry, morphometrical and statistical analysis. During the fetal life, these cells formed an extensive network of telopodes (Tps) which were in close contact with developing alveoli, bronchioles, stem cells and many other interstitial components...
September 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
Enrico Solcia, Vittorio Necchi, Patrizia Sommi, Vittorio Ricci
In this article, we outline and discuss available information on the cellular site and mechanism of proteasome interaction with cytosolic polyubiquitinated proteins and heat-shock molecules. The particulate cytoplasmic structure (PaCS) formed by barrel-like particles, closely reproducing in vivo the high-resolution structure of 26S proteasome as isolated in vitro, has been detected in a variety of fetal and neoplastic cells, from living tissue or cultured cell lines. Specific trophic factors and interleukins were found to induce PaCS during in vitro differentiation of dendritic, natural killer (NK), or megakaryoblastic cells, apparently through activation of the MAPK-ERK pathway...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael Lichtenauer, Christian Jung
The pathogenesis of diabetes involves dysregulated gene expression on a pre- and posttranscriptional level. One key mechanism in the development and progression of diabetes is thought being a dysregulation of signalling mediators such as microRNAs. These microRNAs interfere with pathophysiological reactions in diabetes by affecting gene transcription, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Here, in this current issue, Stępień et al. analysed ectosomal miRNA patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using different analytical techniques...
2018: Theranostics
Ewa Ł Stępień, Martyna Durak-Kozica, Agnieszka Kamińska, Marta Targosz-Korecka, Marcin Libera, Grzegorz Tylko, Agnieszka Opalińska, Maria Kapusta, Bogdan Solnica, Adriana Georgescu, Marina C Costa, Agnieszka Czyżewska-Buczyńska, Wojciech Witkiewicz, Maciej T Małecki, Francisco J Enguita
Ectosomes ( Ects ) are a subpopulation of extracellular vesicles formed by the process of plasma membrane shedding. In the present study, we profiled ectosome-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and analyzed their pro- and anti-angiogenic potential. Methods: We used different approaches for detecting and enumerating Ects , including atomic force microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Furthermore, we used bioinformatics tools to analyze functional data obtained from specific miRNA enrichment signatures during angiogenesis and vasculature development...
2018: Theranostics
Sushma Anand, Natalie Foot, Ching-Seng Ang, Kelly M Gembus, Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Christopher G Adda, Suresh Mathivanan, Sharad Kumar
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bilayered vesicles that are released by multiple cell types and contain nucleic acids and proteins. Very little is known about how the cargo is packaged into EVs. Ubiquitination of proteins is a key posttranslational modification that regulates protein stability and trafficking to subcellular compartments including EVs. Recently, arrestin-domain containing protein 1 (Arrdc1), an adaptor for the Nedd4 family of ubiquitin ligases, has been implicated in the release of ectosomes, a subtype of EV that buds from the plasma membrane...
July 23, 2018: Proteomics
Daniel S Johnson, Marina Bleck, Sanford M Simon
The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins are critical for cellular membrane scission processes with topologies inverted relative to clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Some viruses appropriate ESCRT-IIIs for their release. By imaging single assembling viral-like particles of HIV-1, we observed that ESCRT-IIIs and the ATPase VPS4 arrive after most of the virion membrane is bent, linger for tens of seconds, and depart ~20 s before scission. These observations suggest that ESCRT-IIIs are recruited by a combination of membrane curvature and the late domains of the HIV-1 Gag protein...
July 4, 2018: ELife
Magdalena Surman, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Sabina Szwed, Anna Drożdż, Ewa Stępień, Małgorzata Przybyło
AIMS: Numerous studies confirmed the involvement of extracellular vesicles in cancer development and progression. The present study was designed to investigate the glycan composition of ectosomes derived by human cutaneous melanoma (CM) cell lines with the use of lectins. MAIN METHODS: Ectosomes released by primary (WM115, WM793) and metastatic (WM266-4, WM1205Lu) CM cells were isolated from conditioned media by sequential centrifugation. Proteins from ectosomes, the whole cell extracts and membrane fractions were probed with a panel of lectins using Western Blot and flow cytometry and compared in terms of disease stage and glycosignature...
August 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Larissa Pernomian, Jôsimar Dornelas Moreira, Mayara Santos Gomes
Acute or chronic exposure to diabetes-related stressors triggers a specific psychological and behavior stress syndrome called diabetes distress, which underlies depressive symptoms in most diabetic patients. Distressed and/or depressive diabetic adults exhibit higher rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, which have been correlated to macrovascular complications evoked by diabetic behavior stress. Recent experimental findings clearly point out that oxidative stress accounts for the vascular dysfunction initiated by the exposure to life stressors in diabetic conditions...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Birke J Benedikter, Emiel F M Wouters, Paul H M Savelkoul, Gernot G U Rohde, Frank R M Stassen
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted signaling entities that enhance various pathological processes when released in response to cellular stresses. Respiratory exposures such as cigarette smoke and air pollution exert cellular stresses and are associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of this review was to examine the evidence that modifications in EV contribute to respiratory exposure-associated diseases. Publications were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar with the search terms (cigarette smoke OR tobacco smoke OR air pollution OR particulate matter) AND (extracellular vesicles OR exosomes OR microvesicles OR microparticles OR ectosomes)...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Thierry Perez, Cesar Ruiz
The sponge class Homoscleromorpha has a challenging taxonomy and its systematics is still a matter of debate. A significant effort has recently been deployed to better evaluate the diversity of these sponges, and each new exploration of cryptic habitats reveals new species. Although several undescribed or wrongly determined Oscarella-like sponges have been reported by different authors, the Oscarellidae family still lacks description of its true Caribbean representatives. The exploration of various submarine caves in the Lesser Antilles has allowed us to find and to formally describe the first two Oscarellidae of the Caribbean Sea, Oscarella filipoi sp...
January 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Jacopo Meldolesi
Exosomes and ectosomes, two distinct types of extracellular vesicles generated by all types of cell, play key roles in intercellular communication. The formation of these vesicles depends on local microdomains assembled in endocytic membranes for exosomes and in the plasma membrane for ectosomes. These microdomains govern the accumulation of proteins and various types of RNA associated with their cytosolic surface, followed by membrane budding inward for exosome precursors and outward for ectosomes. A fraction of endocytic cisternae filled with vesicles - multivesicular bodies - are later destined to undergo regulated exocytosis, leading to the extracellular release of exosomes...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Silvia H De Paoli, Tseday Z Tegegn, Oumsalama K Elhelu, Michael B Strader, Mehulkumar Patel, Lukas L Diduch, Ivan D Tarandovskiy, Yong Wu, Jiwen Zheng, Mikhail V Ovanesov, Abdu Alayash, Jan Simak
Platelet extracellular vesicles (PEVs) have emerged as potential mediators in intercellular communication. PEVs exhibit several activities with pathophysiological importance and may serve as diagnostic biomarkers. Here, imaging and analytical techniques were employed to unveil morphological pathways of the release, structure, composition, and surface properties of PEVs derived from human platelets (PLTs) activated with the thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP). Based on extensive electron microscopy analysis, we propose four morphological pathways for PEVs release from TRAP-activated PLTs: (1) plasma membrane budding, (2) extrusion of multivesicular α-granules and cytoplasmic vacuoles, (3) plasma membrane blistering and (4) "pearling" of PLT pseudopodia...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Giulia Furini, Nina Schroeder, Linghong Huang, David Boocock, Alessandra Scarpellini, Clare Coveney, Elisa Tonoli, Raghavendran Ramaswamy, Graham Ball, Claudia Verderio, Timothy S Johnson, Elisabetta A M Verderio
Increased export of transglutaminase-2 (TG2) by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) into the surrounding interstitium modifies the extracellular homeostatic balance, leading to fibrotic membrane expansion. Although silencing of extracellular TG2 ameliorates progressive kidney scarring in animal models of CKD, the pathway through which TG2 is secreted from TECs and contributes to disease progression has not been elucidated. In this study, we developed a global proteomic approach to identify binding partners of TG2 responsible for TG2 externalization in kidneys subjected to unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) using TG2 knockout kidneys as negative controls...
March 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Sevgi Haman Bayari, Elif Hilal Şen, Semra Ide, Bülent Topaloglu
The Demospongiae is the largest Class in the phylum Porifera (sponges). Most sponge species in the Class Demospongiae have a skeleton of siliceous spicules and/or protein spongin or both. The first aim of this study was to perform the morphological and structural characterization of the siliceous spicules of four species belonging to Class Demospongiae (Suberites domuncula, Axinella polypoides, Axinella damicornis and Agelas oroides) collected around Gökçeada Island-Turkey (Northern Aegean Sea). The characterizations were carried out using a combination of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques...
March 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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