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Michael Lichtenauer, Christian Jung
The pathogenesis of diabetes involves dysregulated gene expression on a pre- and posttranscriptional level. One key mechanism in the development and progression of diabetes is thought being a dysregulation of signalling mediators such as microRNAs. These microRNAs interfere with pathophysiological reactions in diabetes by affecting gene transcription, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Here, in this current issue, Stępień et al. analysed ectosomal miRNA patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using different analytical techniques...
2018: Theranostics
Ewa Ł Stępień, Martyna Durak-Kozica, Agnieszka Kamińska, Marta Targosz-Korecka, Marcin Libera, Grzegorz Tylko, Agnieszka Opalińska, Maria Kapusta, Bogdan Solnica, Adriana Georgescu, Marina C Costa, Agnieszka Czyżewska-Buczyńska, Wojciech Witkiewicz, Maciej T Małecki, Francisco J Enguita
Ectosomes ( Ects ) are a subpopulation of extracellular vesicles formed by the process of plasma membrane shedding. In the present study, we profiled ectosome-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and analyzed their pro- and anti-angiogenic potential. Methods: We used different approaches for detecting and enumerating Ects , including atomic force microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Furthermore, we used bioinformatics tools to analyze functional data obtained from specific miRNA enrichment signatures during angiogenesis and vasculature development...
2018: Theranostics
Sushma Anand, Natalie Foot, Ching-Seng Ang, Kelly M Gembus, Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Christopher G Adda, Suresh Mathivanan, Sharad Kumar
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bilayered vesicles that are released by multiple cell types and contain nucleic acids and proteins. Very little is known about how the cargo is packaged into EVs. Ubiquitination of proteins is a key post-translational modification that regulates protein stability and trafficking to subcellular compartments including EVs. Recently, Arrdc1, an adaptor for the Nedd4 family of ubiquitin ligases, has been implicated in the release of ectosomes, a subtype of EV that bud from the plasma membrane...
July 23, 2018: Proteomics
Daniel S Johnson, Marina Bleck, Sanford M Simon
The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) proteins are critical for cellular membrane scission processes with topologies inverted relative to clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Some viruses appropriate ESCRT-IIIs for their release. By imaging single assembling viral-like particles of HIV-1, we observed that ESCRT-IIIs and the ATPase VPS4 arrive after most of the virion membrane is bent, linger for tens of seconds, and depart ~20 seconds before scission. These observations suggest ESCRT-IIIs are recruited by a combination of membrane curvature and the late domains of the HIV-1 Gag protein...
July 4, 2018: ELife
Magdalena Surman, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Sabina Szwed, Anna Drożdż, Ewa Stępień, Małgorzata Przybyło
AIMS: Numerous studies confirmed the involvement of extracellular vesicles in cancer development and progression. The present study was designed to investigate the glycan composition of ectosomes derived by human cutaneous melanoma (CM) cell lines with the use of lectins. MAIN METHODS: Ectosomes released by primary (WM115, WM793) and metastatic (WM266-4, WM1205Lu) CM cells were isolated from conditioned media by sequential centrifugation. Proteins from ectosomes, the whole cell extracts and membrane fractions were probed with a panel of lectins using Western Blot and flow cytometry and compared in terms of disease stage and glycosignature...
June 26, 2018: Life Sciences
Larissa Pernomian, Jôsimar Dornelas Moreira, Mayara Santos Gomes
Acute or chronic exposure to diabetes-related stressors triggers a specific psychological and behavior stress syndrome called diabetes distress, which underlies depressive symptoms in most diabetic patients. Distressed and/or depressive diabetic adults exhibit higher rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, which have been correlated to macrovascular complications evoked by diabetic behavior stress. Recent experimental findings clearly point out that oxidative stress accounts for the vascular dysfunction initiated by the exposure to life stressors in diabetic conditions...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Birke J Benedikter, Emiel F M Wouters, Paul H M Savelkoul, Gernot G U Rohde, Frank R M Stassen
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted signaling entities that enhance various pathological processes when released in response to cellular stresses. Respiratory exposures such as cigarette smoke and air pollution exert cellular stresses and are associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of this review was to examine the evidence that modifications in EV contribute to respiratory exposure-associated diseases. Publications were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar with the search terms (cigarette smoke OR tobacco smoke OR air pollution OR particulate matter) AND (extracellular vesicles OR exosomes OR microvesicles OR microparticles OR ectosomes)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Thierry Perez, Cesar Ruiz
The sponge class Homoscleromorpha has a challenging taxonomy and its systematics is still a matter of debate. A significant effort has recently been deployed to better evaluate the diversity of these sponges, and each new exploration of cryptic habitats reveals new species. Although several undescribed or wrongly determined Oscarella-like sponges have been reported by different authors, the Oscarellidae family still lacks description of its true Caribbean representatives. The exploration of various submarine caves in the Lesser Antilles has allowed us to find and to formally describe the first two Oscarellidae of the Caribbean Sea, Oscarella filipoi sp...
January 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Jacopo Meldolesi
Exosomes and ectosomes, two distinct types of extracellular vesicles generated by all types of cell, play key roles in intercellular communication. The formation of these vesicles depends on local microdomains assembled in endocytic membranes for exosomes and in the plasma membrane for ectosomes. These microdomains govern the accumulation of proteins and various types of RNA associated with their cytosolic surface, followed by membrane budding inward for exosome precursors and outward for ectosomes. A fraction of endocytic cisternae filled with vesicles - multivesicular bodies - are later destined to undergo regulated exocytosis, leading to the extracellular release of exosomes...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Silvia H De Paoli, Tseday Z Tegegn, Oumsalama K Elhelu, Michael B Strader, Mehulkumar Patel, Lukas L Diduch, Ivan D Tarandovskiy, Yong Wu, Jiwen Zheng, Mikhail V Ovanesov, Abdu Alayash, Jan Simak
Platelet extracellular vesicles (PEVs) have emerged as potential mediators in intercellular communication. PEVs exhibit several activities with pathophysiological importance and may serve as diagnostic biomarkers. Here, imaging and analytical techniques were employed to unveil morphological pathways of the release, structure, composition, and surface properties of PEVs derived from human platelets (PLTs) activated with the thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP). Based on extensive electron microscopy analysis, we propose four morphological pathways for PEVs release from TRAP-activated PLTs: (1) plasma membrane budding, (2) extrusion of multivesicular α-granules and cytoplasmic vacuoles, (3) plasma membrane blistering and (4) "pearling" of PLT pseudopodia...
February 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Giulia Furini, Nina Schroeder, Linghong Huang, David Boocock, Alessandra Scarpellini, Clare Coveney, Elisa Tonoli, Raghavendran Ramaswamy, Graham Ball, Claudia Verderio, Timothy S Johnson, Elisabetta A M Verderio
Increased export of transglutaminase-2 (TG2) by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) into the surrounding interstitium modifies the extracellular homeostatic balance, leading to fibrotic membrane expansion. Although silencing of extracellular TG2 ameliorates progressive kidney scarring in animal models of CKD, the pathway through which TG2 is secreted from TECs and contributes to disease progression has not been elucidated. In this study, we developed a global proteomic approach to identify binding partners of TG2 responsible for TG2 externalization in kidneys subjected to unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) using TG2 knockout kidneys as negative controls...
March 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Sevgi Haman Bayari, Elif Hilal Şen, Semra Ide, Bülent Topaloglu
The Demospongiae is the largest Class in the phylum Porifera (sponges). Most sponge species in the Class Demospongiae have a skeleton of siliceous spicules and/or protein spongin or both. The first aim of this study was to perform the morphological and structural characterization of the siliceous spicules of four species belonging to Class Demospongiae (Suberites domuncula, Axinella polypoides, Axinella damicornis and Agelas oroides) collected around Gökçeada Island-Turkey (Northern Aegean Sea). The characterizations were carried out using a combination of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques...
March 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Michael L Merchant, Ilse M Rood, Jeroen K J Deegens, Jon B Klein
Urine is a valuable diagnostic medium and, with the discovery of urinary extracellular vesicles, is viewed as a dynamic bioactive fluid. Extracellular vesicles are lipid-enclosed structures that can be classified into three categories: exosomes, microvesicles (or ectosomes) and apoptotic bodies. This classification is based on the mechanisms by which membrane vesicles are formed: fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membranes (exosomes), budding of vesicles directly from the plasma membrane (microvesicles) or those shed from dying cells (apoptotic bodies)...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Mirca Marini, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Among cardiac interstitial cells, the recently described telocytes (TCs) display the unique ability to build a supportive three-dimensional network formed by their very long and thin prolongations named telopodes. Cardiac TCs are increasingly regarded as pivotal regulators in intercellular signaling with multiple cell types, such as cardiomyocytes, stem/progenitor cells, microvessels, nerve endings, fibroblasts and immune cells, thus converting the cardiac stromal compartment into an integrated system that may drive either heart development or maintenance of cardiac homeostasis in post-natal life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Winston Patrick Kuo, John C Tigges, Vasilis Toxavidis, Ionita Ghiran
During their lifetime, like all other cell types, red blood cells (RBCs) release both exosomes and plasma membrane derived EVs (ectosomes). RBC exosomes are formed only during the development of RBCs in bone marrow, and are released following the fusion of microvesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. On the other hand, RBC EVs are generated during normal aging of RBCs in circulation by budding of the plasma membrane due to complement -mediated calcium influx, followed by vesicle shedding. This makes red blood cells and stored red cells a reliable source of EVs for basic and clinical research...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Thomas Juan, Maximilian Fürthauer
From bacteria to humans, cells secrete a large variety of membrane-bound extracellular vesicles. Only relatively recently has it however started to become clear that the exovesicular transport of proteins and RNAs is important for normal physiology and numerous pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles can be formed through the release of the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes as so-called exosomes, or through direct, ectosomal, budding from the cell surface. Through their ability to promote the bending of membranes away from the cytoplasm, the components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) have been implicated in both exo- and ectosomal biogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Hiroshi Kubo
Accumulating evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a role in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. These vesicles include exosomes, ectosomes (ie, microparticles, extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, and shedding vesicles), and apoptotic bodies. Exosomes are generated by inward budding of the membrane (endocytosis), subsequent forming of multivesicular bodies, and release by exocytosis. Ectosomes are formed by outward blebbing from the plasma membrane and are then released by proteolytic cleavage from the cell surface...
January 2018: Chest
Charles E Jackson, Benjamin S Scruggs, Jean E Schaffer, Phyllis I Hanson
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are proposed to play important roles in intercellular communication. Two classes of EVs can be distinguished based on their intracellular origin. Exosomes are generated within endosomes and released when these fuse with the plasma membrane, whereas ectosomes bud directly from the plasma membrane. Studies of EV function have been hindered by limited understanding of their biogenesis. Components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery play essential roles in topologically equivalent processes at both the endosome and the plasma membrane and are consistently recovered in EVs, but whether they are generally required to produce EVs is still debated...
September 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
G Bavestrello, U Benatti, B Calcinai, R Cattaneo-Vietti, C Cerrano, A Favre, M Giovine, S Lanza, R Pronzato, M Sara
The skeleton of the common Mediterranean demosponge Chondrosia reniformis lacks endogenous spicules; but exogenous siliceous material is selectively incorporated into its collagenous ectosome, strengthening this layer. Nevertheless, the settling of sponge buds during asexual reproduction necessitates an active incorporation of the calcareous substratum through the sponge lower ectosome. This fact suggests the presence of a polarity in the sponge, with the lower surface selecting primarily carbonates, and the upper surface selecting exclusively silicates and quartz...
October 1998: Biological Bulletin
Francesca Oliviero, Anna Scanu
One of the main clinical features characterizing crystal-induced inflammation is its spontaneous resolution. The aim of this review is to outline the various factors involved in the self-limiting course of crystal-induced inflammation focusing on their effect on IL-1β production. Endogenous molecules that are induced or locally recruited by the process itself, inhibitory proteins naturally present in the joint and exogenous dietary factors are discussed. Aside from the classical well-known molecules involved in the resolution of crystal-induced acute attack such as TGFβ, IL-10, IL-1Ra, and lipoproteins, particular attention is paid to recently uncovered mechanisms such as the aggregation of neutrophil extracellular traps, the release of ectosomes from neutrophil surface, and alpha-1-anti-trypsin-mediated IL-1 inhibition...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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