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Petra Quillfeldt, Tanja Romeike, Juan F Masello, Gerald Reiner, Hermann Willems, Yuliana Bedolla-Guzmán
Blood parasites are found in many vertebrates, but the research on blood parasites of lizards is still at its onset. We analyzed blood samples from side-blotched lizards Uta stansburiana from San Benito Oeste Island, Mexico, to test for the presence of hemoparasites. We found a high prevalence (23 out of 27 samples) of a blood parasite of the genus Lankesterella (Coccidia, Eimeriorina, Lankesterellidae) according to phylogenetic analyses of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Similar parasites (97-99% similarity) have recently been described for Uta stansburiana from California...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Floris F van den Brand, Carin M J van Nieuwkerk, Bart J Verwer, Ynto S de Boer, Nanne K H de Boer, Chris J J Mulder, Elisabeth Bloemena, Christine M Bakker, Jan M Vrolijk, Joost P H Drenth, Adriaan C I T L Tan, Frank Ter Borg, Martijn J Ter Borg, Sven J van den Hazel, Akin Inderson, Maarten E Tushuizen, Gerd Bouma
BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) and mercaptopurine (MP) are the cornerstone of steroid-sparing strategies in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Up to 20% of patients do not tolerate or respond to these regimens. AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of tioguanine (thioguanine) (TG) therapy in selected patients with AIH and AIH variant syndromes. METHODS: Records of 52 patients who received TG therapy were retrieved from nine hospitals in the Netherlands...
August 15, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Hae Min So, Hee Jeong Eom, Dahae Lee, Sil Kim, Ki Sung Kang, Il Kyun Lee, Kwan-Hyuck Baek, Jun Yeon Park, Ki Hyun Kim
Identification of bioactive natural products with anticancer activity as well as alleviating effects on chemotherapy-induced side effects has significant implications for cancer treatment. Betula platyphylla var. japonica, commonly known as Asian white birch, has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for a variety of purposes. In this study, the medicinal properties of betulin from B. platyphylla var. japonica useful for cancer management were investigated. LC/MS analysis revealed that betulin is a main chemical component of the EtOH extract of B...
August 14, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Madhappan Santha Moorthy, Subramanian Bharathiraja, Panchanathan Manivasagan, Kang Dae Lee, Junghwan Oh
Mesoporous silica-based drug delivery carriers mostly require appropriate surface modifications to improve their drug delivery efficiency and to reduce their adverse side effects. In the present work, we have synthesised mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their surface was covered by using capping units such as tetrathio-maleimide (TTM) via a "host-guest" complexation mechanism for pH-responsive drug delivery applications. The surface-functionalised melamine (Mela) groups on the outer surface of the mesoporous silica nanoparticles act as "hosts" and the surface capped TTM units act as "guests" during the surface capping of the mesoporous silica nanoparticles via the "host-guest" complexation approach...
September 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Aisha Siddiquah, Syed Salman Hashmi, Sadaf Mushtaq, Sullivan Renouard, Jean Philippe Blondeau, Rashda Abbasi, Christophe Hano, Bilal Haider Abbasi
Little is known about biogenically synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) from Isodon rugosus . Synthesis of metal oxide NPs from essential oil producing medicinal plants results in less harmful side effects to the human population as compared to chemically synthesized NPs. In this article, we report biogenic synthesis of ZnONPs from in vitro derived plantlets and thidiazuron (TDZ) induced callus culture of Isodon rugosus . Synthesized NPs were characterized using UV-spectra, XRD, FTIR, SEM and EDX. Furthermore, the NPs were evaluated for their potential cytotoxic (against HepG2 cell line) and antimicrobial (against drug resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis , Bacillus subtilis , Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) activities...
2018: EXCLI Journal
Claudio Ponticelli, Rachele Escoli, Gabriella Moroni
Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug that is converted to inactive carboxy-cyclophosphamide, acrolein and phosphoramide mustard, an agent that adds alkyl groups to oxygen and nitrogen atoms of guanine, one of the four nitrogen bases that form the DNA nucleotides, causing DNA cross-links and introducing DNA breaks. These cytotoxic and mutagenic effects mainly occur in proliferating cells. Repair mechanisms may prevent DNA damage in quiescent cells, but they may be insufficient to contrast the side effects of cyclophosphamide if high doses of the drug are used...
August 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Yeo Hun Yoon, Yoon, Shujaat Khan, Jaeyoung Huh, Jong Chul Ye
In portable, three dimensional, and ultra-fast ultrasound imaging systems, there is an increasing demand for the reconstruction of high quality images from a limited number of radio-frequency (RF) measurements due to receiver (Rx) or transmit (Xmit) event sub-sampling. However, due to the presence of side lobe artifacts from RF sub-sampling, the standard beamformer often produces blurry images with less contrast, which are unsuitable for diagnostic purposes. Existing compressed sensing approaches often require either hardware changes or computationally expensive algorithms, but their quality improvements are limited...
August 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Wei Bai, Hong-Ying Yang, Xing-Zhi Jiao, Ke-Na Feng, Jian-Jun Chen, Kun Gao
Ten new triterpenoids, ailanaltiolides A-J (1-10), and three known analogues (11-13) were isolated from the roots of Ailanthus altissima. Compounds 1-7 are apotirucallane-type, compounds 8 and 9 are tirucallane-type, and compound 10 is a trinordammarane-type triterpenoid. This is the first study indicating the genus Ailanthus as a potential source for apotirucallane derivatives, which contain an α,β-unsaturated-ε-lactone A-ring and diversely modified C-17 side chains. Spectroscopic data interpretation, electronic circular dichroism analysis, and X-ray crystallographic data defined the structures and absolute configurations of these triterpenoids...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Kazunari Misawa, Takaki Yoshikawa, Seiji Ito, Haruhiko Cho, Yuichi Ito, Takashi Ogata
BACKGROUND: Duodenal stump fistula (DSF) after gastrectomy is of low frequency but a critical complication in gastric cancer surgery. Manual oversewing for reinforcement of the duodenal stump is not applicable when free longitudinal margin is short and has technical difficulties in laparoscopic surgery. This trial evaluated the safety and feasibility of using a linear stapler with bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet for duodenal stump closure and reinforcement in gastric cancer surgery...
August 13, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Nishant S Gandhi, Sudhakar Godeshala, Dana-Lynn T Koomoa-Lange, Bhavani Miryala, Kaushal Rege, Mahavir B Chougule
PURPOSE: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in the United States, but currently available therapies for lung cancer are associated with reduced efficacy and adverse side effects. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can knock down the expression of specific genes and result in therapeutic efficacy in lung cancer. Recently, mTOR siRNA has been shown to induce apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines but its use is limited due to poor stability in biological conditions. METHODS: In this study, we modified an aminoglyocisde-derived cationic poly (amino-ether) by introducing a thiol group using Traut's reagent to generate a bio-reducible modified-poly (amino-ether) (mPAE)...
August 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Sriroopreddy Ramireddy, P Raghuraman, Pradhyum Khandelwal, Jayanthi Abraham, C Sudandiradoss
Asthma, a chronic lung disease characterized by obstruction of airway passage is characterized by inflammation and hyperresponsiveness with increase in the number of eosinophils. Interleukin-13, plays a significant role in causing inflammation during an asthmatic attack by bronchial constriction. Mometasone, a glucocorticoid has been used as the first line of administration for people affected with asthma for almost a decade. However, in several cases, people treated with mometasone have faced systemic and local side effects...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Mohammed Shafi Sofi, M K Sateesh, Mohsin Bashir, Mohd Ashraf Ganie, Shabnum Nabi
The present study focuses on isolation and evaluation of the anti-cancer activity of compounds from the leaves of Abrus precatorius . The bioassay-directed strategy was adopted using chromatographic, gas chromatographic-mass spectrum analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography techniques for purification and characterization of active cytotoxic compounds. Further, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced virgin female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used for in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity evaluation...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Martuza Sarwar, Azharuddin Sajid Syed Khaja, Mohammed Aleskandarany, Richard Karlsson, Maryam Althobiti, Niels Ødum, Nigel P Mongan, Nisthman Dizeyi, Heather Johnson, Andrew R Green, Ian O Ellis, Emad A Rakha, Jenny L Persson
Despite recent improvement in adjuvant therapies, triple-negative, and ER+ subtypes of breast cancer (BC) with metastatic potentials remain the leading cause of BC-related deaths. We investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase alpha (PIP5Kα), a key upstream factor of PI3K/AKT, and the therapeutic effect of PIP5Kα inhibitor on subtypes of BC. The clinical importance of PIP5K1α and its association with survivals were analyzed using three BC cohorts from Nottingham (n = 913), KM plotter (n = 112) and TCGA (n = 817)...
August 13, 2018: Oncogene
Abhishek Manoj Ranaware, Kishore Banik, Vishwas Deshpande, Ganesan Padmavathi, Nand Kishor Roy, Gautam Sethi, Lu Fan, Alan Prem Kumar, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
The past few decades have witnessed widespread research to challenge carcinogenesis; however, it remains one of the most important health concerns with the worst prognosis and diagnosis. Increasing lines of evidence clearly show that the rate of cancer incidence will increase in future and will create global havoc, designating it as an epidemic. Conventional chemotherapeutics and treatment with synthetic disciplines are often associated with adverse side effects and development of chemoresistance. Thus, discovering novel economic and patient friendly drugs that are safe and efficacious is warranted...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vera Lachmann, Marc Heimann, Christian Jung, Tobias Zeus, Pablo Emilio Verde, Malte Kelm, Florian Bönner
AIMThe study aims to test whether simultaneous measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) is feasible, safe and effective during regadenoson-induced hyperemia.METHODS AND RESULTSFFR, CFR and IMR were measured simultaneously during regadenoson (Rapiscan 400μg) -induced hyperemia in 50 patients with stable coronary artery disease with a SYNTAX score of <22. Simultaneous measurement of FFR, CFR and IMR was technically feasible in all cases (50/50)...
July 30, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Lorenzo Calisti, Matilde Cardoso Trabuco, Alberto Boffi, Claudia Testi, Linda Celeste Montemiglio, Amédée des Georges, Irene Benni, Andrea Ilari, Bartłomiej Taciak, Maciej Białasek, Tomasz Rygiel, Magdalena Król, Paola Baiocco, Alessandra Bonamore
Ferritin H-homopolymers have been extensively used as nanocarriers for diverse applications in the targeted delivery of drugs and imaging agents, due to their unique ability to bind the transferrin receptor (CD71), highly overexpressed in most tumor cells. In order to incorporate novel fluorescence imaging properties, we have fused a lanthanide binding tag (LBT) to the C-terminal end of mouse H-chain ferritin, HFt. The HFt-LBT possesses one high affinity Terbium binding site per each of the 24 subunits provided by six coordinating aminoacid side chains and a tryptophan residue in its close proximity and is thus endowed with strong FRET sensitization properties...
2018: PloS One
Xiaolai Li, Yuliang Wang, Binglin Zeng, Yanshen Li, Huanshu Tan, Harold J W Zandvliet, Xuehua Zhang, Detlef Lohse
The formation and evolution of immersed surface micro- and nanobubbles are essential in various practical applications, such as the usage of superhydrophobic materials, drug delivery and mineral flotation. In this work, we investigate the entrapment of microbubbles on a hydrophobic surface, structured with microwells, when water flow passes along, and the subsequent microbubble dissolution. At entrapment, the microbubble is initially pinned at the edge of the microwell. At some point, the three phase contact line detaches from one side of the edge and separates from the wall, after which it is further receding...
August 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Wei Jiang, Qitao Yu, Ruiling Ning, Wenhua Zhao, Changyuan Wei
Background: Results from several prospective clinical trials comparing anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy plus chemotherapy for wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the optimal choice for these target agents. Methods: We searched for clinical trials in both electronic databases from inception until January 2018 and recent conference abstracts to identify prospective clinical studies comparing the efficacy of a VEGF inhibitor (bevacizumab) versus EGFR inhibitors (cetuximab or panitumumab) on wild-type RAS (including its subset KRAS ) mCRC...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Peter Muris, Myrr van den Broek, Henry Otgaar, Iris Oudenhoven, Janine Lennartz
To demonstrate that the positive and negative subscales of Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) are very different in nature, we conducted a series of face validity checks on the items of this questionnaire among psychologists and psychology students (Study 1). Furthermore, a survey was administered to a convenience sample of non-clinical adolescents to examine the relations between various SCS subscales and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as coping styles (Study 2). The results of the face validity checks revealed that the positive subscales seem to be well in line with the protective nature of self-compassion as they were mainly associated with cognitive coping and healthy functioning, whereas the negative subscales were chiefly associated with psychopathological symptoms and mental illness...
2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Bin Wang, Yufan Zhang, Wei Jiang, Li Zhu, Kaili Li, Kai Zhou, Dongsheng Dai, Shan Chang, Min Fang
Protein glycosylation, attaching glycans covalently onto amino acid side chains of protein by various glycosyltransferase, is the most common post-translational modification. The UDP-GalNAc transferase 3 (GANLT3), encoded by Galnt3, transfers N-acetyl-d-galactosamine to hydroxyl groups of the side chains of Ser/Thr residues, initiating mucin type O-glycosylation of proteins. Most researches as yet focus on the involvement and abnormal expression of GALNT3 in various tumors. In this study, we found that GALNT3 was significantly decreased in the lungs after influenza A virus (IAV) infection in mice...
August 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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