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Francesco Fontana, Gaetano Alfano, Marco Leonelli, Caterina Cerami, Giulia Ligabue, Amelia Spinella, Giorgia Citriniti, Carlo Umberto Manzini, Clodoveo Ferri, Gianni Cappelli
BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a frequent severe complication of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), especially in patients of non-Caucasian ethnicity. Induction treatment for LN consists in the combination of steroids plus a second agent (cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil) or, as a second-line, calcineurin inhibitors or Rituximab. Induction treatment for LN can be complicated by a series of side effects, the most severe being serious infections. Belimumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets soluble B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), approved for treatment of serologically active SLE in addition to standard of care...
October 20, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Inês L Martins, João Nunes, Catarina Charneira, Judit Morello, Sofia A Pereira, João P Telo, M Matilde Marques, Alexandra M M Antunes
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs by both adults and children. Despite its widespread use, CBZ is associated with central nervous system toxicity and severe hypersensitivity reactions, which raise concerns about its chronic use. While the precise mechanisms of CBZ-induced adverse events are still unclear, metabolic activation to the epoxide (CBZ-EP) has been thought to play a significant role. This work reports first-hand evidence that CBZ reacts readily with biologically relevant thiyl radicals with no need for bioactivation...
October 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hai-Na Zhang, Qiao-Qiao Xu, Abhimanyu Thakur, Martin Omondi Alfred, Manas Chakraborty, Arunima Ghosh, Xu-Ben Yu
The vascular endothelium acts as a barrier between the blood flow and the inner lining of the vessel wall, and it functions as a filtering machinery to filter out any unwanted transfer of materials from both sides (i.e. the blood and the surrounding tissues). It is evident that diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension disturb the normal endothelial functions in humans and lead to endothelial dysfunction, which may further precede to the development of atherosclerosis. Long non-coding RNAs and micro RNAs both are types of non-coding RNAs which, in the recent years, have increasingly been studied in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, and others...
October 17, 2018: Life Sciences
Julian H George, David Nagel, Sharlayne Waller, Eric Hill, H Rhein Parri, Michael D Coleman, Zhanfeng Cui, Hua Ye
Microporous membranes support the growth of neurites into and through micro-channels, providing a different type of neural growth platform to conventional dish cultures. Microporous membranes are used to support various types of culture, however, the role of pore diameter in relation to neurite growth through the membrane has not been well characterised. In this study, the human cell line (SH-SY5Y) was differentiated into neuron-like cells and cultured on track-etched microporous membranes with pore and channel diameters selected to accommodate neurite width (0...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julie Pell, Rosemary Greenwood, Jenny Ingram, Katherine Wale, Ian Thomas, Rebecca Kandiyali, Andrew Mumford, Andrew Dick, Catherine Bagot, Nichola Cooper, Quentin Hill, Charlotte Ann Bradbury
INTRODUCTION: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune condition that may cause thrombocytopenia-related bleeding. Current first-line ITP treatment is with high-dose corticosteroids but frequent side effects, heterogeneous responses and high relapse rates are significant problems with only 20% remaining in sustained remission with this approach. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is often used as the next treatment with efficacy in 50%-80% of patients and good tolerability but can take up to 2 months to work...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
L Genere, J Bacchetta, Y Bertrand, E Javouhey, N Cheikh, A-L Sellier-Leclerc
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a severe complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with the reported mortality rate in such cases usually reaching 90%. CASES: We report on two pediatric cases of patients successfully treated by eculizumab for severe HSCT-TMA, occurring in two girls (8.4 and 3.6 years). The first patient developed TMA with hematologic abnormalities and renal/pulmonary lesions after allogeneic HSCT for Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia; she received eculizumab 7 months after HSCT, with a dramatic improvement of renal function...
October 16, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
P Ferrer Molina, C Calatayud Lliso, R Carreras Collado, M Muñoz García, M Díaz Bachiller, J Blanes Espí, M Checa
RESEARCH QUESTION: To determine whether the transdermal route is equal or superior to the oral route, when preparing the endometrium with oestrogens for embryo transfer. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled trial; 140 patients randomized; the pills group followed a protocol with oestradiol valerate pills and the patches group followed a protocol with oestradiol hemihydrate patches. The primary variable was endometrial thickness on day 10 ± 1 of treatment...
September 29, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Diker Nurettin, Bayram Burak
The objective of this study was to conduct a computer assessment of the biomechanical stability of locking fixation plates of different thicknesses, made of titanium alloy and carbon-fiber- reinforced polyetheretherkotone (CFR-PEEK) in Class III atrophic mandibular fractures. Class III atrophic mandibular models were constructed using three-dimensional finite element models. After simulation of fracture on the left side, plates with different thicknesses (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm) were adapted to the models and three locking screws on each side of the fracture were used for fixation...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Aoyuan Fan, Tianyang Xu, Xifan Li, Lei Li, Lin Fan, Dong Yang, Guodong Li
BACKGROUND: Restoring the normal joint line (JL) is an important goal to achieve in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We intended to study the veracity of several landmarks used to level the normal JL in Chinese people. METHODS: Two hundred fifteen standard CT scans of knee joint were included to measure the distances from landmarks to distal JL (DJL) and posterior JL (PJL), along with femoral width (FW) in order to calculate the ratios. Landmarks included adductor tubercle (AT), medial epicondyle (ME), lateral epicondyle (LE), tibial tubercle (TT), fibular head (FH) and the inferior pole of the patella (IPP)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Pieter-Jan Van Bockstal, Jos Corver, Laurens De Meyer, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer
Freeze-drying is a well-established technique to improve the stability of biopharmaceuticals which are unstable in aqueous solution. To obtain an elegant dried product appearance, the temperature at the moving sublimation interface Ti should be kept below the critical product temperature Ti,crit during primary drying. The static temperature sensors applied in batch freeze-drying provide unreliable Ti data due to their invasive character. Also, these sensors are incompatible with the continuous freeze-drying concept based on spinning of the vials during freezing, leading to a thin product layer spread over the entire inner vial wall...
October 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Magda F Mohamed, Nada S Ibrahim, Ahmed H M Elwahy, Ismail A Abdelhamid
Novel 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by different spectral tools. The newly synthesized compounds were screened on two different tumor cell lines (A549 and MCF7). In an attempt to know the mechanism of action of the synthesized compounds as cytotoxic agents, we studied their effect on lung carcinoma cell line (A549) for its better cytotoxicity. The molecular data showed that all compounds caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and this confirmed theoretically by molecular docking studies on CDK2 and slightly increased the percentage of early apoptosis with no detectable DNA ladder characteristic of apoptotic cell death...
October 18, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Farkhondeh Khanjani, Reza H Sajedi, Sadegh Hasannia
Over the recent decade, the calcium-based assays have gained much popularity in order to discover new drugs. Since breast cancer is the second cause of death in the female population, rapid and effective methods are needed to screen drug compounds with fewer side effects. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) increases intracellular free Ca2+ on its signaling pathways. In the present study, BT474 cell line, which overexpresses HER2 receptor, was selected and using fura-2-AM, intracellular Ca2+ release was investigated...
October 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Siddharth Amboli, Yatindra U Ashtaputre, Anuradha Kamath, Channabasavaraj S Hiremath, Krishna Manohar
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a congenital anomaly in which some of the pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or one of its venous tributaries. Although excellent long-term results have been described for the classic two-patch technique repair in older patients, The Warden procedure has an important role in smaller and younger patients and those patients in whom the superior vena cava (SVC) may be small and the right-sided pulmonary veins may connect high, at or above the azygos vein. In addition to prevention of early and late sinus node dysfunction, the Warden procedure helps to avoid systemic or pulmonary venous obstruction if care is taken to ensure a tension-free Warden anastomosis...
October 18, 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Аlexander Khitaryan, Anastasiya Golovina, Arut Mezhunts, Kamil Veliev, Raisa Zavgorodnyaya, Аlexey Orekhov
INTRODUCTION: Complicated esophageal diverticulum is an extremely rare disease. The most widespread surgical tactic in such cases is drainage of the mediastinum and the position of a feeding gastrostomy or enterostomy. Our objective was to demonstrate the possibility of performing a one-step operation in case of giant esophageal diverticulum with necrotic diverticulitis and sepsis on the background of dilatation of the esophagus. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 57-year-old woman complained of persistent nagging epigastric pain, heartburn, belching, daily vomiting of eaten food and liquid, impaired swallowing, fever up to 39° C...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Aya Miyamoto, Tomonari Takeshita, Toshio Yanagiya
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether foot strike patterns are associated with different sprint performance and kinematics in preadolescent boys. The study enrolled 24 healthy 10-11-year-old boys in the fifth grade at public elementary schools in Japan. The participants performed the 50-m sprint with maximum effort. Sprint motion was recorded using a high-speed video camera (120 fps) placed in the sagittal plane on the left side of a line drawn at 35-m from the start line. Kinematic variables were calculated based on manually digitized body landmark coordinates...
2018: PloS One
Shin-Hyo Lee, Ki-Seok Koh, Wu-Chul Song
PURPOSE: This study evaluated midfacial asymmetry using an alternative method that involved comparing bilateral patterns of the zygomaticomaxillary prominence in a young adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional reconstructed images based on computed tomography scans of 100 Koreans (mean age, 24.7 years) were evaluated with reference to lines spaced at 30° intervals and radiating from the center of an interporion line in a superior view. The surface inclination of the zygomaticomaxillary region was quantified on the same reference lines using a 3-dimensional ruler...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Benjamin J Heller, Pranav Deshpande, Joshua A Heller, Patrick McCormick, Hung-Mo Lin, Ruiqi Huang, Gregory Fischer, Menachem M Weiner
Background: Cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has well-documented benefits during cardiac surgery. The authors tested the hypothesis that NIRS technology can be used at other sites as a tissue oximeter during cardiac surgery and in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Aims: To establish feasibility of monitoring tissue oximetry during and after cardiac surgery, to examine the correlations between tissue oximetry values and cerebral oximetry values, and to examine correlations between oximetry values and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to test whether cerebral oximetry can be used as an index organ...
October 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Chung-I Yu, Chung-Yi Chen, Wangta Liu, Po-Chih Chang, Chiung-Wei Huang, Kuang-Fen Han, In-Pin Lin, Mei-Ying Lin, Chien-Hsing Lee
Presently, natural sources and herbs are being sought for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in order to alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy. This study investigates the effect of sandensolide, a cembrane isolated from Sinularia flexibilis , to inhibit human OSCC cell growth with the aim of developing a new drug for the treatment of oral cancer. In vitro cultured human OSCC models (Ca9.22, SCC9 and HSC-3 cell lines) and oral normal cells (HGF-1), as well as a zebrafish xenograft model, were used to test the cytotoxicity of sandensolide (MTT assay), as well as to perform cell cycle analysis and Western blotting...
October 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Helen Senderovich, Akash Yendamuri
INTRODUCTION: Dyspnea is prominently observed in palliative care (PC). Dyspnea can be multifactorial, primarily caused by obstructive or restrictive lung diseases or secondarily induced by various comorbidities. Numerous interventions exist, with route of administration and efficacy requiring further discussion. Despite opioids being the first line of treatment, their adverse effects lead to reluctance on the side of patients to take them, creating limitations in patient management planning...
October 16, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Nergiz Turgut, Lisa Möller, Kerstin Dengler, Katrin Steinberg, Andreas Sprenger, Paul Eling, Andreas Kastrup, Helmut Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial neglect is a disabling syndrome with serious consequences for activities in daily life. This study investigated the effect of adaptive cueing during a reading task as a possible treatment for neglect by including (1) a task relevant for the patient's daily life, (2) a fading out procedure to stimulate independent orientation to the left by self-cueing, and (3) a clear definition of neglect severity for the adaptive treatment protocol. METHODS: A randomized controlled crossover design was used, including 26 patients from an early rehabilitation unit with left-sided visuospatial neglect after stroke or hemorrhage...
October 17, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
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