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Insulin Adult

Arpád Dobolyi, András H Lékó
Our knowledge on the bioavailability and actions of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has markedly expanded in recent years as novel mechanisms were discovered on IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and their ability to release IGF-1. The new discoveries allowed a better understanding of the endogenous physiological actions of IGF-1 and also its applicability in therapeutics. The focus of the present review is to summarize novel findings on the neuronal, neuroendocrine and neuroplastic actions of IGF-1 in the adult brain...
December 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Joseph Tibaldi, Martin Hadley-Brown, Andreas Liebl, Steffen Haldrup, Viktor Sandberg, Michael Lyng Wolden, Helena W Rodbard
AIMS: To compare the real-world effectiveness of insulin degludec (degludec) and glargine 300 units/mL (glargine U300) in insulin-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes in routine US clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CONFIRM is a non-interventional comparative effectiveness study following US patients across the continuum of care, through electronic medical records from multiple health systems and integrated delivery networks. Propensity-score matching controlled for confounding...
December 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Rebecca S Holmes, Elizabeth Crabtree, Marian S McDonagh
AIMS: To review evidence comparing benefits and harms of long-acting insulins in Type 1 and 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE and two Cochrane databases were searched through February 2018. Two authors selected studies meeting inclusion criteria and assessed their quality. Comparative studies of adult or pediatric patients with diabetes treated with insulin degludec, detemir, or glargine were included. Meta-analysis was used to combine results of similar studies, and the I2 statistic calculated to assess statistical heterogeneity...
December 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sílvia Xargay-Torrent, Núria Espuña-Capote, Mercè Montesinos-Costa, Anna Prats-Puig, Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Ferran Díaz-Roldán, Francis De Zegher, Lourdes Ibáñez, Judit Bassols, Abel López-Bermejo
Although alkaline phosphatase (ALP) correlates with cardiovascular risk in adults, there are no studies in children. We evaluated the association between serum ALP levels, calcium-phosphorus product (Ca*P) and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy children. Children aged 7.9 ± 1.4 (n = 379) were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measures were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Additional assessments were body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting lipids, ALP, serum calcium, phosphorus and Ca*P...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Katherine H M Cox, Andrew Scholey, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and chronic inflammation are risk factors for chronic diseases cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in marine algae with potential antihyperlipidaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory effects. The modulation of these risk factors using bioactive polyphenols may represent a useful strategy for disease prevention and management; research in humans, however, remains limited. This trial aims to determine the impact of a polyphenol-rich brown seaweed extract on fasting hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and inflammation...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Carolina Di Somma, Daniela Laudisio, Maria Maisto, Giulia de Alteriis, Gian Carlo Tenore, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
There is a mechanistic link between the gut-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and obesity-related diseases, suggesting that the TMAO pathway may also be linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), a gender-specific indicator of adipose dysfunction, and the Fatty Liver Index (FLI), a predictor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are early predictors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigated TMAO levels in adults stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and the association of TMAO with VAI and FLI...
December 13, 2018: Nutrients
Yimin Yin, Zicong Zheng, Zhuoqin Jiang
Diabetes is a series of metabolic diseases, which characteristics is hyperglycemia caused by the interruption of insulin action. Lycopene is an antioxidant which has potential anti-diabetic activity but the correlative reports are rare. This study was designed to explore the influence of lycopene on metabolism of glycolipid in type 2 diabetes. The model of type2 diabetes was induced in adult male albino Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 180-220 g, feeding high fat diet for 4 weeks, then streptozotocin (25 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lili Chen, Bin Lu, Yehong Yang, Weiwei Zhang, Xuanchun Wang, Houguang Zhou, Jie Wen, Zhen Yang, Renming Hu
OBJECTIVE: Cathepsin S is highly expressed in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Cathepsin S correlates with central obesity and contributes to the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we sought to evaluate the association of serum cathepsin S with metabolic syndrome (MS) in overweight and obese Chinese adults. METHODS: We evaluated serum cathepsin S levels in a cross-sectional sample of 781 overweight and obese Chinese adults by ELISA. Glucose, insulin, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, and adipokines were also measured...
December 14, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Adam R Konopka, Jaime L Laurin, Hayden M Schoenberg, Justin J Reid, William M Castor, Christopher A Wolff, Robert V Musci, Oscar D Safairad, Melissa A Linden, Laurie M Biela, Susan M Bailey, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
Metformin and exercise independently improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the risk of diabetes. Metformin was also recently proposed as a potential therapy to slow aging. However, recent evidence indicates that adding metformin to exercise antagonizes the exercise-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that metformin diminishes the improvement in insulin sensitivity and cardiorespiratory fitness after aerobic exercise training (AET) by inhibiting skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and protein synthesis in older adults (62 ± 1 years)...
December 11, 2018: Aging Cell
Alinda G Vos, Matthew F Chersich, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Peter Zuithoff, Michelle A Moorhouse, Samanta T Lalla-Edward, Andrew Kambugu, N Kumarasamy, Diederick E Grobbee, Roos E Barth, Willem D Venter
BACKGROUND: HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment are associated with changes in lipid levels, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated these changes in the first 96 weeks of treatment with low-dose stavudine or tenofovir regimens. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a double blind, randomised controlled trial performed in South-Africa, Uganda and India comparing low-dose stavudine (20 mg twice daily) with tenofovir in combination with efavirenz and lamivudine in antiretroviral-naïve adults (n = 1067) (Clinicaltrials...
December 14, 2018: Retrovirology
Sunil Deshpande, Jordan E Pinsker, Stamatina Zavitsanou, Dawei Shi, Randy Tompot, Mei Mei Church, Camille Andre, Francis J Doyle Iii, Eyal Dassau
BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for a modular artificial pancreas (AP) system for clinical trials within the existing regulatory framework to further AP research projects from both academia and industry. We designed, developed, and tested the interoperable artificial pancreas system (iAPS) smartphone app that can interface wirelessly with leading continuous glucose monitors (CGM), insulin pump devices, and decision-making algorithms while running on an unlocked smartphone. METHODS: After algorithm verification, hazard and mitigation analysis, and complete system verification of iAPS, six adults with type 1 diabetes completed 1 week of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) use followed by 48 h of AP use with the iAPS, a Dexcom G5 CGM, and either a Tandem or Insulet insulin pump in an investigational device exemption study...
December 14, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Mohammed T Hudda, Angela S Donin, Christopher G Owen, Alicja R Rudnicka, Naveed Sattar, Derek G Cook, Peter H Whincup, Claire M Nightingale
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) overweight/obesity thresholds in South Asian (SA) adults, at equivalent type-2 diabetes risk are lower than for white Europeans (WE). We aimed to define adjusted overweight/obesity thresholds for UK-SA children based on equivalent insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) to WE children. METHODS: In 1138 WE and 1292 SA children aged 9.0-10.9 years, multi-level regression models quantified associations between BMI and HOMA-IR by ethnic group...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Lisa A Bell, Elly A Fletcher, Anna Timperio, Peter Vuillermin, Kylie Hesketh
OBJECTIVES: Higher physical activity (PA) levels in adults are associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, however it is unclear whether this association is evident in children younger than five years. Given that cardiovascular disease has early life origins, this study systematically reviews evidence of associations between PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors among children aged 3-5.5years. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHOD: A systematic search of multiple data bases was conducted to identify published papers reporting associations between any measure of PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Bo-Yi Yang, Iana Markevych, Joachim Heinrich, Gayan Bowatte, Michael S Bloom, Yuming Guo, Shyamali C Dharmage, Bin Jalaludin, Luke D Knibbs, Lidia Morawska, Zhengmin Min Qian, Duo-Hong Chen, Huimin Ma, Da Chen, Shao Lin, Mo Yang, Kang-Kang Liu, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Li-Wen Hu, Guang-Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Residing in greener places may be protective against diabetes mellitus (DM) but evidence is scarce and comes mainly from developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of residential greenness with DM prevalence and glucose-homeostasis markers in Chinese adults and whether these associations were mediated by air pollution, physical activity, and body mass index. METHODS: In 2009, a total of 15,477 adults from the cross-sectional 33 Communities Chinese Health Study provided blood samples and completed a questionnaire...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Yusuke Shibata, Atsuko Nakatsuka, Jun Eguchi, Satoshi Miyamoto, Yukari Masuda, Motoharu Awazawa, Akinobu Takaki, Ryuichi Yoshida, Takahito Yagi, Jun Wada
INTRODUCTION: Acquired partial lipoatrophy has been reported after bone marrow transplantation during childhood; however, no adult cases have previously been reported. We herein report two adult cases of acquired partial lipoatrophy after transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old Japanese woman developed diabetic ketoacidosis and received insulin therapy after bone marrow transplantation. She manifested partial lipoatrophy of the extremities, prominent insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and fatty liver...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
XiaoTing Niu, XiaoYun Wu, AnNa Ying, Bei Shao, XiaoFeng Li, WanLi Zhang, ChengCheng Lin, YuanShao Lin
Maternal environmental factors such as diet have profound effects on offspring development and later health. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an important stress neuroendocrine system that is subject to programming by early life challenges. The present study was further to investigate whether maternal high fat diet (HFD) exposure during rat pregnancy and lactation can alter the HPA axis activity in adult male offspring. We observed that maternal HFD consumption exerted long-term effects on the basal activity of the HPA axis in adult offspring, with increased mean plasma corticosterone levels that result from elevated steroid pulse frequence and pulse amplitude...
December 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Leonardo Calza, Vincenzo Colangeli, Marco Borderi, Simona Coladonato, Beatrice Tazza, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Pierluigi Viale
Objectives: An observational, prospective, cohort study was performed to assess changes in insulin sensitivity and serum leptin level after a switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI (PI/r) to raltegravir or dolutegravir in HIV-infected adults on stable combination ART (cART). Methods: Non-diabetic HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive cART including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine plus one PI/r, who underwent a switch from the PI/r to raltegravir (group A) or dolutegravir (group B), were enrolled in the study...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Shizuka Kaneko, Youhei Ueda, Yumiko Tahara
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are multimodal perioperative care pathways designed to achieve early recovery after surgical procedures by maintaining preoperative organ function and reducing profound stress responses following surgery [Wilmore and Kehlet: BMJ 2001; 322(7284): 473-6]. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAgs), such as liraglutide, have recently been widely used as antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because they maintain blood glucose at an ideal level throughout the day, including during postprandial periods, thereby improving hypoglycemia and body weight more than insulin therapies...
December 11, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Eleni N Tsakiri, Sentiljana Gumeni, Kalliopi K Iliaki, Dimitra Benaki, Konstantinos Vougas, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Emmanuel Mikros, Luca Scorrano, Ioannis P Trougakos
Metazoans viability depends on their ability to regulate metabolic processes and also to respond to harmful challenges by mounting anti-stress responses; these adaptations were fundamental forces during evolution. Central to anti-stress responses are a number of short-lived transcription factors that by functioning as stress sensors mobilize genomic responses aiming to eliminate stressors. We show here that increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in Drosophila activated cytoprotective modules and enhanced stress tolerance...
December 10, 2018: Aging Cell
Natalie Z M Eichner, Julian M Gaitán, Nicole M Gilbertson, Mahnoor Khurshid, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
Background People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in part due to low insulin sensitivity mediated arterial stiffness. However, the effect of short-term exercise training intensity, and/or amount (i.e. kcal/session), on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased exercise intensity and dose (i.e. amount) would correlate with reduced fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in obese adults with prediabetes. Methods Following randomization, 31 adults (Age: 61...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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