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Insulin Adult

Filipe R Carvalho, Sofia M Calado, Gabriela A Silva, Gabriela S Diogo, Joana Moreira da Silva, Rui L Reis, M Leonor Cancela, Paulo J Gavaia
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been associated to several cartilage and bone alterations including growth retardation, increased fracture risk, and bone loss. To determine the effect of long term diabetes on bone we used adult and aging Ins2 Akita mice that developed T1DM around 3-4 weeks after birth. Both Ins2 Akita and wild-type (WT) mice were analyzed at 4, 6, and 12 months to assess bone parameters such as femur length, growth plate thickness and number of mature and preapoptotic chondrocytes. In addition, bone microarchitecture of the cortical and trabecular regions was measured by microcomputed tomography and gene expression of Adamst-5, Col2, Igf1, Runx2, Acp5, and Oc was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Renato Chaves Souto Branco, Rafael Ludemann Camargo, Thiago Martins Batista, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Camila Lubaczeuski, Lucas Henrique Montes Bomfim, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Antônio Carlos Boschero, Cláudio Cesar Zoppi, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
Nutrient malnutrition, during the early stages of development, may facilitate the onset of metabolic diseases later in life. However, the consequences of nutritional insults, such as a high-fat diet (HFD) after protein restriction, are still controversial. We assessed overall glucose homeostasis and molecular markers of mitochondrial function in the gastrocnemius muscle of protein-restricted mice fed an HFD until early adulthood. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control (14% protein-control diet) or a protein-restricted (6% protein-restricted diet) diet for 6 weeks...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anna R Kahkoska, Scott Isom, Jasmin Divers, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, Lawrence Dolan, Amy S Shah, Maryam Afkarian, David J Pettitt, Jean M Lawrence, Santica Marcovina, Sharon H Saydah, Dana Dabelea, David M Maahs, Amy K Mottl
AIMS: To determine among adolescents and young adults with youth-onset type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes the rates and risk factors for albuminuria regression and progression. METHODS: Data from SEARCH, a longitudinal observational study of youth-onset type 1 diabetes (N = 1316) and type 2 diabetes (N = 143) were analyzed. Urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured from random urine specimens at baseline and follow-up visits (mean 7 years later)...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Kimberly M Tippens, Andrew Erlandsen, Douglas A Hanes, Robert Graybill, Courtney Jackson, Julie Briley, Heather Zwickey
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of measuring the health impacts of a 12-week naturopathic whole foods nutrition education course among adults with or at risk for prediabetes. DESIGN: A pilot nonrandomized pre-post intervention design investigated physiological changes associated with participation in a 12-week structured naturopathic nutrition education course. Follow-up measures were assessed at 6 and 12 months from baseline. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Three community-based kitchens in Oregon...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
John I Malone, Barbara C Hansen
Obesity is believed to be a promoter of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Reports indicate that severe obesity in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in youth and young adults. Type 2 diabetes, which is commonly asymptomatic, frequently is not recognized until random blood glucose is measured. Screening blood glucose levels measured in obese individuals are more effective for identifying undiagnosed persons, than screening the general population and therefore introduces a selection bias for discovery...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Ahmed Al-Qaissi, Maria Papageorgiou, Zeeshan Javed, Tim Heise, Alan S Rigby, Andrew T Garrett, David Hepburn, Eric S Kilpatrick, Stephen L Atkin, Thozhukat Sathyapalan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the effects of ambient temperature and relative humidity on insulin pharmacodynamics in adults with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN: A 3-way, cross-over, randomised study was performed in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=10). The pharmacodynamics profile of a single dose of short-acting insulin (insulin lispro) was investigated under three environmental conditions: i) temperature: 15°C and humidity: 10%, ii) temperature: 30°C and humidity: 10%, and iii) temperature: 30°C and humidity: 60%, controlled in an environmental chamber...
October 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jesper Gromada, Pauline Chabosseau, Guy A Rutter
Findings from the past 10 years have placed the glucagon-secreting pancreatic α-cell centre stage in the development of diabetes mellitus, a disease affecting almost one in every ten adults worldwide. Glucagon secretion is reduced in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, increasing the risk of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, but is enhanced in type 2 diabetes mellitus, exacerbating the effects of diminished insulin release and action on blood levels of glucose. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these changes is therefore an important goal...
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Steven K Malin, Monique E Francois, Natalie Z M Eichner, Nicole M Gilbertson, Emily M Heiston, Chiara Fabris, Marc D Breton
The effect of work-matched exercise intensity on β-cell function is unknown in people with prediabetes prior to clinical weight loss. We determined if short-term moderate continuous (CONT) versus high intensity interval (INT) exercise increased β-cell function. Thirty-one subjects (Age: 61.4±2.5 yr; BMI: 32.1±1.0 kg/m2 ) with prediabetes (ADA criteria, 75g OGTT) were randomized to work-matched CONT (70% HRpeak) or INT (3 min 90% HRpeak and 3 min 50% HRpeak) exercise for 60min/d over 2-weeks. A 75g 2 hr OGTT was conducted after an overnight fast, and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and FFA were determined for calculations of skeletal muscle (Oral Minimal Model; OMM), hepatic (HOMA-IR), and adipose (Adipose-IR) insulin sensitivity...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Shanat Baig, Richard Paisey, Charlotte Dawson, Timothy Barrett, Pietro Maffei, James Hodson, Srinivasa Bhargav Rambhatla, Priyesh Chauhan, Shaun Bolton, Francesca Dassie, Clair Francomano, Robert P Marshall, Mohammed Belal, Kassiani Skordilis, Manvir Hayer, Anna M Price, Robert Cramb, Nicola Edwards, Richard P Steeds, Tarekegn Geberhiwot
Background: Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathy with a wide spectrum of clinical features, including cone-rod retinal dystrophy, neuronal deafness, severe insulin resistance and major organ failure. The characteristics of renal disease in the syndrome have not been systematically described. The aim of this study is to define the onset and progression of renal disease in AS. Method: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting and Participants: Thirty-two adult subjects from a national specialist clinic in UK and 86 subjects from an international AS registry were studied...
October 10, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
A N Paisley, J Beynon, C Fullwood, A Hindle, T Alam, A Urwin, A Chapman, J Morris, H Thabit, M K Rutter, L Leelarathna
AIMS: To assess the impact of social deprivation, demographics and centre on HbA1c outcomes with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in adults with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Demographic data, postcode-derived English Index of Multiple Deprivation data and 12-month average HbA1c (mmol/mol) pre- and post-CSII were collated from three diabetes centres in the north west of England, University Hospital of South Manchester (UHSM), Salford Royal Foundation Hospital (SRFT) and Manchester Royal Infirmary (MRI)...
October 11, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Arshag D Mooradian
The number of older adults with diabetes is rapidly increasing worldwide. A variety of factors contribute to the age-related increase in the incidence of diabetes. The lack of empiric evidence in the field has limited the management guidelines to mostly expert opinion. Given uncertainty over the rate at which to lower blood glucose levels and the optimal method of doing so, the goals of diabetes control in older people must be individualized. If the patient requires insulin therapy, the newer insulins, with their improved pharmacodynamic consistency and reduced risk of hypoglycemia, should be preferred...
October 10, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Thomas H Wieringa, Maartje de Wit, Jos Wr Twisk, Frank J Snoek
Objective: Insulin glargine 300 (Gla-300) provides less hypoglycemia risk and more flexibility in injection time. The extent to which these effects translate into improved patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is unknown, and is the subject of this observational study. Research design and methods: Adults with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin for at least 6 months initiating Gla-300 were included. Data were collected at baseline (start Gla-300) and at 3-month and 6-month follow-up...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Tatiana Danilova, Ilya Belevich, Huini Li, Erik Palm, Eija Jokitalo, Timo Otonkoski, Maria Lindahl
Global lack of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotropic factor (MANF) leads to progressive postnatal loss of β-cells mass and insulin-dependent diabetes in mice. Similarly to Manf -/- mice, embryonic ablation of MANF specifically from the pancreas results in diabetes. In this study, we assessed the importance of MANF for the postnatal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell mass and for adult β-cell maintenance in mice. Detailed analysis of Pdx-1Cre +/- :: Manf fl/fl mice revealed mosaic MANF expression in postnatal pancreases and significant correlation between the number of MANF-positive β-cells and β-cell mass in individual mice...
October 10, 2018: Diabetes
Sonia Jiménez-Mola, César Calvo-Lobo, Javier Idoate-Gil, Jesús Seco-Calvo
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures may be the greatest complication secondary to osteoporotic disorder. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age distribution in the functionality, comorbidity, complications and surgical features of older adults with hip fractures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out from 2013 to 2014. A sample of 557 adults over 75 years old with osteoporotic hip fractures was recruited from the Orthogeriatric Unit of the León University Hospital (Spain)...
May 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Manithong Vonglokham, Sengchanh Kounnavong, Vanphanom Sychareun, Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a major and fast-growing public health problem in Southeast Asia. We determined the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes and assessed the levels of awareness, treatment and control in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). METHODS: A national cross-sectional study based on a stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in 2013. The sample comprised 2,492 individuals aged 18-64 years (59.3% females; mean age 38.7 years, SD = 12.8) from Lao PDR...
October 10, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Alexis M Ceasrine, Eugene E Lin, David N Lumelsky, Radhika Iyer, Rejji Kuruvilla
A better understanding of processes controlling the development and function of pancreatic islets is critical for diabetes prevention and treatment. Here, we reveal a previously unappreciated function for pancreatic β2-adrenergic receptors (Adrb2) in controlling glucose homeostasis by restricting islet vascular growth during development. Pancreas-specific deletion of Adrb2 results in glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion in mice, and unexpectedly, specifically in females. The metabolic phenotypes were recapitulated by Adrb2 deletion from neonatal, but not adult, b-cells...
October 10, 2018: ELife
Adriana Rusu, Dana Ciobanu, Cornelia Bala, Anca Cerghizan, Gabriela Roman
BACKGROUND: Social jetlag (SJL) is a small recurrent circadian rhythm disruption and the most frequent form of circadian rhythm misalignment. The main objective of this study was to investigate in real-life settings the effect of SJL on glycemic control, as assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). METHODS: 115 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes were analyzed cross-sectionally. Data on bedtime, sleep-onset latency, and wake-up time on weekdays and weekends during the previous month were collected from all participants and were used to calculate SJL, chronotype, and sleep duration...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Tze Pin Ng, Yanxia Lu, Robin Wai Mun Choo, Crystal Tze Ying Tan, Ma Shwe Z Nyunt, Qi Gao, Esther Wing Hei Mok, Anis Larbi
Sarcopenia, a core feature of the physical frailty syndrome, is characterized by multisystem physiological dysregulation. No study has explored qualitatively the hierarchical network of relationships among different dysregulated pathways involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. We used 40 blood biomarkers belonging to community-dwelling prefrail and frail older persons to derive measures of multiple physiological pathways, and structural equation modeling to generate path network models of the multisystem physiological dysregulations associated with muscle mass and function (MMF)...
October 9, 2018: Aging Cell
Peter Wiesli, Marcus Schories
INTRODUCTION: Insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300, Toujeo® ) is a long-acting, once-daily basal insulin with improved-more stable and smoother-pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles compared to insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) and insulin degludec (IDeg). These properties have been shown to translate into an effective HbA1c reduction with the advantage of a lower risk of hypoglycemia in randomized controlled trials of Gla-300 versus Gla-100. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of Gla-300 under real-world conditions in Switzerland...
October 9, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Richard W Stahlhut, John Peterson Myers, Julia A Taylor, Angel Nadal, Jonathan A Dyer, Frederick S Vom Saal
Context: Human cross-sectional and animal studies have shown an association of the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases, but no human experimental study has investigated whether BPA alters insulin/C-peptide secretion. Design: Men and postmenopausal women (without diabetes) were orally administered either the vehicle or a BPA dose of 50 µg/kg body weight, which has been predicted by US regulators (Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency) to be the maximum, safe daily oral BPA dose over the lifetime...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
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