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Insulin Adult

Maria Csobonyeiova, Stefan Polak, Lubos Danisovic
Diabetes type 1 (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by permanent destruction of the insulin-secreting β-cells in pancreatic islets, resulting in a deficiency of the glucose-lowering hormone insulin and persisting high blood glucose levels. Insulin has to be replaced by regular subcutaneous injections, and blood glucose level must be monitored due to the risk of hyperglycemia. Recently, transplantation of new pancreatic β-cells into T1D patients has come to be considered one of the most potentially effective treatments for this disease...
August 16, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Rashmi Supriya, Bjorn T Tam, Angus P Yu, Paul H Lee, Christopher W Lai, Kenneth K Cheng, Sonata Y Yau, Lawrence W Chan, Benjamin Y Yung, Sinead Sheridan, Parco M Siu
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or prediabetes is a complex disorder that is defined by a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Among cardiometabolic risk factors, central obesity plays a key role in the development of MetS through alterations in the secretion of adipokines and interacts with other MetS risk factors to unfavorably influence overall cardiometabolic risk...
2018: PloS One
Dunya Tomic, William W Kemp, Stuart K Roberts
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent liver disease in the world. It involves a spectrum of conditions from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis, and is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is defined by presence of steatosis in 5% of hepatocytes or more in the absence of other causes of fatty liver. The metabolic syndrome is the major known risk factor for NAFLD. Dietary contributors such as high fructose intake and coffee consumption appear to increase and decrease the risk of disease respectively, but these links are unclear...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Zadalla Mouslech, Maria Somali, Livadas Sarantis, Daramilas Christos, Chatzi Alexandra, Papagianni Maria, George Mastorakos, Christos Savopoulos, Apostolos I Hatzitolios
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) constitutes a real challenge in everyday practice for both physicians and patients. Due to the complexity of the disease and its unpredictable nature, structured education and training programs are nowadays implemented that ensure active patient involvement and self-care behaviors to achieve adequate glycemic control, prevent diabetic complications, and improve the quality of life of patients. These programs provide patients with the necessary knowledge and skills to self-monitor and self-manage the disease and its associated metabolic conditions...
August 15, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
R E Climie, M S Grace, R L Larsen, P C Dempsey, J Oberoi, N D Cohen, N Owen, B A Kingwell, D W Dunstan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modern Western lifestyles are characterized by consumption of approximately 45% of total daily energy intake at the evening meal, followed by prolonged sitting while watching television (TV), which may deleteriously impact glycemic control. After a high-energy evening meal (dinner), we examined whether regular, brief activity bouts during TV commercial breaks could acutely lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in overweight/obese adults, compared to prolonged uninterrupted sitting...
September 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Julie E Sinclair, Mike Austin, Mark Froats, Shannon Leduc, Justin Maloney, Richard Dionne, Andy Reed, Christian Vaillancourt
BACKGROUND: In Ontario, Canada, there currently are no prehospital treat-and-release protocols and the safety of this practice remains unclear. We sought to describe the characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with hypoglycemia treated by paramedics, and to determine the predictors of repeat access to prehospital or emergency department (ED) care within 72 hours of initial paramedic assessment. METHODS: We performed a health record review of paramedic call reports and ED records over a 12-month period...
August 15, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Leena Antikainen, Jarmo Jääskeläinen, Henrikki Nordman, Raimo Voutilainen, Hanna Huopio
BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and overweight are associated with an increased risk of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the adult offspring. We studied the influence of maternal GDM on prepubertal children's height, weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and low-grade inflammation. METHODS: A cohort of 135 prepubertal Caucasian children (age range 4.4-9.7 years) was studied in a controlled cross-sectional study...
August 15, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
John Mark McLain, Wateen H Alami, Zachary T Glovak, Chris R Cooley, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Helen A Baghdoyan, Michael D Karlstad, Ralph Lydic
Study Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that sleep fragmentation (SF) delays wound healing in obese B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J (db/db) mice with impaired leptin signaling and type 2 diabetes compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Methods: Adult male mice (n=34) were anesthetized and bilateral full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the back of each mouse. Half of the db/db and B6 mice were housed in SF-cages equipped with a bar that moved across the cage floor every 2 min, 12 h/day for 23 days...
August 11, 2018: Sleep
Emma L Feeney, Rebecca Barron, Victoria Dible, Zita Hamilton, Yvonne Power, Linda Tanner, Cal Flynn, Paul Bouchier, Tom Beresford, Nessa Noronha, Eileen R Gibney
Background: Dairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself. Objective: We aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, eaten within macronutrient-matched food matrices, on markers of metabolic health, in overweight adults aged ≥50 y. Design: The study was a 6-wk randomized parallel intervention; 164 volunteers (75 men) received ∼40 g of dairy fat/d, in 1 of 4 treatments: (A) 120 g full-fat Irish cheddar cheese (FFCC) (n = 46); (B) 120 g reduced-fat Irish cheddar cheese + butter (21 g) (RFC + B) (n = 45); (C) butter (49 g), calcium caseinate powder (30 g), and Ca supplement (CaCO3) (500 mg) (BCC) (n = 42); or (D) 120 g FFCC, for 6 wk (as per A) (n = 31)...
August 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maxim D Seferovic, Christine A Beamish, Rockann E Mosser, Shannon E Townsend, Kirk Pappan, Vincent Poitout, Kjersti Aagaard, Maureen Gannon
Pancreatic β-cell expansion is a highly regulated metabolic adaptation to increased somatic demands, including obesity and pregnancy; adult β-cells otherwise rarely proliferate. We previously showed that high fat diet (HFD) feeding induces mouse β-cell proliferation in less than one week in the absence of insulin resistance. Here we metabolically profiled tissues from a short-term HFD β-cell expansion mouse model to identify pathways and metabolite changes associated with β-cell proliferation. Mice fed HFD vs CD showed a 14...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Martin de Bock, Sybil A McAuley, Mary Binsu Abraham, Grant Smith, Jennifer Nicholas, Geoff R Ambler, Fergus J Cameron, Jan M Fairchild, Bruce R King, Elizabeth A Geelhoed, Elizabeth A Davis, David Norman O'Neal, Timothy W Jones
INTRODUCTION: Automated insulin delivery (also known as closed loop, or artificial pancreas) has shown potential to improve glycaemic control and quality of life in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Automated insulin delivery devices incorporate an insulin pump with continuous glucose monitoring(CGM) and an algorithm, and adjust insulin in real time. This study aims to establish the safety and efficacy of a hybrid closed-loop (HCL) system in a long-term outpatient trial in people with T1D aged 12 -<25 years of age, and compare outcomes with standard therapy for T1D as used in the contemporary community...
August 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Roshni Patel, Gaurang Shah
BACKGROUND: Insulin sensitizers like metformin and pioglitazone are clinically used since last decades for the treatment of PCOS, but their efficacy and possible role in PCOS patients remains questionable. Also, the mechanism by which these insulin sensitizers show effect is not clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effect of metformin and pioglitazone on leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone receptor mRNA expression, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in high fat diet induced and letrozole induced PCOS in rats...
August 10, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Annette Vriens, Michelle Plusquin, Willy Baeyens, Liesbeth Bruckers, Elly Den Hond, Ilse Loots, Vera Nelen, Greet Schoeters, Bram G Janssen, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: The developmental origins of health and disease theory states that a disturbance in the early life environment can contribute to disease risk in later life. Leptin and insulin are anorectic hormones involved in energy homeostasis and are crucial for foetal growth. Disturbances in the levels of these hormones contribute to obesity and diabetes. In adults, altered mitochondrial function is an important hallmark of metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. However, the mitochondrial effects of early life metabolic variation are unexplored...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Filipe J Teixeira, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Maria J Valamatos, Joana Reis, Francisco Tavares, Ana Batista, Christophe Domingos, Francisco Alves, Luís B Sardinha, Stuart M Phillips
Leucine metabolites, α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HICA) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (calcium, HMB-Ca and free acid, HMB-FA), have been proposed to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. PURPOSE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled pragmatic trial to evaluate the effects of off-the-shelf leucine metabolite supplements of α-HICA, HMB-FA and HMB-Ca, on resistance training-induced changes in muscle thickness, and performance...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Aneesah Khan, Pratik Choudhary
BACKGROUND: Diabetes distress has been linked with suboptimal glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. We evaluated the effect of diabetes distress on self-management behaviors in patients using insulin pumps. METHODS: We analyzed the impact of diabetes distress on self-management behaviors using pump downloads from 129 adults treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) at a single hospital clinic. Exclusion criteria were CSII treatment <6 months, pregnancy, hemoglobinopathy, and continuous glucose monitoring/sensor use...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Sridevi Krishnan, Sean H Adams, Lindsay H Allen, Kevin D Laugero, John W Newman, Charles B Stephensen, Dustin J Burnett, Megan Witbracht, Lucas C Welch, Excel S Que, Nancy L Keim
Background: The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend nutrient needs be met by increasing fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain intake with the use of low-fat or fat-free dairy products and by reducing sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. However, the DGA, as a dietary pattern, have not been tested in an intervention trial. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a DGA-based diet compared with a representative typical American diet (TAD) on glucose homeostasis and fasting lipids in individuals at risk of cardiometabolic disease...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniel Restifo, Joni S Williams, Emma Garacci, Rebekah J Walker, Mukoso N Ozieh, Leonard E Egede
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for developing colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the literature identifying groups most at risk is sparse. This study aims to understand the relationship between CRC and diabetes by age and race/ethnicity. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of data from the 2001-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted n = 37,173; weighted n = 214,363,348). Individuals were categorized as having CRC if diagnosed with colon or rectal cancer and as having diabetes if told by a doctor they had diabetes, were taking insulin, or had an HbA1c ≥ 6...
September 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Chandima N D Balasuriya, Astrid Kamilla Stunes, Mats P Mosti, Berit Schei, Marit S Indredavik, Ingrid K Hals, Kari Anne I Evensen, Unni Syversen
Context and objectives: Low birth weight (LBW) has emerged as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Whether very low birth weight (VLBW) adults born preterm are at higher risk than term-born small for gestational age (tb-SGA) individuals is not established. We assessed metabolic outcomes, including relation with skeletal parameters, in these two LBW categories. Design, participants and outcomes: This follow-up cohort study included 189 individuals (females 51%), 25 to 28 years; 55 preterm VLBW (≤1500g), 59 tb-SGA (<10th percentile), and 75 controls (>10th percentile)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Juan Jiang, PengZhou Li, Hao Ling, ZhouZhou Xu, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
Obesity is associated with increased risks of diverse diseases; brown adipose tissue (BAT) can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity by increasing the decomposition of white adipose tissue (WAT) to enhance the non-coupled oxidative phosphorylation of fatty acid in adipocytes and contributes to weight loss. However, BAT is abundant in only small rodents and newborn humans, but not in adults. PRDM16 is a key factor that induces the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors to brown adipocytes and simultaneously inhibits myogenic differentiation...
August 10, 2018: Human Cell
Catherine M Phillips, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Ivan J Perry
Accumulating evidence identifies diet and inflammation as potential mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic risk. However, inconsistent reports regarding dietary inflammatory potential, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk exist. Our objective was to examine the relationships between a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII® ), biomarkers of lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and glucose homeostasis and MetS risk in a cross-sectional sample of 1992 adults...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
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