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Hormone Adult

Ashley J Malin, Julia Riddell, Hugh McCague, Christine Till
BACKGROUND: Fluoride exposure has the potential to disrupt thyroid functioning, though adequate iodine intake may mitigate this effect. This is the first population-based study to examine the impact of chronic low-level fluoride exposure on thyroid function, while considering iodine status. The objective of this study was to determine whether urinary iodine status modifies the effect of fluoride exposure on thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized weighted population-based data from Cycle 3 (2012-2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS)...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
G Singh, V Singh, J S Schneider
Sex differences in the risk for and expression of various brain disorders have been known for some time. Yet, the molecular underpinnings of these sex differences as well as how sex modifies normal brain development are still poorly understood. It has recently become known that epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in establishing and maintaining sex differences in neurodevelopment and disease susceptibility. Epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational modifications of histones (histone PTMs) integrate various hormonal and external environmental influences to affect genomic output, and this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Yuxia Zou, Limin Peng, Shenda Weng, Dongdong Liang, Zhaofei Fan, Zhihao Wu, Xungang Tan, Shuang Jiao, Feng You
Androgens are critical hormones that regulate sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and spermatogenesis in vertebrates, which is mainly mediated by androgen receptors (ARs). Reports on transcript variants of ar (AR encoding gene) in human are almost always associated with cancers and androgen insensitivity syndrome. However, the knowledge of ar variants in teleosts is scarce. In this study, arβ and two transcript variants of arα (arα1 and arα2) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were cloned and analyzed...
October 10, 2018: Gene
Serena Fiacco, Andreas Walther, Ulrike Ehlert
Nowadays, people spend a considerable amount of their lives as older adults, but this longer lifespan is often accompanied by an increase in chronic conditions and disease, resulting in reduced quality of life and unprecedented societal and economic burden. Healthy aging is therefore increasingly recognized as a healthcare priority. Physical and mental adaptations to changes over the life course, and the maintenance of well-being, represent pivotal challenges in healthy aging. To capture the complexity of healthy aging, we propose a specific phenotype based on body composition, cognition, mood, and sexual function as indicators of different dimensions of healthy aging...
September 29, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Imad R Musa, Nagi I Ali, Sittana A Elseed, Osman E Osman, Ishag Adam
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of thyroid function test among the adult Sudanese population in Khartoum, Sudan. A multi-stage survey stratified sampling method was used. Total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4) level and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using radioimmunoassay gamma counter (Riostad, Germany) to determine the reference intervals. RESULT: A total of 390 adults aged 20-75 years (male: 40...
October 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Sheng Li, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng
The insect fat body is analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver. In this review, the new and exciting advancements made in fat body biology in the last decade are summarized. Controlled by hormonal and nutritional signals, insect fat body cells undergo mitosis during embryogenesis, endoreplication during the larval stages, and remodeling during metamorphosis and regulate reproduction in adults. Fat body tissues are major sites for nutrient storage, energy metabolism, innate immunity, and detoxification...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Ruchi Shah, Ravi P Jagani
Endometriosis is characterized as the ectopic presence of endometrium in various locations within the abdominal cavity, such as the fallopian tube, the pouch of Douglas, the ovaries, outside the ovaries, and more. The inner lining of the uterus, endometrium, is a dynamic tissue that undergoes morphological and functional changes cyclically. The proliferation of endometrial cells during menstruation is influenced by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Adult progenitor stem cells are likely responsible for this remarkable regenerative capacity and hence, enhanced capacity to generate endometriosis...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Shi Chen, Kang Chen, Lin Lu, Xiaobo Zhang, Anli Tong, Hui Pan, Huijuan Zhu, Zhaolin Lu
PURPOSE: Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) is useful for differential diagnosis of adult Cushing's disease (CD) but may not be so reliable in pediatric cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of BIPSS before and after desmopressin stimulation in pediatric CD, and to explore related factors of false-negative results and meanings of sampling lateralization. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 16 pediatric CD patients who underwent 17 BIPSS procedures from 2006 to 2017...
October 11, 2018: Endocrine
Augusto Weber, Jayse Alves, Ana Lucia Abujamra, Ivan Cunha Bustamante-Filho
Human secondary hypogonadism is associated with impaired testicular function, however, little is known about its impact on sperm epididymal maturation. Endocrine disruption in the epididymis could impair the secretion of key proteins, such as β-defensins, responsible for spermatozoa maturation during epididymal transit. This study evaluated the sequence and structural similarities between porcine epididymal β-defensins pBD3, pBD4, pBD125, and pEP2C and their human homologs using bioinformatics integrated with information derived from protein databanks...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
S Prekovic, T van den Broeck, S Linder, M E van Royen, A B Houtsmuller, F Handle, S Joniau, W Zwart, F Claessens
Prostate cancer (PCa) is among the most common adult malignancies, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. As PCa is hormone dependent, blockade of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling is an effective therapeutic strategy for men with advanced metastatic disease. The discovery of enzalutamide, a compound that effectively blocks the AR axis and its clinical application has led to a significant improvement in survival time. However, the effect of enzalutamide is not permanent, and resistance to treatment ultimately leads to development of lethal disease, for which there currently is no cure...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
John J Peluso, Xiufang Liu, Tracy Uliasz, Cindy A Pru, Nicole C Kelp, James K Pru
To determine whether conditional depletion of progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and PGRMC2 affected ovarian follicle development, follicle distribution was assessed in ovaries of young (≈3-month-old) and middle-aged (≈6-month-old) control (Pgrmc1/2fl/fl) and double conditional PGRMC1/2-knockout (Pgrmc1/2d/d) mice. This study revealed that the distribution of primary, preantral and antral follicles was not altered in Pgrmc1/2d/d mice, regardless of the age. Although the number of primordial follicles was similar at ≈3 months of age, their numbers were reduced by ≈80% in 6-month-old Pgrmc1/2d/d mice compared to age-matched Pgrmc1/2fl/fl mice...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Ziya Kalem, Müberra Namlı Kalem, Elvan Anado, Batuhan Bakırarar, Canan Yılmaz, Çiğdem Elmas, Perihan Yalçınkaya, Halil Ruso, Timur Gürgan
This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal unhealthy nutrition on the reproductive functions of female and male adult offspring. This was an animal study carried out with 24 virgin female Wistar rats (dams) and their male and female offspring. Rats were divided standard diet (SD) or cafeteria diet (CD) groups, after 10 weeks of feeding, all rats were paired with a Wistar stud male, and each group was again divided into CD and SD groups during the pregnancy and lactation periods. After birth, six female and six male pups in each group, were subjected to study...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Andreas Stavropoulos, Kristina Bertl, Peter Pietschmann, Nikolaos Pandis, Morten Schiødt, Björn Klinge
OBJECTIVES: A considerable portion of the adult population has received and/or is receiving treatment with antiresorptive drugs (ARDs). It is thus relevant to assess possible side effects of ARD intake in connection to various aspects of implant therapy. The aim of this study was to answer the focused question "In patients with systemic intake of ARDs, what is the outcome and complication rate of implant therapy including associated bone grafting procedures comparing to patients without systemic intake of ARDs?" MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original studies fulfilled predefined inclusion criteria (e...
October 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Hillary B Nguyen, Alexis M Chavez, Emily Lipner, Liisa Hantsoo, Sara L Kornfield, Robert D Davies, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With increasing numbers of transgender and gender non-binary individuals presenting for care, knowing how to elucidate the mental health and cognitive outcomes of gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is necessary. This article reviews the present literature covering GAHT effects on mood, behavioral health, and cognition in these individuals and offers research priorities to address knowledge gaps. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are some conflicting data, GAHT overwhelmingly seems to have positive psychological effects in both adolescents and adults...
October 11, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
L Parker, C S Shaw, E Byrnes, N K Stepto, I Levinger
Bone remodeling markers (BRMs) are suppressed following the consumption of a meal. Our findings indicate that a single session of continuous moderate-intensity exercise, but not low-volume high-intensity interval exercise, performed 1 h after a meal attenuates the postprandial suppression of BRMs. INTRODUCTION: Acute exercise transiently increases BRMs including osteocalcin (tOC) and the undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin (ucOC), a hormone that is implicated in glucose regulation. The effects of acute exercise and exercise-intensity on postprandial levels of tOC and ucOC are unknown...
October 10, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Elizabeth Kagotho, Geoffrey Omuse, Nancy Okinda, Peter Ojwang
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has been known since the twentieth Century for its benefits in bone health. Recent observational studies have demonstrated its benefits in infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and non-communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This has led to a dramatic increase in testing among adults. The cut-offs for vitamin D deficiency have been debated for decades and the current cut off is derived from a Caucasian population. Studies done among black African adults in Africa are few with vitamin D deficiency ranging from 5 to 91%...
October 11, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Patricia Novaes Soares, Vanessa Silva Tavares Rodrigues, Thamara Cherem Peixoto, Camila Calvino, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Bruna Pereira Lopes, Nayara Peixoto-Silva, Luciana Lopes Costa, Sylvio Claudio-Neto, Alex Christian Manhães, Elaine Oliveira, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Patricia Cristina Lisboa
Maternal smoking increases obesogenesis in the progeny. Obesity is associated with several hormonal dysfunctions. In a rat model of postnatal tobacco smoke exposure, we previously reported increased central fat depot and disruption of some hormonal systems in the adult offspring. As both glucocorticoids and vitamin D alter lipogenesis and adipogenesis, here we evaluated the metabolism of these two hormones in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver by Western blotting, and possible associations with lipogenesis biomarkers in adult rats that were exposed to tobacco smoke during their suckling period...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tze Pin Ng, Yanxia Lu, Robin Wai Mun Choo, Crystal Tze Ying Tan, Ma Shwe Z Nyunt, Qi Gao, Esther Wing Hei Mok, Anis Larbi
Sarcopenia, a core feature of the physical frailty syndrome, is characterized by multisystem physiological dysregulation. No study has explored qualitatively the hierarchical network of relationships among different dysregulated pathways involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. We used 40 blood biomarkers belonging to community-dwelling prefrail and frail older persons to derive measures of multiple physiological pathways, and structural equation modeling to generate path network models of the multisystem physiological dysregulations associated with muscle mass and function (MMF)...
October 9, 2018: Aging Cell
Somayeh Solhjoo, Mohammad Akbari, Heidar Toolee, Keywan Mortezaee, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani, Amene Shahrokhi, Mahtab Sayadi, Tayebeh Rastegar
Spermatogonial cells (SCs) are key cells for spermatogenesis. These cells are affected by paracrine signals originated from nearby somatic cells, among them Leydig cells have receptors for osteocalcin, a hormone known for exerting positive roles in the promotion of spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate roles for osteocalcin on SCs proliferative and differentiation features after coculture with Leydig cells. SCs and Leydig cells were isolated from neonate NMRI offspring mice and adult NMRI mice, respectively...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
J Almeida, J Costa, P Coelho, V Cea, M Galesio, J P Noronha, M S Diniz, C Prudêncio, R Soares, C Sala, Rúben Fernandes
Gliomas represent the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults, with an extremely poor prognosis. Among several risk factors, lifestyle was also recently identified as a major risk factor for the development of primary glioma. In the present study, we explore the relationship between obesity and glioma in a cellular model. Thus, we have study the influence of adipocytes secretome on glioma cell line GL261. Using the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line, and its conditioned medium (adipokines-enriched medium), we showed that adipocyte-released factors relate with glioma angiogenic, growth, hormones and metabolic behavior by MALDI-TOF-MS and proteomic array analysis...
October 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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