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Hormone Adult

Kelly K Shum K, Tripti Gupta T, Mary Canobbio, Jennifer Durst, Sangeeta B Shah
With advances in congenital heart disease management, there are an increasing number of women reaching reproductive age. Pregnancy results in a surge of hormones and increased demands on both the cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory systems. Depending on the heart defect and the treatments the mother has undergone, these hemodynamic changes can result in an increased risk of maternal CV events and an increased risk of fetal morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to have a comprehensive approach to adult congenital heart disease patients involving pre-pregnancy planning in addition to diligent peri- and post-partum care...
August 10, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Filipe J Teixeira, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Maria J Valamatos, Joana Reis, Francisco Tavares, Ana Batista, Christophe Domingos, Francisco Alves, Luís B Sardinha, Stuart M Phillips
Leucine metabolites, α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HICA) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (calcium, HMB-Ca and free acid, HMB-FA), have been proposed to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. PURPOSE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled pragmatic trial to evaluate the effects of off-the-shelf leucine metabolite supplements of α-HICA, HMB-FA and HMB-Ca, on resistance training-induced changes in muscle thickness, and performance...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kavinash Loganathan, Shogo Moriya, Ishwar S Parhar
Ambient light and temperature affect reproductive function by regulating kisspeptin and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in vertebrates. Melatonin and melatonin receptors, as well as the two-pore domain K+ channel-related K+ (TREK) channels, are affected by light and/or temperature; therefore, these molecules could modulate kisspeptin and GnRH against ambient light and temperature. In this study, we investigated the effect of light and temperature, which affect melatonin levels in gene expression levels of TREK channels, kisspeptin, and GnRH...
August 13, 2018: Zebrafish
H Ueda
Juvenile Oncorhynchus spp. Oncorhynchus spp. can memorise their natal stream during downstream migration; juveniles migrate to feed during their growth phase and then they migrate long distances from their feeding habitat to their natal stream to reproduce as adults. Two different sensory mechanisms, olfaction and navigation, are involved in the imprinting and homing processes during short-distance migration within the natal stream and long-distance migration in open water, respectively. Here, olfactory functions are reviewed from both neurophysiological studies on the olfactory discrimination ability of natal stream odours and neuroendocrinological studies on the hormonal controlling mechanisms of olfactory memory formation and retrieval in the brain...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Sheila S Gagnon, Bradley C Nindl, Jani P Vaara, Matti Santtila, Keijo Häkkinen, Heikki Kyröläinen
Purpose: Few large-scale population-based studies have adequately examined the relationships between steroid hormones, health status and physical fitness. The purpose of the study was to describe the relationship of serum basal endogenous steroid hormones (testosterone, TES; empirical free testosterone, EFT; cortisol, COR) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) to body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical fitness in young healthy men. Methods: Male reservists (25 ± 4 years, N = 846) participated in the study...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Juliana Dantas Rodrigues Santos, Eduardo Kenji Nunes Arashiro, Mário Felipe Alvarez Balaro, Joanna Maria Gonçalves Souza-Fabjan, Pedro Henrique Nicolau Pinto, Clara Vieira de Souza, Ceci Ribeiro Leite, Jeferson Ferreira da Fonseca, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
This study evaluated the cervical transposition method as a tool to select ewes for embryo collection by transcervical route. Adult Santa Inês ewes (n=50) received day 0 protocol for superovulation treatments. The cervix transposition test was performed both at estrus and at the embryo collection time. The latter was preceded by hormonal cervical dilation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 85.7%, 66.6%, 85.7%, 66.6%, and 80.0%, respectively...
August 12, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Ella Haddad, Michelle Wien, Keiji Oda, Joan Sabaté
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in postingestive gut hormone concentrations from the consumption of Hass avocado by addition or inclusion to lunch test meals, and to examine their association with measures of appetite sensation. METHODS: A randomized 3 × 3 crossover study was conducted with 26 healthy overweight adults. Participants consumed one of three test meals: avocado-free control (C); isoenergic avocado inclusive (AI); and, energy increased avocado added (AA) one week apart...
August 3, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Andrew W Manigault, Wilson S Figueroa, Cari R Hollenbeck, Anna E Mendlein, Alex Woody, Katrina R Hamilton, Matt C Scanlin, Ryan C Johnson, Peggy M Zoccola
OBJECTIVE: Revealing one's sexual identity to others is a complex process marked by a shift in the types of stressors faced by sexual minority young adults. Such stressors influence the secretion of health-relevant hormones, including cortisol, yet how dimensions of disclosure (i.e., the degree and context) influence neuroendocrine functioning remains poorly understood. The current study examined the association between disclosure context (disclosure to family members, friends/co-workers/acquaintances, and members of religious groups) and diurnal cortisol while allowing disclosure to vary in degree (i...
August 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Kathryn M Lenz, Lindsay A Pickett, Christopher L Wright, Katherine T Davis, Aarohi Joshi, Margaret M McCarthy
Many sex differences in brain and behavior are programmed during development by gonadal hormones, but the cellular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We found that immune system-derived mast cells are a primary target for the masculinizing hormone, estradiol, and that mast cells are in turn primary mediators of brain sexual differentiation. Newborn male rats had greater numbers and more activated mast cells in the preoptic area (POA), a brain region essential for male copulatory behavior, than female littermates during the critical period for sexual differentiation...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Carolina Ortega-Olvera, Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre, Angélica Ángeles-Llerenas, Fernando Enrique Mainero-Ratchelous, Claudia Elena González-Acevedo, Ma de Lourdes Hernández-Blanco, Elad Ziv, Larissa Avilés-Santa, Edelmiro Pérez-Rodríguez, Gabriela Torres-Mejía
BACKGROUND: Thyroxine (T4) has been positively associated with tumor cell proliferation, while the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on cell proliferation has not been well-established because it differs according to the type of cell line used. In Mexico, it has been reported that 14.5% of adult women have some type of thyroid dysfunction and abnormalities in thyroid function tests have been observed in a variety of non-thyroidal illnesses, including breast cancer (BC). These abnormalities might change with body mass index (BMI) because thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of various metabolic pathways and probably by menopausal status because obesity has been negatively associated with BC in premenopausal women and has been positively associated with BC in postmenopausal women...
August 9, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
S Shah, H H Nguyen, A J Vincent
Turner syndrome (TS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality in females, affecting up to 1/2000 live female births. TS is associated with partial or complete loss of the second X-chromosome in phenotypic females and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There are many challenges in providing optimal care for the adult TS women. This review highlights uncertainties that remain in hormone replacement therapy, bone health and cardiovascular optimization and discusses current management recommendations based on the recently published international guidelines and the experience at the TS clinic at Monash Health...
August 10, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Nesli Ersoy, İlker Taşçi, Taner Özgürtaş, Bekir Salih, Hüseyin Doruk, Neslişah Rakicioğlu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Available data suggest that seasonal changes may influence the nutritional status and overall health of elderly individuals. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of seasonal changes and related factors on energy and nutrient intake of older adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Individuals aged 65 years or over were prospectively enrolled in this single-center study (male: 11, female: 20). Data were collected between May 2013 and February 2014 during winter, spring, summer and autumn...
August 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Marisa Cabeza, Lucero Bautista, Marisol Guadalupe Bravo, Yvonne Heuze
Considerable progress has been made in learning about the physiology and biochemistry of the sebaceous glands and several of the diseases that affect this component of the skin. Of these diseases, acne has particular importance. Although it is associated with adolescence, because of the hormonal changes that take place in this stage, when it is severe it can cause depression. Moreover, in a considerable proportion of acne sufferers both adolescent and adult, it can produce tumors and deformation of the sebaceous glands...
August 7, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Inga Becker, Matthias Auer, Claus Barkmann, Johannes Fuss, Birgit Möller, Timo O Nieder, Saskia Fahrenkrug, Thomas Hildebrandt, Hertha Richter-Appelt
Persistent feelings of gender dysphoria (GD) are accompanied by distress and body dissatisfaction in most clinically referred adolescents and adults. Transition-related medical interventions (e.g., puberty suppression, hormones, or surgery) may alleviate body dissatisfaction. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to compare multidimensional body image across clinically referred adolescents and adults undergoing different transition-related medical interventions. Two clinical samples of adolescents (n = 82) and adults (n = 120) referred to specialized departments of four different transgender health services in Germany participated in the study...
August 7, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Silvia Giuliani, Verena Barbieri, Angela Maria Di Pierro, Fabio Rossi, Thomas Widmann, Manuela Lucchiari, Irene Pusceddu, Stefan Pilz, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Markus Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Developed countries have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. In previous studies, 25(OH)D was predominantly measured by immunoassays. The present study assessed serum 25(OH)D in a very large Southern European outpatient cohort by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 74,235 serum 25(OH)D results generated under routine conditions between 2015 and 2016 were extracted from the laboratory information system of the Department of Clinical Pathology at Bolzano Hospital (Italy)...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Sameera Abuaish, Richard L Spinieli, Patrick O McGowan
The maternal environment has a profound effect on the development of offspring, including responses to stress mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rodents, perinatal high fat diet (HFD) has been shown to program the HPA axis in a manner that persists throughout adulthood, however the effects of perinatal HFD on stress-related behaviors and physiology in neonates are limited. The first two weeks of life in rodents are known as the stress hyporesponsive period, during which animals do not respond to stressors that are otherwise known to elicit behavioral and physiological responses in mature animals...
August 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Christopher Jackman, Hanjun Li, Nenad Bursac
The field of cardiac tissue engineering has developed rapidly, but structural and functional immaturity of engineered heart tissues hinder their widespread use. Here, we show that a combination of low-rate (0.2 Hz) contractile activity and thyroid hormone (T3) supplementation significantly promote structural and functional maturation of engineered rat cardiac tissues ("cardiobundles"). The progressive maturation of cardiobundles during first 2 weeks of culture resulted in cell cycle exit and loss of spontaneous activity, which in longer culture yielded decreased contractile function...
August 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Nora E Rosenberg, Nivedita L Bhushan, Dhrutika Vansia, Twambilile Phanga, Bertha Maseko, Tiyamike Nthani, Colleta Libale, Catherine Bamuya, Linda Kamtsendero, Annie Kachigamba, Laura Myers, Jennifer Tang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Linda-Gail Bekker, Audrey E Pettifor
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) face challenges to seeking HIV and sexual and reproductive health services in sub-Saharan Africa. Integrated approaches designed for AGYW may facilitate service uptake, but rigorous evaluation is needed. METHODS: Four comparable public-sector health centers were selected in Malawi and randomly assigned to a service delivery model. One offered "standard of care" (SOC), consisting of vertical HIV testing, family planning, and sexually transmitted infection management in adult-oriented spaces, by providers without extra training...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Eishin Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Isojima, Yasuhiro Sato, Kahoko Motoyama, Hiroko Kodama
We describe the case of a girl diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) at 2 yr of age, who developed early puberty. Preoperative examination for craniosynostosis revealed thyrotoxicosis. While she was tall and her bone age was advanced at GD onset, her linear growth attenuated after commencement of anti-thyroid treatment. However, at approximately 6 yr of age, breast budding was recognized. Hormonal analysis revealed pubertal levels of LH response to a GnRH stimulation test and serum E2. Gonadal suppression therapy with GnRH agonist was initiated, and her adult stature slightly exceeded the genetic potential...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Toshiaki Tanaka, Susumu Yokoya, Yuko Hoshino, Shintaro Hiro, Nobuhiko Ohki
Our study aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of GH treatment up to near adult height (NAH) for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). This was a multi-center, open-label, long-term extension study after a one-year, randomized, open-label, dose-response study. The primary objective was to assess safety, determined by adverse events and laboratory test parameters. Height parameters were evaluated as a secondary objective. The final data after all patients completed the study were reported...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
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