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Diabetes Adult

Ilana E Green, Shareena A Rahman, Debra L Owens, Michèle M Sale, Lillian J Currie, Keith L Keene, Bradford B Worrall, Andrew M Southerland
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of published data in cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a common cause of stroke in young adults, derive from populations of European ancestry (EA), including a recent genome-wide study identifying an association with the rs9349379 polymorphism of the PHACTR1 gene. Little is known about CeAD in individuals of African ancestry (AA) despite robust epidemiological data showing increased risk of stroke at younger ages. We hypothesize that AA patients with CeAD have different epidemiology and clinical profiles compared to those of EA, and a different genetic architecture related to rs9349379 of the PHACTR1 gene...
December 5, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Claes Ohlsson, Maria Bygdell, Maria Nethander, Annika Rosengren, Jenny M Kindblom
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of change in body mass index (BMI) during puberty, independent of childhood overweight, for the risk of adult type 2 diabetes in men. Study design, population and outcome: We included 36,176 men who had weight and height measured at age 8 (childhood) and 20 (young adult age) available from the BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST) and the Conscription register. Information on type 2 diabetes (n=1,777) was retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal, Eduardo Vieira Neto, Katia Audi Curci, Maria Tereza de Marsillac Pasinato, Raquel Medeiros Lisbôa, Renata Fernandes Cachapuz, Karla Santa Cruz Coelho
OBJECTIVE: To analyze trends in risk and protective factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) and access to preventive tests in the population with health insurance in Brazilian state capitals between 2008 and 2015. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that analyzed data collected from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) Telephone Survey (Sistema Nacional de Vigilância de Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico - Vigitel) on adults aged 18 years and older...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206523.].
2018: PloS One
Fumika Mano, Kaori Ikeda, Yukiko Uchida, I-Ting Huai-Ching Liu, Erina Joo, Mizuyo Okura, Nobuya Inagaki
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence shows that cultural context can influence the management of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interdependence, which is valued in the Eastern cultural context, and diabetes self-care behavior in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 161 Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus using well-established questionnaires...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
V U Nna, A B A Bakar, A Ahmad, M Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Metformin has long been used for glycemic control in diabetic state. Recently, other benefits of metformin beyond blood glucose regulation have emerged. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of metformin on the expression of testicular steroidogenesis-related genes, spermatogenesis, and fertility of male diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin-treated (300 mg/kg body weight/day) diabetic rats (D+Met)...
December 4, 2018: Andrology
Sarah Alexandra Lynar, Claire Helen Robinson, Craig Steven Boutlis, Robert James Commons
BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus has led to a high risk of diabetic foot infections (DFI) and associated morbidity. However, little is known about the relationship between DFI and mortality. AIMS: To investigate the risk of mortality and associated factors in patients with DFI in an Australian context. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of inpatients with DFI between May 2012 and October 2016, at Royal Darwin Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital for the Top End of the Northern Territory...
December 4, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Merhan Mamdouh Ragy, Sabreen Mahmoud Ahmed
Diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors including hypertension and dyslipidemia are the major threats to human health in the 21st century. Apoptosis in pancreatic tissue is one of the major causes of diabetes type 1 progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of C-peptide or l-arginine on some cardiometabolic risk factors, pancreatic morphology, function and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of their actions. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: 1-control nondiabetic, 2-diabetic (no treatment), 3-diabetic + C-peptide, and 4-diabetic +  l-arginine...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sonsoles Fuentes, Emmanuel Cosson, Laurence Mandereau-Bruno, Anne Fagot-Campagna, Pascale Bernillon, Marcel Goldberg, Sandrine Fosse-Edorh
OBJECTIVES: In the French national health insurance information system (SNDS) three diabetes case definition algorithms are applied to identify diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to validate those using data from a large cohort. METHODS: The CONSTANCES cohort (Cohorte des consultants des Centres d'examens de santé) comprises a randomly selected sample of adults living in France. Between 2012 and 2014, data from 45,739 participants recorded in a self-administrated questionnaire and in a medical examination were linked to the SNDS...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Tesfaye Gutema, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Dadi Marami, Zelalem Teklemariam
Urinary tract infection causes considerable morbidity in diabetic patients and if complicated, can cause severe renal damage and life-threatening infections. The escalating antimicrobial resistance rate among bacteria over the past years is another concern in the treatment of urinary tract infections. This study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and associated factors of urinary tract infection among adult diabetic patients attending Metu Karl Heinz Referral Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Mohammed A Alshehri, Sameer R Alharthi, Ahmed A Alsuwat, Khaled A Alswat
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Recent reports have indicated that the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are also having OSA. Aim/Objective: The primary goal of the study is to assess the risk of OSA among T2D patients and its impact on T2D related control and complications. Method: A cross-sectional study for the adult patients with T2D who had a routine follow up visit from Jun 2013- Aug 2014 was asked to participate...
October 2018: Medical Archives
Malini Mukherjee, Jennifer deRiso, Karla Otterpohl, Ishara Ratnayake, Divya Kota, Phil Ahrenkiel, Indra Chandrasekar, Kameswaran Surendran
BACKGROUND: Notch signaling is required during kidney development for nephron formation and principal cell fate selection within the collecting ducts. Whether Notch signaling is required in the adult kidney to maintain epithelial diversity, or whether its loss can trigger principal cell transdifferentiation (which could explain acquired diabetes insipidus in patients receiving lithium) is unclear. METHODS: To investigate whether loss of Notch signaling can trigger principal cells to lose their identity, we genetically inactivated Notch1 and Notch2 , inactivated the Notch signaling target Hes1 , or induced expression of a Notch signaling inhibitor in all of the nephron segments and collecting ducts in mice after kidney development...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Blanca I Restrepo, Léanie Kleynhans, Alejandra B Salinas, Bassent Abdelbary, Happy Tshivhula, Genesis P Aguillón-Durán, Carine Kunsevi-Kilola, Gloria Salinas, Kim Stanley, Stephanus T Malherbe, Elizna Maasdorp, Moncerrato Garcia-Viveros, Ilze Louw, Esperanza M Garcia-Oropesa, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga, John B Prins, Gerhard Walzl, Larry S Schlesinger, Katharina Ronacher
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a prevalent risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), but most studies on TB-T2D have focused on TB patients, been limited to one community, and shown a variable impact of T2D on TB risk or treatment outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of sociodemographic and metabolic factors in adult TB contacts with T2D (versus no T2D), from the Texas-Mexico border to study Hispanics, and in Cape Town to study South African Coloured ethnicities. The prevalence of T2D was 30.2% in Texas-Mexico and 17...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Mette Hollensted, Claus T Ekstrøm, Oluf Pedersen, Hans Eiberg, Torben Hansen, Anette Prior Gjesing
BACKGROUND: The genetics of fetal insulin release and/or action have been suggested to affect fetal growth, adult insulin resistance and adult body composition. The genetic correlation between body composition at birth versus glycaemic regulation and body composition in adulthood have, however, not been well studied. We therefore aimed to investigate these genetic correlations in a family-based cohort. METHODS: A Danish family cohort of 434 individuals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with subsequent calculation of surrogate measures of serum insulin response and insulin sensitivity...
December 4, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Jeoungbin Choi, Jieun Jang, Yoonsuk An, Sue K Park
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and the risk of death from specific causes other than cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: We calculated the risk of specific death by SBP and DBP categories for 506 508 health examinees in 2002-2003 using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Compared to normal levels (SBP <120 or DBP <90 mmHg), stage I systolic and diastolic hypertension (SBP 140-159, DBP 85- 89 mmHg, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of death from diabetes mellitus, alcoholic liver disease, and renal failure (HR, 1...
November 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Yangbo Sun, Buyun Liu, Yang Du, Linda G Snetselaar, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu, Wei Bao
BACKGROUND: The organic food market has grown rapidly worldwide in the past 15 years. However, evidence concerning the health effects of organic foods is scarce. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of organic food purchase, as a proxy of organic food consumption, with diabetes in a nationally representative population. METHODS: We included 8199 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007⁻2008 and 2009⁻2010...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Siavash Esfahani, Alfian Wicaksono, Ella Mozdiak, Ramesh P Arasaradnam, James A Covington
The electronic nose (eNose) is an instrument designed to mimic the human olfactory system. Usage of eNose in medical applications is more popular than ever, due to its low costs and non-invasive nature. The eNose sniffs the gases and vapours that emanate from human waste (urine, breath, and stool) for the diagnosis of variety of diseases. Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) affects 8.3% of adults in the world, with 43% being underdiagnosed, resulting in 4.9 million deaths per year. In this study, we investigated the potential of urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as novel non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for diabetes...
December 1, 2018: Biosensors
Khalid Al Efraij, Kate M Johnson, Darrin Wiebe, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, J Mark FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Oral corticosteroids (OCSs) are often used to achieve asthma control. OCS-related comorbidities increase the burden of disease for patients and healthcare providers. Most studies characterizing OCS use and risk of adverse events (AEs) are in non-asthma patients. We sought to systematically review the literature on the burden of OCS use among adults with asthma. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature including MEDLINE (1946-May 2017), EMBASE (1974-May 2017), and the Cochrane Library (2005-May 2017) to identify studies that considered AEs due to OCS treatment of adults with asthma, their burden on healthcare utilization, and costs...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Jessica A Grieger, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Luke E Grzeskowiak, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Lucilla Poston, Lesley M McCowan, Louise C Kenny, Jenny E Myers, James J Walker, Gus A Dekker, Claire T Roberts
BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk for developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia (PE), which both associate with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women in later life. In the general population, metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with T2DM and CVD. The impact of maternal MetS on pregnancy outcomes, in nulliparous pregnant women, has not been investigated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Low-risk, nulliparous women were recruited to the multi-centre, international prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort between 11 November 2004 and 28 February 2011...
December 2018: PLoS Medicine
Alison Avenell, Clare Robertson, Zoë Skea, Elisabet Jacobsen, Dwayne Boyers, David Cooper, Magaly Aceves-Martins, Lise Retat, Cynthia Fraser, Paul Aveyard, Fiona Stewart, Graeme MacLennan, Laura Webber, Emily Corbould, Benshuai Xu, Abbygail Jaccard, Bonnie Boyle, Eilidh Duncan, Michal Shimonovich, Marijn de Bruin
BACKGROUND: Adults with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 35 kg/m2 ] have an increased risk of comorbidities and psychological, social and economic consequences. OBJECTIVES: Systematically review bariatric surgery, weight-management programmes (WMPs) and orlistat pharmacotherapy for adults with severe obesity, and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatment. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database were searched (last searched in May 2017)...
November 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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