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Diabetes Adult

Maria Csobonyeiova, Stefan Polak, Lubos Danisovic
Diabetes type 1 (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by permanent destruction of the insulin-secreting β-cells in pancreatic islets, resulting in a deficiency of the glucose-lowering hormone insulin and persisting high blood glucose levels. Insulin has to be replaced by regular subcutaneous injections, and blood glucose level must be monitored due to the risk of hyperglycemia. Recently, transplantation of new pancreatic β-cells into T1D patients has come to be considered one of the most potentially effective treatments for this disease...
August 16, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Guilherme Grossi Lopes Cançado, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Maja Rupnik, Amanda Pontes Nader, Joana Starling de Carvalho, Gabriela Miana de Mattos Paixão, Bruna Araújo Martins Resende, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Eduardo Garcia Vilela
A cohort of 110 adult individuals was analyzed to compare clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients who received antibiotics and developed Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with those who received antibiotics and did not develop the disease in a university Hospital in Brazil. CDI was diagnosed by toxigenic culture and C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping. Stool samples were also screened for Clostridium perfringens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella oxytoca...
August 13, 2018: Anaerobe
Anna Marseglia, Laura Fratiglioni, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Rui Wang, Lars Bäckman, Weili Xu
INTRODUCTION: The impact of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive decline and the potential underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether prediabetes and diabetes accelerate cognitive decline and brain aging, and the initial pathological changes linked to microvascular processes. METHODS: Nine-year longitudinal data from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (n = 2746, age ≥60 years) and the magnetic resonance imaging subsample (n = 455) were used...
August 13, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Rashmi Supriya, Bjorn T Tam, Angus P Yu, Paul H Lee, Christopher W Lai, Kenneth K Cheng, Sonata Y Yau, Lawrence W Chan, Benjamin Y Yung, Sinead Sheridan, Parco M Siu
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or prediabetes is a complex disorder that is defined by a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Among cardiometabolic risk factors, central obesity plays a key role in the development of MetS through alterations in the secretion of adipokines and interacts with other MetS risk factors to unfavorably influence overall cardiometabolic risk...
2018: PloS One
Steven Yeh, Shree K Kurup, Robert C Wang, C Stephen Foster, Glenn Noronha, Quan Dong Nguyen, Diana V Do
PURPOSE: Evaluate a single suprachoroidal injection of a proprietary triamcinolone acetonide suspension, CLS-TA, in subjects with macular edema due to noninfectious uveitis. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, masked Phase 2 study. Safety and efficacy of a single suprachoroidal injection of CLS-TA (4.0 and 0.8 mg in a 4:1 ratio) were assessed at 1 and 2 months after injection. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in central subfield thickness from baseline to Month 2, assessed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography...
August 15, 2018: Retina
Golnaz Azami, Soh Kim Lam, Sazlina Shariff-Ghazali, Salmiah Md Said, Sanaz Aazami, Mosayeb Mozafari, Hamid Taghinejad
BACKGROUND: The theory if self-efficacy is the central concept of social cognitive theory with emphasis on the constructs of efficacy expectation, outcome expectation. Efficacy expectation is defined as the person's confidence to carry out a specific behavior. Outcome expectation is beliefs that carrying out a specific behavior will lead to a specific outcome. While the benefit of measuring outcome expectations has been established, there has been no large scale within the Iranian context...
August 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Megan Hoopes, Heather Angier, Lewis A Raynor, Andrew Suchocki, John Muench, Miguel Marino, Pedro Rivera, Nathalie Huguet
Objective: Medication adherence is an important aspect of chronic disease management. Electronic health record (EHR) data are often not linked to dispensing data, limiting clinicians' understanding of which of their patients fill their medications, and how to tailor care appropriately. We aimed to develop an algorithm to link EHR prescribing to claims-based dispensing data and use the results to quantify how often patients with diabetes filled prescribed chronic disease medications. Materials and Methods: We developed an algorithm linking EHR prescribing data (RxNorm terminology) to claims-based dispensing data (NDC terminology), within sample of adult (19-64) community health center (CHC) patients with diabetes from a network of CHCs across 12 states...
August 3, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Jong Chul Won, Jae Hyuk Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Kyu Chang Won, Dae Jung Kim, Moon Kyu Lee
BACKGROUND: This report presents the recent prevalence and comorbidities related to diabetes in Korea by analyzing the nationally representative data. METHODS: Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013 to 2014, the percentages and the total number of subjects over the age of 30 years with diabetes and prediabetes were estimated and applied to the National Population Census in 2014. Diagnosis of diabetes was based on fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL), current taking of antidiabetic medication, history of previous diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6...
August 9, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Kyoung Hwa Ha, Yong Ho Lee, Sun Ok Song, Jae Woo Lee, Dong Wook Kim, Kyung Hee Cho, Dae Jung Kim
BACKGROUND: A diabetes risk score in Korean adults was developed and validated. METHODS: This study used the National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) of 359,349 people without diabetes at baseline to derive an equation for predicting the risk of developing diabetes, using Cox proportional hazards regression models. External validation was conducted using data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Calibration and discrimination analyses were performed separately for men and women in the development and validation datasets...
July 6, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Zadalla Mouslech, Maria Somali, Livadas Sarantis, Daramilas Christos, Chatzi Alexandra, Papagianni Maria, George Mastorakos, Christos Savopoulos, Apostolos I Hatzitolios
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) constitutes a real challenge in everyday practice for both physicians and patients. Due to the complexity of the disease and its unpredictable nature, structured education and training programs are nowadays implemented that ensure active patient involvement and self-care behaviors to achieve adequate glycemic control, prevent diabetic complications, and improve the quality of life of patients. These programs provide patients with the necessary knowledge and skills to self-monitor and self-manage the disease and its associated metabolic conditions...
August 15, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Arvind Kumar Singh, Shashi Kant, Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Ayush Lohiya, Vijay Silan, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Puneet Misra, Sanjay Kumar Rai
Background and Objectives: Sexual health disorders are an important but less researched public health issue in India. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of sexual health disorders and their associated factors among adult men in a rural community of Haryana, India. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adult men aged 18-60 years using a multistage stratified random sampling. Information pertaining to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and sexual practices, and self-reported sexual problems were collected...
May 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Amy Chanlongbutra, Gopal K Singh, Curt D Mueller
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is associated with increased odds of high-risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes. This study examined whether ACE exposure among individuals living in rural areas of the United States is associated with adult activity limitations, self-reported general poor health status, chronic diseases, and poor mental health. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (N=79,810) from nine states were used to calculate the prevalence of ACEs in rural and urban areas...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Steven H Woolf, Derek A Chapman, Jeanine M Buchanich, Kendra J Bobby, Emily B Zimmerman, Sarah M Blackburn
OBJECTIVE: To systematically compare midlife mortality patterns in the United States across racial and ethnic groups during 1999-2016, documenting causes of death and their relative contribution to excess deaths. DESIGN: Trend analysis of US vital statistics among racial and ethnic groups. SETTING: United States, 1999-2016. POPULATION: US adults aged 25-64 years (midlife). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute changes in mortality measured as average year-to-year change during 1999-2016 and 2012-16; excess deaths attributable to increasing mortality; and relative changes in mortality measured as relative difference between mortality in 1999 versus 2016 and the nadir year versus 2016, and the slope of modeled mortality trends for 1999-2016 and for intervals between joinpoints...
August 15, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Arun Gundmi Maiya, Shubha Gundmi, Prabhath Matpady, Radhika Jadhav, Ramachandra Lingadakai, Manjunatha Hande, Veena G Kamath, K N Shivashankar, P Chinmayee, Animesh Hazari, Nagarathna Shastri, Rohini Hande, Mads Mundt Loftager, Sundar Kumar Veluswamy, Edward Jude
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of foot complications among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the rural part of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional observational study design was conducted in the rural area of Udupi district. In the study, accredited social health activists were trained to screen people with type 2 diabetes mellitus for diabetic foot complications at a community level. Adults over 35 years of age were screened for the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus by accredited social health activists who reside in the rural part of Udupi district...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Julie E Sinclair, Mike Austin, Mark Froats, Shannon Leduc, Justin Maloney, Richard Dionne, Andy Reed, Christian Vaillancourt
BACKGROUND: In Ontario, Canada, there currently are no prehospital treat-and-release protocols and the safety of this practice remains unclear. We sought to describe the characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with hypoglycemia treated by paramedics, and to determine the predictors of repeat access to prehospital or emergency department (ED) care within 72 hours of initial paramedic assessment. METHODS: We performed a health record review of paramedic call reports and ED records over a 12-month period...
August 15, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Leena Antikainen, Jarmo Jääskeläinen, Henrikki Nordman, Raimo Voutilainen, Hanna Huopio
BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and overweight are associated with an increased risk of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the adult offspring. We studied the influence of maternal GDM on prepubertal children's height, weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and low-grade inflammation. METHODS: A cohort of 135 prepubertal Caucasian children (age range 4.4-9.7 years) was studied in a controlled cross-sectional study...
August 15, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Fadoua Gannar, María Del Cristo Rodriguez-Pérez, Santiago Domínguez Coello, Khedija Haouet, Buenaventura Brito Díaz, Antonio Cabrera de León
AIMS: To perform a validation of DIABSCORE in a sample of Tunisian adults and find out the optimal cut-off point for screening of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prediabetes. METHODS: 225 adults 18-75 years and a subgroup of 138 adults (18-54 years), with undiagnosed T2D from the region of Cap-Bon, Tunisia were included in the present study. The DIABSCORE was calculated based on: age, waist/height ratio, family history of T2D and gestational diabetes. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and areas under curve (AUC) were obtained...
2018: PloS One
Rong Zhang, Sheng-Yong Dong, Wei-Min Wang, Shu-Yang Fei, Hang Xiang, Qiang Zeng
Background: Older adults are prone to obesity and metabolic abnormalities and recommended to pursue a normal weight especially when obesity and metabolic abnormalities are co-existed. However, few studies have reported the possible differences in the effect of obesity on outcomes between older adults with metabolic abnormalities and those without metabolic abnormalities. Methods: A total of 3485 older men were included from 2000 to 2014. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were obtained during a mean follow-up of five years...
June 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Patricia E Martin, Erin M O'Shaughnessy, Catherine S Wright, Annette Graham
Impaired wound healing and ulceration caused by diabetes mellitus, is a significant healthcare burden, markedly impairs quality of life for patients, and is the major cause of amputation worldwide. Current experimental approaches used to investigate the complex wound healing process often involve cultures of fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes in vitro , which can be limited in terms of complexity and capacity, or utilisation of rodent models in which the mechanisms of wound repair differ substantively from that in humans...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Y Wan, N L Wang, J Hao, Z Dong, Y Zhang, K Cao
Objective: To assess the utilization of eye care services in the rural area of Handan, China under the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme, and to analyze the factors associated with the uptake of these services. Methods: In a cohort population-based study, subjects who joined both the baseline (2006-2007) and follow-up (2012-2013) were included. Information of demographic characteristics, participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Insurance and use of eye care services, comprehensive ophthalmic examinations, blood pressure and fasting was collected...
August 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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