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Combination Therapy

Xinji Zhang, Xiaojun Shi, Jinlong Li, Zhiming Hu, Jimin Gao, Shihao Wu, Zhaolin Long
Immunotherapy may be an effective way to prevent postoperative recurrence of renal cell carcinoma. Streptavidin-interleukin-2 (SA-IL-2) surface-modified tumor cell vaccine developed through our protein-anchor technology could induce specific anti-tumor T-cell response, but this immunotherapy can not completely eradicate the tumor. These effector T-cells highly expressed program death receptor-1 (PD-1), and the expression of program death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in tumor environment also was up-regulated after the SA-IL-2-modified vaccine therapy...
October 21, 2018: Cancer Science
Leila Ferguson, Masaki Futamura, Efstratios Vakirlis, Reiji Kojima, Hatoko Sasaki, Amanda Roberts, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Eczema is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin condition that is frequently associated with atopic conditions, including asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) have a corticosteroid-sparing role in asthma, but their role in eczema remains controversial. Currently available topical therapies for eczema are often poorly tolerated, and use of systemic agents is restricted by their adverse effect profile. A review of alternative treatments was therefore warranted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the possible benefits and harms of leukotriene receptor antagonists for eczema...
October 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yoshiyuki Morishima, Yuko Honda, Chikako Kamisato
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stent thrombosis is a serious complication after percutaneous coronary intervention and femoropopliteal endovascular intervention. The aim of this study was to determine the antithrombotic effects of a direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban alone or in combination with antiplatelet agents in a rat model of stent thrombosis. METHODS: Stainless steel stents (4 stents per rat) were placed in an extracorporeal arteriovenous shunt. The shunt was inserted into the carotid artery and the jugular vein in each rat to circulate blood...
October 19, 2018: Pharmacology
Boaz Nachmias, Adir Shaulov, Moshe E Gatt, Michael Shapira, Alexander Gural
The treatment of relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (RR-ALL) presents a true clinical challenge. In 2012, a protocol combining bortezomib, dexamethasone, asparaginase, doxorubicin, and vincristine administered to children with RR-ALL was published with encouraging results. Over the past 5 years, we have implemented this protocol in the adult RR-ALL population (> 18 years) and addressed its feasibility in terms of remission rate and toxicity. Here, we present the results of our experience in 9 patients, all of whom received multiple previous chemotherapy protocols, two of them relapsing after an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation...
October 19, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Van Du Nguyen, Hyun-Ki Min, Chang-Sei Kim, Jiwon Han, Jong-Oh Park, Eunpyo Choi
An effective nanoparticle-based drug delivery platform holds great promise for non-invasive cancer therapy. This study explores the breast tumor regression in vivo by synergistic photothermal-chemotherapy based on liposomal nanocomplex (folic acid-gold nanorods-anticancer drug-liposome). The proposed liposomal nanocomplex can enhance the tumor targeting by functionalizing folic acid (FA) molecules on the surface of liposome that encapsulates both gold nanorods (AuNRs) and the doxorubicin (DOX) to combine the photothermal therapy and the chemotherapy, respectively...
October 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Smrithi Padmakumar, Bindhu Paul-Prasanth, K Pavithran, D K Vijaykumar, Anupama Rajanbabu, T B Sivanarayanan, Ekta Kadakia, Mansoor M Amiji, Shantikumar V Nair, Deepthy Menon
A woven nanotextile implant was developed and optimized for long-term continuous drug delivery for potential oncological applications. Electrospun polydioxanone (PDS) nanoyarns, which are twisted bundles of PDS nanofibres, were loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) and woven into nanotextiles of different packing densities. A mechanistic modeling of in vitro drug release proved that a combination of diffusion and matrix degradation controlled the slow PTX-release from a nanoyarn, emphasizing the role of nanostructure in modulating release kinetics...
October 18, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Susan V Brammer
SPECIFIC CLINICAL ISSUE: The purpose of this clinical consultation is to offer nurses evidence-based strategies to provide holistic care to their patients with comorbid depression and pain. The combination of depression and pain is common and, if not managed effectively, has negative outcomes. Treatment-resistance is one negative outcome. The worst-case scenario for unrelieved depression and/or pain is suicide. MAJOR PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON BEST EVIDENCE: Antidepressants, particularly duloxetine, have had efficacy for pain and depression...
October 17, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
R Gallet, E Teiger
Anti-thrombotic management of percutaneous coronary intervention and atrial fibrillation relies on dual antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulation respectively. Because of people ageing, the coexistence of coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation is increasing. This coexistence raises concerns about the anti-thrombotic strategy, particularly about the association of dual antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulation, known as triple therapy. This triple therapy is responsible for a dramatic increase in bleeding risk (3-4 fold) especially in elderlies...
October 17, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Kengo Hiranuma, Soshi Kusunoki, Kazunari Fujino, Takashi Hirayama, Tsuyoshi Ota, Yasuhisa Terao
OBJECTIVE: To review and evaluate drug-induced vasculitis, which is an extremely rare complication of chemotherapy. CASE REPORT: A 47-year-old woman with ovarian cancer developed aortitis during bevacizumab combination chemotherapy. Contract-enhanced CT showed concentric thickening of the descending aorta. Antibiotics were administered, but a repeat CE-CT scan showed no resolution of the aortitis. To treat the aortitis, she was started on oral prednisolone. A subsequent CE-CT scan showed no signs of aortitis...
October 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai, Ming-Shiang Yang, Kuo-Wei Lu, Lan Yu, Wan-Zu Liou, Kung-Liahng Wang
Pelvic lymphadenectomy procedure is included as part of the standard protocol of radical hysterectomy for women with early-stage cervical cancer (Stage IA to IB1). However, an important sequel to lymphadenectomy procedure is the possible occurrence of lymphedema in the lower abdomen and lower extremities. Previous researches also find that women with lymphedema experience many emotional impacts, including depression, anxiety, and adjustment problems. Only approximately 10% of women with clinical stage IB cervical carcinoma were involved with metastatic disease...
October 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Francesco Fontana, Gaetano Alfano, Marco Leonelli, Caterina Cerami, Giulia Ligabue, Amelia Spinella, Giorgia Citriniti, Carlo Umberto Manzini, Clodoveo Ferri, Gianni Cappelli
BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a frequent severe complication of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), especially in patients of non-Caucasian ethnicity. Induction treatment for LN consists in the combination of steroids plus a second agent (cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil) or, as a second-line, calcineurin inhibitors or Rituximab. Induction treatment for LN can be complicated by a series of side effects, the most severe being serious infections. Belimumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets soluble B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), approved for treatment of serologically active SLE in addition to standard of care...
October 20, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Alessandro Palmioli, Sara Bertuzzi, Ada De Luigi, Laura Colombo, Barbara La Ferla, Mario Salmona, Ivano De Noni, Cristina Airoldi
The growing interest in medicinal plants for the identification of new bioactive compounds and the formulation of new nutraceuticals and drugs prompted us to develop a powerful experimental approach allowing the detailed metabolic profiling of complex plant extracts, the identification of ligands of macromolecular targets of biomedical relevance and a preliminary characterization of their biological activity. To this end, we selected Peucedanum ostruthium, a plant traditionally employed in Austria and Italy for its several potential therapeutic applications, as case study...
October 12, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Philip Joseph, Prem Pais, Antonio L Dans, Jackie Bosch, Denis Xavier, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Khalid Yusoff, Anwar Santoso, Shamim Talukder, Habib Gamra, Karen Yeates, Paul Camacho Lopez, Jessica Tyrwhitt, Peggy Gao, Koon Teo, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that in individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), but at increased CVD risk, a 50% to 60% reduction in CVD risk could be achieved using fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy (usually comprised of multiple blood-pressure agents and a statin [with or without aspirin]) in a single "polypill". However, the impact of a polypill in preventing clinical CV events has not been evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial. METHODS: TIPS-3 is a 2x2x2 factorial randomized controlled trial that will examine the effect of a FDC polypill on major CV outcomes in a primary prevention population...
August 2, 2018: American Heart Journal
Pavan Walvekar, Ramesh Gannimani, Thirumala Govender
Current drug therapy against infections is threatening to become obsolete due to the poor physical, chemical, biological and pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, followed by high risk of acquiring resistance. Taking into account the significant benefits of nanotechnology, nano-based delivery of anti-infectious agents is emerging as a potential approach to combat several lethal infections. Co-delivery of multiple anti-infectious agents in a single nano-based system is beginning to show significant advantages over mono-therapy, such as synergism, enhanced anti-microbial activity, broad anti-microbial spectrum, reduced resistance development, and improved and cost-effective treatment...
October 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kevin Kn Ho, Paulo H Ferreira, Marina B Pinheiro, Danielle Aquino Silva, Christopher B Miller, Ron Grunstein, Milena Simic
OBJECTIVES: To determine if sleep interventions improve pain and sleep in people with osteoarthritis and/or spinal pain compared to control/placebo. DESIGN: Medline, Embase, AMED, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, CINAHL and PEDro were searched from their inception date to July 2017. Keywords relating to "sleep", "osteoarthritis", "spinal pain", and "randomized controlled trial" were combined. Included RCTs investigated the use of sleep interventions for people with osteoarthritis and/or spinal pain, and measured at least one sleep and health related outcome...
October 17, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Thomas F Baumert, Thomas Berg, Joseph K Lim, David R Nelson
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Following the discovery of HCV 3 decades ago, the identification of the structure of the viral proteins, combined with high-throughput replicon models, enabled the discovery and development of direct-acting antivirals. These agents have revolutionized care of patients, with cure rates of more than 90%. We review the status of direct-acting antiviral therapies for HCV infection and discuss remaining challenges...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
Daniel S Thoma, Robert Haas, Katarzyna Sporniak-Tutak, Abel Garcia, Thomas D Taylor, Christoph H F Hämmerle
AIM: to compare the implant survival rate between short dental implants and standard length implants placed in combination with bone grafting at 5 years of loading. METHODS: This multicenter study enrolled 101 patients (137 implants) with a posterior maxillary bone height of 5-7mm. Patients randomly received either short implants (6mm) (GS) or long implants (11-15mm) with sinus grafting (GG). Six months later, implants were loaded with single crowns and patients re-examined at one, three and five years of loading...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Mangesh Tiwaskar, Amit Langote, Resham Kashyap, Archana Toppo
Amlodipine is a classical drug with varied properties extending from control of blood pressure to as an antianginal and anti atherosclerotic agent. Amlodipine is a longer acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, effective for 24 hours BP control and cause no BP variability. It is a powerful, well-tolerated, and safe antihypertensive agents that is widely used either alone or as a key component of combination therapy for hypertension. Its effective BP reduction has shown proven benefits in cardiovascular event reduction that is supported with strong evidences from large randomised controlled trials...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Shakeb Hasan, Saikat Datta, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee
Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), or portosystemic encephalopathy, represents a reversible decrease in neurologic function caused by liver disease, and treatment has traditionally been with non-absorbable disaccharides along with antibiotics and supportive measures. The present study was undertaken to evaluate if their combination therapy were superior to the established therapy in management of HE. Methods: Ninety six (96) patients of hepatic encephalopathy were randomly assigned to receive either lactulose and rifaximin in standard dosage or lactulose only and their response to therapy was monitored using standard assessment tools...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Zhongyi Xu, Xiaoxue Xing, Chengfeng Zhang, Li Chen, Leihong Flora Xiang
BACKGROUND: Up till now, there is no standardized and satisfactory treatment strategy for Riehl's melanosis. OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a novel combination therapy with oral administration of tranexamic acid (TA) and Glycyrrhizin compound for recalcitrant Riehl's melanosis. METHODS: Ten patients with Riehl's melanosis were recruited in this study. After elimination of potential contraindication, all patients were treated with 500 mg TA together with 150 mg Glycyrrhizin compound per day orally for 3 months, followed by 500 mg TA per day orally alone for another 3 months...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
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