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Vitamin d signaling

Hong-Xia Zhou, Richard I Milne, Xue-Long Ma, Yue-Qin Song, Jian-Yu Fang, Hang Sun, Hong-Guang Zha
Floral nectar plays important roles in the interaction between animal-pollinated plants and pollinators. Its components include water, sugars, amino acids, vitamins, and proteins. Growing empirical evidence shows that most of the proteins secreted in nectar (nectarines) are enzymes that can tailor nectar chemistry for their animal mutualists or reduce the growth of microorganisms in nectar. However, to date, the function of many nectarines remains unknown, and very few plant species have had their nectar proteome thoroughly investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Di Chen, Rong Xie, Bing Shu, Alan L Landay, Changli Wei, Jochen Reiser, Anna Spagnoli, Alfonso Torquati, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian, D Rick Sumner
Over the last two decades, it has become increasingly apparent that Wnt signaling plays a critical role in development and adult tissue homeostasis in multiple organs and in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In particular, a crucial role for Wnt signaling in bone development and bone tissue homeostasis has been well recognized. Numerous genome-wide association studies confirmed the importance of Wnt signaling in controlling bone mass. Moreover, ample evidence suggests that Wnt signaling is essential for kidney, intestine, and adipose tissue development and homeostasis...
August 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Warren A Vieira, Kaylee M Wells, Roni Milgrom, Catherine D McCusker
Urodele amphibians such as the axolotl regenerate complete limbs as adults, and understanding how the "blueprint", or pattern, of the regenerate is established and manipulated are areas of intense interest. Nutrient signaling plays an important role in pattern formation during regeneration. Retinoic acid signaling is the most characterized pathway during this process. Exogenous retinoic acid (RA) reprograms the pattern information in regenerating cells to a more posterior, ventral, and proximal identity...
August 7, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Cristian Ruiz-Moreno, Carlos Velez-Pardo, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common neoplasm during infancy. Unfortunately, NB is still a lethal cancer. Therefore, innovative curative therapies are immediately required. In this study, we showed the pro-death activity of TPGS in human NB SK-N-SH cancer cells. NB cells were exposed to TPGS (10-80 μM). We report for the first time that TPGS induces cell death by apoptosis in NB cells via a pro-oxidant-mediated signaling pathway. Certainly, H2O2 directly oxidizes DJ-1 cysteine106-thiolate into DJ-1 cysteine106-sulfonate; indirectly activates the transcription factors NF-kappaB, P53 and c-JUN; induces up-regulation of mitochondria regulator proteins BAX/PUMA; provokes loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (m) and activation of CASPASE-3/AIF, leading to nuclear disintegration, demonstrated by cellular and biochemical techniques such as fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis...
August 9, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Wei Li, Zhuo Liu, Renqiao Tang, Shengrong Ouyang, Sen Li, Jianxin Wu
Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which vitamin D reduces obesity-related inflammation remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of vitamin D on palmitate-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and explored the potential mechanisms of vitamin D action. The effect of vitamin D on the expression of inflammatory factors induced by palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, was investigated using human THP-1 macrophages and murine RAW 264...
August 1, 2018: Immunology Letters
Bin Zhao, Na Xu, Ran Li, Feiyan Yu, Fang Zhang, Fang Yang, Xuejun Ge, Yan Chun Li, Jie Du
Vitamin D is known to play a protective role in inflammatory diseases. Although the suppressive effect of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling has been shown in the context of oral lichen planus (OLP), the molecular basis of its regulatory function remains poorly understood. Herein, we reported that miR-802 overexpression in OLP could aggravate apoptosis of oral keratinocytes by targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 mRNA. In addition, vitamin D/VDR signaling was able to suppress miR-802 expression in LPS-treated or activated CD4+ T cell-stimulated human oral keratinocytes by blocking NF-κB pathways, thereby inhibiting OLP apoptosis...
August 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Carsten Carlberg, Antonio Neme
The vitamin D-modulated transcriptome of highly responsive human cells, such as THP-1 monocytes, comprises more than 500 genes, half of which are primary targets. Recently, we proposed a chromatin model of vitamin D signaling demonstrating that nearly all vitamin D target genes are located within vitamin D-modulated topologically associated domains (TADs). This model is based on genome-wide binding patterns of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), the pioneer transcription factor PU.1, the chromatin organizer CTCF and histone markers of active promoter regions (H3K4me3) and active chromatin (H3K27ac)...
July 22, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Andrzej Kutner, Geoffrey Brown
The most active metabolite of vitamin D is 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃, which is a central regulator of mineral homeostasis: excessive administration leads to hypercalcemia. Additionally, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ is important to decision-making by cells, driving many cell types to growth arrest, differentiate and undergo apoptosis. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₃ regulates gene transcription by binding to a single known receptor, the vitamin D receptor. Rapid intracellular signals are also elicited in vitro by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ that are independent of transcription...
July 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nandadeep J Jadhav, Sarangi Gokhale, Monika Seervi, Poonam S Patil, Kalichamy Alagarasu
Dengue virus (DENV) infections are straining public health systems worldwide. Vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, is currently being investigated for its immunomodulatory effects in DENV infections. The objectives of the present study was to study the effect of 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) on the expression of genes coding for RNA sensing pattern recognition receptors, downstream signaling components including oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) and interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and T helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine response in DENV infected U937-DC-SIGN cells and THP-1 macrophages...
September 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Hooman Mirzakhani, Amal A Al-Garawi, Vincent J Carey, Weiliang Qiu, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss
Cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has been reported in association with risk of early life recurrent wheeze. In a subset of infants who participated in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, we demonstrated that higher cord blood 25OHD at birth (>31 ng/mL) was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent wheeze in the first year of life. We then identified a module of co-expressed genes associated with cord blood 25OHD levels >31 ng/mL. Genes in this module are involved in biological and immune pathways related to development and progression of asthma pathogenesis including the Notch1 and transforming growth factor-beta signalling pathways...
July 18, 2018: Thorax
Andrew Clegg, Zaki Hassan-Smith
Frailty is a condition characterised by loss of biological reserves, failure of homoeostatic mechanisms, and vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The endocrine system is considered particularly important in frailty, because of its complex inter-relationships with the brain, immune system, and skeletal muscle. This Review summarises evidence indicating a key role for the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the pathogenesis of frailty through aberrant regulation of glucocorticoid secretion, insulin-like growth factor signalling, and androgen production...
July 12, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Wen Sun, Yang Gao, Xianhua Yu, Yuan Yuan, Jun Yi, Zhen Zhang, Yuxing Cheng, Yong Li, Xing Peng, Xushan Cha
'Psoriasis 1', a Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulation, is extensively used to treat psoriasis in China. Although this CHM formulation yields good therapeutic effect, the underlying mechanism of how this works remains unknown. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the CHM formulation 'psoriasis 1' inhibits vitamin D receptor (VDR)‑mediated inflammation in psoriasis. To test this, a model of psoriasis was established by stimulating keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α; these cells were subsequently transfected with a lentiviral VDR RNA interference expression vector...
September 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Peter E Hutchinson, John A Halsall, Silvia Popovici, Eftychios Papadogeorgakis, Joy E Osborne, Ian R Powley, Deepthi Dasari, Gerald Saldanha, James H Pringle
The aims of this study were to investigate, in cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM), the integrity of nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) signalling, as implied by VDR subcellular location; to investigate the relationship between VDR and tumour progression and the inhibitory effect on VDR by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) overactivity. Archived tissue from 34 benign melanocytic naevi, 149 MMs and 44 matched metastases were stained by immunohistochemistry for VDR and a subset of primary MMs were stained for phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase as a marker of MAPK activity...
July 12, 2018: Melanoma Research
Eva S Liu, Janaina S Martins, Wanlin Zhang, Marie B Demay
The bone tendon attachment site known as the enthesis is comprised of a transitional zone between bone and tendon and plays an important role in enabling movement at this site. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by impaired activation of vitamin D, elevated serum FGF23 levels and low serum phosphate levels, which impair bone mineralization. Paradoxically, an important complication of XLH is mineralization of the enthesis (enthesopathy). Studies were undertaken to identify the cellular and molecular pathways important for normal post-natal enthesis maturation and to examine their role during the development of enthesopathy in mice with XLH (Hyp)...
July 12, 2018: Development
Giovanni Orsolini, Giovanni Adami, Maurizio Rossini, Francesco Ghellere, Cristian Caimmi, Angelo Fassio, Luca Idolazzi, Davide Gatti, Ombretta Viapiana
Available studies reported contradictory results about serum levels Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of Wnt signaling in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In previous studies, we observed in other conditions that parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum levels were an important determinant of DKK1 serum levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate it in patients with AS. We recruited 71 patients diagnosed with AS. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), DKK1, PTH, 25OH-vitamin D, and bone turnover markers (intact N-propeptide of type I collagen, P1NP, and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX) were measured and compared to healthy controls (HC)...
July 11, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Paola De Luca, Laura de Girolamo, Carlotta Perucca Orfei, Marco Viganò, Riccardo Cecchinato, Marco Brayda-Bruno, Alessandra Colombini
Vitamin D is known to have immunomodulatory effects, is involved in osteo-cartilaginous metabolism, and may have a role in human intervertebral disc pathophysiology. Although a link between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants and disc degeneration-related pathologies has been observed, its functional contribution to pathologic processes has not been assessed yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of disc cells to vitamin D in terms of the regulation of proliferation, metabolism, and inflammatory processes, with a particular focus on the FokI VDR genotype...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michiyasu Ishizawa, Daisuke Akagi, Makoto Makishima
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear receptor that mediates the biological action of the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [1,25(OH)₂D₃], and regulates calcium and bone metabolism. Lithocholic acid (LCA), which is a secondary bile acid produced by intestinal bacteria, acts as an additional physiological VDR ligand. Despite recent progress, however, the physiological function of the LCA−VDR axis remains unclear. In this study, in order to elucidate the differences in VDR action induced by 1,25(OH)₂D₃ and LCA, we compared their effect on the VDR target gene induction in the intestine of mice...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, María Jesús Larriba, Piero Crespo, Alberto Muñoz
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the neoplasia that is most frequently associated with vitamin D deficiency in epidemiological and observational studies in terms of incidence and mortality. Many mechanistic studies show that the active vitamin D metabolite (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol) inhibits proliferation and promotes epithelial differentiation of human colon carcinoma cell lines that express vitamin D receptor (VDR) via the regulation of a high number of genes. A key action underlining this effect is the multilevel inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, whose abnormal activation in colon epithelial cells initiates and promotes CRC...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Beatrice Richter, Melis Basaran, Julia Nespor, Isabel Vogt, Ioana Alesutan, Jakob Voelkl, Florian Lang, Joerg Heineke, Stefanie Krick, Dieter Haffner
Clinical and experimental studies indicate a possible link between high serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH), deficiency of active vitamin D (1,25D) and klotho with the development of pathological cardiac remodeling, i.e., left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, but a causal link has not been established so far. Here, we investigated the cardiac phenotype in klotho hypomorphic ( kl/kl ) mice and Hyp mice, two mouse models of elevated FGF23 levels and klotho deficiency, but differing in parameters of mineral metabolism, by using histology, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, and serum and urine biochemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Keizo Kaneko, Maud Soty, Carine Zitoun, Adeline Duchampt, Marine Silva, Erwann Philippe, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Fabienne Rajas, Gilles Mithieux
OBJECTIVE: The respective contributions to endogenous glucose production (EGP) of the liver, kidney and intestine vary during fasting. We previously reported that the deficiency in either hepatic or intestinal gluconeogenesis modulates the repartition of EGP via glucagon secretion (humoral factor) and gut-brain-liver axis (neural factor), respectively. Considering renal gluconeogenesis reportedly accounted for approximately 50% of EGP during fasting, we examined whether a reduction in renal gluconeogenesis could promote alterations in the repartition of EGP in this situation...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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