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Forensic Genetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537639/why-we-can-t-determine-reliably-the-age-of-a-subject-on-the-basis-of-his-maturation-degree
#1
Silvano Milani, Lodovico Benso
BACKGROUND: Maturation is the irreversible biological process leading to adult form or function. The degree of maturation can be derived from the examination of maturity indicators, i.e. of particular aspects of the overall maturation, such as pubertal status, skeletal and dental morphology. Rhythm of maturation of each indicator differs between populations and individuals, because of genetic, nutritional and environmental factors. Skeletal maturation is usually expressed as skeletal age, which is the median age at which a given degree of maturation is attained...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535913/the-genetic-profile-of-bone-marrow-transplant-patients-in-different-samples-of-forensic-interest
#2
Elena Sanz-Piña, Ana Santurtún, Javier Freire, Javier Gómez-Román, Mercedes Colorado, María T Zarrabeitia
Humans constantly lose epithelial cells, and these biological traces are frequently studied in the context of criminal investigations. The objective of this work was to examine the genetic profile in samples of forensic interest (nail and skin epithelial cells) of bone marrow transplant patients and discuss its forensic and clinical implications. The genetic profile of nail, epidermal cells and blood samples of patients receiving HSCT was analyzed by the amplification and sequencing of 38 insertion/deletion polymorphisms and 15 short tandem repeat polymorphisms...
December 10, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529891/development-of-a-multiplex-forensic-identity-panel-for-massively-parallel-sequencing-and-its-systematic-optimization-using-design-of-experiments
#3
Sebastian Ganschow, Janine Silvery, Carsten Tiemann
The application of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) in forensic sciences enables high-resolution short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping for the characterization of biological evidence. While MPS supports multiplexing of a large number of forensic markers, the performance of an MPS-STR panel depends on good primer design and optimal PCR conditions. However, conventional strategies for multifactorial assay optimization are labor-intensive and do not necessarily allow the experimenter to identify optimum factor settings...
November 30, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30522950/forensic-characteristics-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-both-y-str-and-y-snp-in-the-li-and-han-ethnic-groups-from-hainan-island-of-china
#4
Mengyuan Song, Zheng Wang, Yaqing Zhang, Chenxi Zhao, Min Lang, Mingkun Xie, Xiaoqin Qian, Mengge Wang, Yiping Hou
Hainan Island is the southernmost and smallest Chinese province, isolated from the mainland. The Li and Han ethnic groups account for over 98% of the population on the island. However, the Li ethnic group is an indigenous community of Hainan Island, with great differences in culture, language and origin with respect to the Han, the largest ethnic group. Here, we studied these two ethnic groups from the perspective of the Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) and short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) to unravel their forensic and phylogenetic characteristics...
November 29, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516263/the-importance-of-clinical-approach-in-aggravated-sexual-abuse-case-report
#5
Gökmen Karabağ, Halil İbrahim Tanrıverdi, Mehmet Sunay Yavuz, Abdülkadir Genç, Ufuk Akın, Selma Saraç
The reported rate of sex crimes, some of the most severe acts of violence that can be perpetrated against an individual, is increasing across all societies, regardless of gender or age of the victim. Sexual abuse has been defined, in part, as the involvement of a child in sexual activity for which they are incapable of giving consent, that they cannot fully comprehend, or for which they are developmentally immature. Molestation of the anorectal region is frequently encountered when the victim of sexual abuse is a male child...
November 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511783/nanopore-sequencing-an-enrichment-free-alternative-to-mitochondrial-dna-sequencing
#6
Roxanne R Zascavage, Kelcie Thorson, John V Planz
Mitochondrial DNA sequence data is often utilized in disease studies, conservation genetics and forensic identification. The current approaches for sequencing the full mtGenome typically require several rounds of PCR enrichment during Sanger or MPS protocols followed by fairly tedious assembly and analysis. Here we describe an efficient approach to sequencing directly from genomic DNA samples without prior enrichment or extensive library preparation steps. A comparison is made between libraries sequenced directly from native DNA and the same samples sequenced from libraries generated with nine overlapping mtDNA amplicons on the Oxford Nanopore MinION device...
December 4, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509025/-introduction-to-the-work-towards-standardization-in-the-field-of-forensic-genetics-at-the-first-lodz-meeting-of-the-expert-team-for-standards-and-assessment-in-forensic-genetics-of-the-polish-speaking-working-group-of-the-international-society-for-forensic
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509022/-preliminary-analysis-of-polymorphism-of-str-markers-in-the-population-of-domestic-cats-felis-catus-in-lower-silesia
#8
Aneta Alama, Anna Jonkisz, Miron Tokarski, Małgorzata Małodobra-Mazur, Arleta Lebioda, Elżbieta Kowalczyk, Tadeusz Dobosz
AIM OF THE STUDY: Genetic tests play a crucial role in the crime investigation process and often provide the strongest evidence for case resolution. Although the majority of genetic analyses in the field of criminalistics focus on the human DNA, genetic identification of animals is becoming an increasingly common procedure. Domestic animals, which live around people, may be silent witnesses and even victims of criminal activity. Their typically limited value as evidence in such cases could radically change thanks to the possibility of using animal biological material present at the crime scene...
2018: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506867/population-genetics-of-19-y-str-loci-in-yanbian-korean-samples-from-china
#9
Jin-Feng Xuan, Atif Adnan, Rehan Ali Khan, Jia-Xin Xing, Jun Yao, Bao-Jie Wang
BACKGROUND: China harbors 56 ethnic groups, including Korean, with a population size of approximately 1.92 million at the 2010 census. Most of the Koreans live in Northeastern parts of China, including Jilin (59.64%), Heilongjiang (20.21%), and Liaoning (12.55%) provinces, and the rest are spread to other parts of China. Koreans across China share a common culture, which is similar to Korea. METHODS: We have explored the genetic characteristics of 20 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci in 252 unrelated Chinese Korean male individuals from Jilin Province, using a Goldeneye 20Y amplification kit...
December 2, 2018: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502537/genetic-diversity-and-haplotype-structure-of-27-y-str-loci-in-a-yanbian-korean-population-from-jilin-province-northeast-china
#10
Yequan Wang, Shuyue Li, Zhen Dang, Xia Kong, Yongji Zhang, Li Ma, Dan Wang, Han Zhang, Changzheng Li, Wen Cui
In this study, 27 Y-STRs were analyzed in 347 male individuals from the Yanbian Korean population. Haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) values were calculated. Pairwise Rst values were evaluated in AMOVA analysis and visualized through multidimensional scaling (MDS). Yflier Plus system indicated higher Discrimination Power (DP), HD and DC which is 0.9969, 0.9998 and 0.9769. There is no significant genetic distance between Yanbian Koreans and South Koreans, however, there is a great distance from Chinese Han population...
November 22, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499472/-forensic-medical-expertises-and-the-studies-of-material-evidence-of-biological-origin-in-russia-based-on-the-materials-collected-during-the-period-from-2003-till-2017
#11
A V Kovalev, T A Kuprina, O V Samokhodskaya, I V Kondratova
The objective of the present study was the analysis of expert activities of the forensic biological, forensic cytological, and molecular genetic divisions and laboratories of the state agencies carrying out forensic medical expertise in the Russian Federation during the past 15 year period (2003-2017). We scrutinized the data on the organizational structure and the personnel scheduling chart of the aforementioned units. The study has demonstrated the progressive decrease in the number of forensic biological and forensic cytological investigations versus enhanced activities of the molecular genetic laboratories...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483663/genetic-and-structural-characterization-of-20-autosomal-short-tandem-repeats-in-the-chinese-qinghai-han-population-and-its-genetic-relationships-and-interpopulation-differentiations-with-other-reference-populations
#12
Zhanhai Wang, Bin Lu, Xiaoye Jin, Jiangwei Yan, Haotian Meng, Bofeng Zhu
China is a multinational country composed of 56 ethnic groups of which the Han Chinese accounts for 91.60%. Qinghai Province is located in the northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, has an area of 72.12 km2 , and is the fourth largest province in China. In the present study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 20 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a Qinghai Han population, as well as its genetic relationships with other populations. A total of 273 alleles were identified in 2 000 individuals at 20 loci, and the allelic frequency ranged from 0...
2018: Forensic sciences research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483661/powerplex%C3%A2-fusion-6c-system-internal-validation-study
#13
Ana Boavida, Vanessa Bogas, Lisa Sampaio, Nair Gouveia, Maria J Porto, Francisco Corte-Real
This work is aimed at describing the proceedings and parameters used to validate PowerPlex® Fusion 6C System, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification kit by Promega, for posterior implementation in the laboratorial routine of the Forensic Genetic Service. The PowerPlex® Fusion 6C System allows multiplex PCR, through simultaneous amplification and posterior detection by fluorescence of 27 loci. Characterization of the kit was made according to the laboratory's internal validation procedure based on validation guidelines from Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods...
2018: Forensic sciences research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483659/sequencing-of-231-forensic-genetic-markers-using-the-miseq-fgx%C3%A2-forensic-genomics-system-an-evaluation-of-the-assay-and-software
#14
Christian Hussing, Christina Huber, Rajmonda Bytyci, Helle S Mogensen, Niels Morling, Claus Børsting
The MiSeq FGx™ Forensic Genomics System types 231 genetic markers in one multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The markers include core forensic short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as identity, ancestry and phenotype informative short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work, the MiSeq FGx™ Forensic Genomics System was evaluated by analysing reproducibility, sensitivity, mixture identification and forensic phenotyping capabilities of the assay. Furthermore, the genotype calling of the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software was verified by analysing fastq...
2018: Forensic sciences research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483657/forensic-genetics
#15
EDITORIAL
Chengtao Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Forensic sciences research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483307/genetic-variation-in-coat-colour-genes-mc1r-and-asip-provides-insights-into-domestication-and-management-of-south-american-camelids
#16
Juan C Marín, Romina Rivera, Valeria Varas, Jorge Cortés, Ana Agapito, Ana Chero, Alexandra Chávez, Warren E Johnson, Pablo Orozco-terWengel
The domestication of wild vicuña and guanaco by early pre-Inca cultures is an iconic example of wildlife management and domestication in the Americas. Although domestic llamas and alpacas were clearly selected for key, yet distinct, phenotypic traits, the relative patterns and direction of selection and domestication have not been confirmed using genetic approaches. However, the detailed archaeological records from the region suggest that domestication was a process carried out under significant control and planning, which would have facilitated coordinated and thus extremely effective selective pressure to achieve and maintain desired phenotypic traits...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476751/aim-snptag-a-computationally-efficient-approach-for-developing-ancestry-informative-snp-panels
#17
Shilei Zhao, Cheng-Min Shi, Liang Ma, Qi Liu, Yongming Liu, Fuquan Wu, Lianjiang Chi, Hua Chen
Inferring an individual's ancestry or group membership using a small set of highly informative genetic markers is very useful in forensic and medical genetics. However, given the huge amount of SNP data available from a diverse of populations, it is challenging to develop informative panels by exhaustively searching for all possible SNP combinations. In this study, we formulate it as an algorithm problem of selecting an optimal set of SNPs that maximizes the inference accuracy while minimizes the set size. Built on this conception, we develop a computational approach that is capable of constructing ancestry informative panels from multi-population genome-wide SNP data efficiently...
November 2, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476749/successful-analysis-of-a-100-years-old-semen-stain-generating-a-complete-dna-str-profile
#18
Alessandro Mameli, Carmine Maria Scudiero, Giovanni Delogu, Maria Elena Ghiani
We performed forensic investigations on a handkerchief containing seminal fluid deposited 100 years earlier. The aim was to verify the possibility to achieve a complete genetic profile exceeding the limit of success reached until today with a partial semen stain profile stored up to 50 years. The current forensic methods were carried out: Alternative Light Source (ALS), Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test, autosomal and Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeats (STRs). ALS inspection was a crucial method in the success of the analysis...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472641/genotyping-polymorphic-microhaplotype-markers-through-the-illumina-%C3%A2-miseq-platform-for-forensics
#19
Jing Zhu, Meili Lv, Nan Zhou, Dan Chen, Youjing Jiang, Li Wang, Wang He, Duo Peng, Zhilong Li, Shengqiu Qu, Yinji Wang, Hui Wang, Haibo Luo, Gang An, Weibo Liang, Lin Zhang
Microhaplotype markers are emerging forensic genetic markers that have received broad attention in forensics and may supplement existing genetic marker panels. Short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the general genetic markers at present. Stutter and the high mutation rate of STR markers and the low polymorphism of SNP markers obstruct the solving of certain cases. Kidd proposed microhaplotype markers that encompass 2-4 SNPs. In this study, we screened microhaplotype loci through three criteria, and chose the Illumina® MiSeq platform to sequence the new markers...
November 16, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472102/introduction-to-special-issue-trends-and-perspectives-in-forensic-genetics-2018
#20
EDITORIAL
Manfred Kayser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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