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Forensic Genetic

Brooke L Deatherage Kaiser, Karen K Hill, Theresa J Smith, Charles H D Williamson, Paul Keim, Jason W Sahl, Karen L Wahl
Microorganisms alter gene and protein expression in response to environmental conditions to adapt and survive. Whereas the genetic composition of a microbe represents an organism's biological potential, the proteins expressed provide a functional readout of the organism's response to the environment. Understanding protein expression patterns in response to specific environmental conditions furthers fundamental knowledge about a microbe, which can be especially useful for understudied organisms such as Clostridium botulinum examined herein...
2018: PloS One
Jaehee Kim, Michael D Edge, Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt, Jun Z Li, Noah A Rosenberg
In familial searching in forensic genetics, a query DNA profile is tested against a database to determine whether it represents a relative of a database entrant. We examine the potential for using linkage disequilibrium to identify pairs of profiles as belonging to relatives when the query and database rely on nonoverlapping genetic markers. Considering data on individuals genotyped with both microsatellites used in forensic applications and genome-wide SNPs, we find that ∼30%-32% of parent-offspring pairs and ∼35%-36% of sib pairs can be identified from the SNPs of one member of the pair and the microsatellites of the other...
October 4, 2018: Cell
Sarah Noël, Karine Lagacé, Sylvain Raymond, Dominic Granger, Magali Loyer, Sarah Bourgoin, Christine Jolicoeur, Diane Séguin
In many sexual assault cases, bedding and clothing are essential pieces of evidence that are screened for semen stains to gather DNA from the assailant. In some cases, these items have been washed before being seized and sent to the forensic lab. However, few data exist on the optimal methods for detecting and sampling semen stains on washed fabrics. In this paper, we used semen stains washed up to six times to evaluate the efficiency of commonly used screening methods for the detection of semen: alternate light source (ALS), acid phosphatase (AP), prostate specific antigen (PSA) and microscopy (sperm Hy-Liter™ , SHL)...
October 4, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Mark W Perlin
Natural variation in biological evidence leads to uncertain genotypes. Forensic comparison of a probabilistic genotype with a person's reference gives a numerical strength of DNA association. The distribution of match strength for all possible references usefully represents a genotype's potential information. But testing more genetic loci exponentially increases the number of multi-locus possibilities, making direct computation infeasible. At each locus, Bayesian probability can quickly assemble a match strength random variable...
October 2018: Heliyon
Manuela Oliveira, António Amorim
Recent advances in genetic data generation, through massive parallel sequencing (MPS), storage and analysis have fostered significant progresses in microbial forensics (or forensic microbiology). Initial applications in circumstances of biocrime, bioterrorism and epidemiology are now accompanied by the prospect of using microorganisms (i) as ancillary evidence in criminal cases; (ii) to clarify causes of death (e.g., drownings, toxicology, hospital-acquired infections, sudden infant death and shaken baby syndromes); (iii) to assist human identification (skin, hair and body fluid microbiomes); (iv) for geolocation (soil microbiome); and (v) to estimate postmortem interval (thanatomicrobiome and epinecrotic microbial community)...
October 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Haoliang Fan, Xiao Wang, Haixiang Chen, Ren Long, Anwen Liang, Wenhui Li, Jianhua Chen, Weihuan Wang, Yihong Qu, Tao Song, Peng Zhang, Jianqiang Deng
The Ong Be language, an important branch of the Tai-Kadai language family, is one of the most distinctive languages on Hainan Island. Ong Be language speakers, who have lived in the Lingao district of Hainan Island for generations, were classified as Han Chinese in the early days of the establishment of the People's Republic of China but have distinct differences from the Han Chinese in language, lifestyle, customs and values and particularly in appearances and features. Currently, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes have been widely used in genetic applications, such as human forensics, historical investigations and genealogical research...
September 29, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Gray D Amick, Roy R Swiger
A new rapid DNA solution, the RapidHIT® ID, can accommodate two different sample cartridges, ACE, for the analysis of a single swab and EXT, for the analysis of DNA extracts. An efficient internal validation designed for low-throughput rapid DNA is described. An evaluation of the EXT sample cartridge is also described. Each cartridge generated profiles with sufficient data quality to meet CODIS eligibility in fewer than 120 min. The results exhibited 100% correlation when compared to conventional DNA typing methods...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Christi J Guerrini, Jill O Robinson, Devan Petersen, Amy L McGuire
On April 24, 2018, a suspect in California's notorious Golden State Killer cases was arrested after decades of eluding the police. Using a novel forensic approach, investigators identified the suspect by first identifying his relatives using a free, online genetic database populated by individuals researching their family trees. In the wake of the case, media outlets reported privacy concerns with police access to personal genetic data generated by or shared with genealogy services. Recent data from 1,587 survey respondents, however, provide preliminary reason to question whether such concerns have been overstated...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Pengyu Chen, Guanglin He, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Haibo Luo, Limei Yu, Xijie Hu, Mijia Xia, Hongyan Gao, Jian Yu, Yiping Hou, Yanyan Han
X-chromosome short tandem repeat markers (X-STRs), due to their special inheritance models, physical location on a single chromosome and the absence of recombination in male meiosis, play an important role in forensic and population genetics. While a series of genetic analyses focusing on the genetic diversity and forensic characteristics of X-STRs are well studied for ethnically/linguistically diverse and demographically large Chinese populations, genetic evidence from Gelao ethnicity is still sparse. Here, we genotyped the first batch of 19 X-STRs in 513 Chinese Gelao individuals (265 females and 248 males), and reported genetic polymorphisms, forensic characteristics based on the single locus and seven linkage groups...
October 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bas Kokshoorn, Lambertus H J Aarts, Ricky Ansell, Edward Connolly, Weine Drotz, Ate D Kloosterman, Louise G McKenna, Bianca Szkuta, Roland A H van Oorschot
Sharing data between forensic scientists on DNA transfer, persistence, prevalence and recovery (TPPR) is crucial to advance the understanding of these issues in the criminal justice community. We present the results of a collaborative exercise on reporting forensic genetics findings given activity level propositions. This exercise outlined differences in the methodology that was applied by the participating laboratories, as well as limitations to the use of published data on DNA TPPR. We demonstrate how publication of experimental results in scientific journals can be further improved to allow for an adequate use of these data...
September 21, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Marek Kowalczyk, Ewelina Zawadzka, Dariusz Szewczuk, Magdalena Gryzińska, Andrzej Jakubczak
Forensic genetics is a field that has become subject to increasing interest in recent years. Both the technology and the markers used for forensic purposes have changed since the 1980s. The minisatellite sequences used in the famous Pitchfork case introduced genetics to the forensic sciences. Minisatellite sequences have now been replaced by more sensitive microsatellite markers, which have become the basis for the creation of genetic profile databases. Modern molecular methods also exploit single nucleotide polymorphisms, which are often the only way to identify degraded DNA samples...
September 30, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Ewelina Pośpiech, Yan Chen, Magdalena Kukla-Bartoszek, Krystal Breslin, Anastasia Aliferi, Jeppe D Andersen, David Ballard, Lakshmi Chaitanya, Ana Freire-Aradas, Kristiaan J van der Gaag, Lorena Girón-Santamaría, Theresa E Gross, Mario Gysi, Gabriela Huber, Ana Mosquera-Miguel, Charanya Muralidharan, Małgorzata Skowron, Ángel Carracedo, Cordula Haas, Niels Morling, Walther Parson, Christopher Phillips, Peter M Schneider, Titia Sijen, Denise Syndercombe-Court, Marielle Vennemann, Sijie Wu, Shuhua Xu, Li Jin, Sijia Wang, Ghu Zhu, Nick G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Wojciech Branicki, Susan Walsh, Fan Liu, Manfred Kayser
Human head hair shape, commonly classified as straight, wavy, curly or frizzy, is an attractive target for Forensic DNA Phenotyping and other applications of human appearance prediction from DNA such as in paleogenetics. The genetic knowledge underlying head hair shape variation was recently improved by the outcome of a series of genome-wide association and replication studies in a total of 26,964 subjects, highlighting 12 loci of which 8 were novel and introducing a prediction model for Europeans based on 14 SNPs...
August 29, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jindřich Novotný, Petra Lotz, Stefan Müller, Ortrud Steinlein
Chimerism in humans is defined as the presence of two genetically different cell lines within the same organism. It is usually an acquired condition that is restricted to certain tissues and can be explained by therapeutic interventions such as blood transfusion or the transplantation of allogenic hematopoietic cells. Implications of such patients for forensic DNA testing have been described in the literature. In some rare cases, true inherited chimerism is observed. This so called tetragametic chimerism occurs via the fertilization of the two ova by two spermatozoa, followed by the fusion of early embryos and the development of an organism with intermingled cell lines...
September 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
J Palma, P-Y Sarron, V Camus, W El-Hage
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported over-representation of psychiatric disorders among patients with Klinefelter' Syndrome (KS), with forensic complications. OBJECTIVE: Consider determinants of sexual assault in patient with KS. REVIEW: In this work, we present the case of Jules, 23 years old, with KS, benefiting from steroid replacement therapy, convicted of rape of a minor and evaluated in this context. We question here the role of his genetic pathology and of his hormonal treatment in this sexual assault...
September 20, 2018: L'Encéphale
Nicole Huber, Walther Parson, Arne Dür
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation is being reported relative to the corrected version of the first sequenced human mitochondrial genome. A review of the existing literature across disciplines that employ mtDNA demonstrates that insertions and deletions are not reported in a standardized way. This may lead to false exclusions of identical sequences, unidentified matches in missing persons mtDNA databases, biased mtDNA database frequency estimates and overestimation of the genetic evidence. Seven years ago we introduced alignment-free database search software (SAM) and implemented it into the mtDNA database EMPOP (https://empop...
September 9, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Yanjie Shang, Lipin Ren, Wei Chen, Lagabaiyila Zha, Jifeng Cai, Jianan Dong, Yadong Guo
The flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are significant in forensic investigations. The mitochondrial genome (mitogeome) has been widely used as genetic markers for phylogenetic analysis and species identification. To further understand the mitogenome-level features in Sarcophagidae, the complete mitogenome of Sarcophaga formosensis (Kirneret Lopes, 1961) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Sarcophaga misera (Walker, 1849) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was firstly sequenced, annotated, and compared with other 13 Sarcophagidae species...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Pengyu Chen, Guanglin He, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Fuquan Jia, Huiru Bai, Jida Li, Jian Yu, Yanyan Han
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) may assist resolution of complex forensic kinship cases and complement autosomal and Y-chromosomal STRs in routine forensic practice and population genetics. In the present study, we investigated the allele/haplotype diversity and forensic genetic characteristics of 19 X- STRs in 206 Guizhou Han and 1344 Meta-Han Chinese individuals using AGCU X19 PCR amplification system. Population relationships within five Han Chinese population groups (1344 individuals), between Guizhou Han and other 19 Chinese reference populations belonging to four language families (5074 individuals), as well as between Meta-Han Chinese and other 15 minorities (3730 individuals) were performed using Reynolds's, Nei's and Fst genetic distances, principal component analysis (PCA), multidimensional scaling (MDS), Structure and Neighbor-Joining tree...
2018: PloS One
Patricia Villaescusa, Leire Palencia-Madrid, Magdalena Antònia Campaner, Jaione Jauregui-Rada, Miguel Guerra-Rodríguez, Ana María Rocandio, Marian M de Pancorbo
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found within the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) represent a powerful tool in forensic genetics for inferring the paternal ancestry of a vestige and complement the determination of biogeographical origin in combination with other markers like AIMs. In the present study, we introduce a panel of 15 Y-SNPs for a fine-resolution subtyping of the haplogroup R1b-DF27, in a single minisequencing reaction. This is the first minisequencing panel that allows a fine subtyping of R1b-DF27, which displays high frequencies in Iberian and Iberian-influenced populations...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Rachel Houston, Carrie Mayes, Jonathan L King, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, David Gangitano
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is an emerging technology in the field of forensic genetics that provides distinct advantages compared to capillary electrophoresis. This study offers a proof of concept that MPS technologies can be applied to genotype autosomal STRs in Cannabis sativa. A custom panel for MPS was designed to interrogate 12 cannabis-specific STR loci by sequence rather than size. A simple workflow was implemented to integrate the custom PCR multiplex into a workflow compatible with the Ion Plus Fragment Library Kit, Ion™ Chef, and Ion™ S5 System...
September 16, 2018: Electrophoresis
Guanglin He, Yongdong Su, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Jing Liu, Shouyu Wang, Yiping Hou, Zheng Wang
Genetic characterization of ethnically and geographically diverse populations via short tandem repeats (STRs) is relevant to various fundamental and applied areas of forensic genetics, population studies, and even molecular anthropology. In the present study, genetic polymorphisms of 15 autosomal STR loci were firstly obtained from 918 individuals (495 Nakhis and 423 Yis) residing in the foothills of the Himalayas. The cumulative powers of discrimination and probabilities of exclusion in the two studied ethnic groups were both larger than 0...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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