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Forensic Genetic

Bofeng Zhu, Qiong Lan, Yuxin Guo, Tong Xie, Yating Fang, Xiaoye Jin, Wei Cui, Chong Chen, Yongsong Zhou, Xiaogang Li
In comparison with the most preferred genetic marker utilized in forensic science (STR), insertion/deletion analysis possesses further benefits, like absence of stutter peak, low mutation rate, and enabling mixed stain analysis. At present, a total of 169 unrelated healthy Dongxiang individuals dwelling in Dongxiang Autonomous county of Gansu province were recruited in our study to appraise the forensic usefulness of the panel including 30 autosomal diallelic genetic markers. The insertion allele frequencies were in the range of 0...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Paul Vun Onn Liew, Laura Natalia Riccardi, Abimbola Olatunde Afolabi, William Goodwin, Sibte Hadi
The commercial PowerPlex® Fusion kit is an autosomal STR multiplex kit that has high discrimination power and is more informative in forensic, paternity and relationship-testing cases. Key features of this multiplex system are the possibility to direct amplify FTA™ card punches as well as non-FTA cards and commonly used swabs; optimised inhibitor tolerance and high sensitivity generating full profiles from as little as 100 pg of human DNA. This study focused on the optimization of performance variables such as FTA™ punch sizes, reduced reaction volumes, and FTA™ purification reagent aiming to increase the analytical sensitivity, decrease the sample consumption and cost effectiveness...
August 16, 2018: Electrophoresis
Yuxin Guo, Chong Chen, Tong Xie, Wei Cui, Haotian Meng, Xiaoye Jin, Bofeng Zhu
Short tandem repeats (STRs) with a high level of polymorphisms and convenient detection method play an indispensable role in human population and forensic genetics. Recently, we detected the 21 autosomal non-combined DNA index system (non-CODIS) STR loci in a Kyrgyz ethnic group, calculated their forensic parameters and analysed its genetic relationships with reference populations from China. In total, 168 alleles were observed at 21 non-CODIS STRs with corresponding allelic frequencies from 0.0016 to 0.4788...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Christopher Phillips, Laurence Devesse, David Ballard, Leanne van Weert, Maria de la Puente, Stefania Melis, Vanessa Álvarez Iglesias, Ana Freire-Aradas, Nicola Oldroyd, Cydne Holt, Denise Syndercombe Court, Ángel Carracedo, Maria Victoria Lareu
The 944 individuals of the HGDP-CEPH human genome diversity panel, a standard sample set of 51 globally distributed populations, were sequenced using the Illumina ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit. The ForenSeq™ system is a single multiplex for the MiSeq/FGx™ massively parallel sequencing (MPS) instrument, comprising: amelogenin; 27 autosomal STRs; 24 Y-STRs; 7 X-STRs; and 94 SNPforID+Kiddlab autosomal ID-SNPs (plus optionally detected ancestry and phenotyping SNP sets). We report in detail the patterns of sequence variation observed in the repeat regions of the 58 forensic STR loci typed by the ForenSeq™ system...
August 13, 2018: Electrophoresis
Florin Mircea Iliescu, George Chaplin, Niraj Rai, Guy S Jacobs, Chandana Basu Mallick, Anshuman Mishra, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Nina G Jablonski
OBJECTIVES: Skin color is a highly visible and variable trait across human populations. It is not yet clear how evolutionary forces interact to generate phenotypic diversity. Here, we sought to unravel through an integrative framework the role played by three factors-demography and migration, sexual selection, and natural selection-in driving skin color diversity in India. METHODS: Skin reflectance data were collected from 10 diverse socio-cultural populations along the latitudinal expanse of India, including both sexes...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Alessandro Benvisto, Francesco Messina, Andrea Finocchio, Luis Popa, Mihaela Stefan, Gheorghe Stefanescu, Catalin Mironeanu, Andrea Novelletto, Cesare Rapone, Andrea Berti
OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to describe the genetic landscape of the Balkan Peninsula, as revealed by STR markers commonly used in forensics and spatial methods specifically developed for genetic data. METHODS: We generated and analyzed 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) autosomal genotypes in 287 subjects from ten administrative/geographical regions of Eastern Europe (Romania and the Republic of Moldova). We report estimates of the allele frequencies in these sub-populations, their fixation indexes, and use these results to complement previous spatial analyses of Southern Europe...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Oscar Campuzano, Pilar Beltramo, Anna Fernandez, Anna Iglesias, Laura García, Catarina Allegue, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Monica Coll, Alexandra Perez-Serra, Irene Mademont-Soler, Jesus Mates, Bernat Del Olmo, Ángeles Rodríguez, Natalia Maciel, Marta Puigmulé, Ferran Pico, Sergi Cesar, Josep Brugada, Alejandro Cuesta, Carmen Gutierrez, Ramon Brugada
Sudden infant death syndrome is the leading cause of death during the first year of life. A large part of cases remains without a conclusive cause of death after complete autopsy. In these situations, cardiac arrhythmia of genetic origin is suspected as the most plausible cause of death. Our aim was to ascertain whether genetic variants associated with sudden cardiac death might be the cause of death in a cohort of infants died suddenly. We analyzed 108 genes associated with sudden cardiac death in 44 post-mortem samples of infants less than 1 year old of age who died at rest...
July 31, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Se-Yong Kim, Han-Chul Lee, Ukhee Chung, Seon-Kyu Ham, Ho Yeon Lee, Su Jeong Park, Ye Jee Roh, Seung Hwan Lee
Short tandem repeats (STR) analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been the most widely used method for forensic DNA typing. Recently, massive parallel sequencing (MPS) technique has been emerging as an innovative tool to supplement or replace the conventional CE process. In this study, we evaluated the application of commercial MiSeqFGxTM forensic signature kit (Illumina) to the Korean population including performance comparison with CE-based STR profiling kits. The genotyping results of 209 unrelated random Korean individuals were summarized according to the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) guideline...
August 7, 2018: Electrophoresis
Pamela Tozzo, Patrizia Nespeca, Gloria Spigarolo, Luciana Caenazzo
This report presents a case of an 18-year-old woman found unconscious by police officers outside a club suspected to be victim of a sexual assault. She was not able to give information about the dynamics of the assault, since she was under the effect of a high amount of alcohol. She affirmed to be virgin.The forensic genetic analyses were performed on vaginal and rectal swabs as well as bloody-like traces present on the slip. DNA and RNA analysis were performed using a multiplex for 15 autosomal short tandem repeat markers and of 19 primers specific for different tissues, respectively...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Ifeanyi Ezeonwumelu, Inês Bártolo, Francisco Martin, Ana B Abecasis, Teresa Campos, Ethan O Romero-Severson, Thomas Leitner, Nuno Taveira
OBJECTIVES: A 4 years old child born to an HIV-1 seronegative mother was diagnosed with HIV-1, the main risk factor being transmission from the child's father who was seroconverting at the time of the child's birth. In the context of a forensic investigation, we aimed to identify the source of infection of the child and date the transmission event. METHODS: Samples were collected from the father and child at two time points about 4 years after the child's birth...
August 3, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Amandine Moriot, Diana Hall
PURPOSE: With the description of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood, noninvasive prenatal diagnostics became theoretically possible. As the presence of background maternal DNA interferes with the detection of fetal DNA, analytical methods require genetic markers capable of distinguishing by quantitative or targeted approaches the minor population of DNA molecules of the fetus. Here we evaluate the feasibility of analyzing fetal DNA with novel DIP-STR genetic markers, designed for the investigation of forensic mixed biological evidence...
August 3, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Martin Bodner
The discovery of the presumably lost grave of the controversial English king Richard III in Leicester (U.K.) was one of the most important archaeological achievements of the last decennium. The skeleton was identified beyond reasonable doubt, mainly by the match of mitochondrial DNA to that of living maternal relatives, along with the specific archaeological context. Since the genetic genealogical analysis only involved the DNA sequences of a single 15th century individual and a few reference persons, biologists might consider this investigation a mere curiosity...
July 31, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Qian Wang, Bo Jin, Gang An, Qian Zhong, Meijun Chen, Xiaoying Luo, Zhilong Li, Youjing Jiang, Weibo Liang, Lin Zhang
Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) have been widely used in forensic analysis and population genetics. With low to moderate mutation rates, conventional Y-STR panels, including commercially available Y-STR kits, enable the identification of male pedigrees but typically fail to differentiate related male individuals. The introduction of rapidly mutating Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (RM Y-STRs) with higher mutation rates (μ > 10-2 ) has been demonstrated to increase the discrimination capacity of unrelated men and the differentiation rate of related men compared with standard Y-STRs...
July 30, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Wei Chen, Yanjie Shang, Lipin Ren, Kai Xie, Xiangyan Zhang, Changquan Zhang, Shule Sun, Yong Wang, Lagabaiyila Zha, Yadong Guo
Some representatives of flesh flies visiting/colonizing the decomposed remains demonstrated their values in estimating the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) since death. However, the utility of sarcophagid flies has been seriously hampered by limited ecological, biological and taxonomic knowledge of them. Although mitochondrial genes have been proposed as a potential DNA barcode for the species-level identification of sarcophagids, some defects still remain such as the substantial memory and processing time taken for homologous comparisons online...
July 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
K Sun, Y P Hou
Forensic ancestry inference refers to the application of ancestry inference of population genetics in forensic practice, which aims to assist police investigation and judicial trial. With the rapid development and extensive use of genomics, DNA as a direct carrier of genetic information, has soon replaced various phenotypic markers and become the main research topics of forensic ancestry inference. This paper reviews different kinds of genetic markers used for forensic ancestry inference, the statistical analysis methods applied, and the prospects of the development in this field...
June 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Y J Liu, L H Guo, J Li, J T Yue, M S Shi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-STR in Dongxiang population of Gansu province, and to explore the population genetic relationship and the value of forensic application. METHODS: The genotyping of 27 Y-STR loci in 526 unrelated male individuals in Dongxiang population of Gansu province were detected by STRtyper-27Y kit. The allele frequencies and haplotype diversity were also calculated. Combining with other genetics data of 14 loci in same populations, which have been published at home and abroad, the genetic distance and clustering relationship in Dongxiang population of Gansu province were calculated...
June 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
M Zhou, K Zhang, J Wang
OBJECTIVES: To calculate genetic parameters of SNP loci in next generation sequencing kits, and to compare them with STR loci for establishing the conversion ratio between SNP and STR system effectiveness. METHODS: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests were performed in 101 SNP loci of next generation sequencing kits (ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep kit and Precision ID Identity Panel kit). The parameters of system effectiveness of SNP loci in the cases of personal identification, trios, duos, and alleged parents were calculated, which were compared with the genetic parameters of STR loci...
June 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
R Lalitha, V R Chandavar
The freshwater Testudine species have gained importance in recent years, as most of their population is threatened due to exploitation for delicacy and pet trade. In this regard, Lissemys punctata, a freshwater terrapin, predominantly distributed in Asian countries has gained its significance for the study. A pilot study report on mitochondrial markers ( Cyt b and D-loop) conducted on L. punctata species from southern Karnataka, India was presented in this investigation. A complete region spanning 1.14 kb and ∼1 kb was amplified by HotStart PCR and sequenced by Sanger sequencing...
January 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Argelia Medeiros Domingo, Stephan Bolliger, Christoph Gräni, Claudine Rieubland, Deborah Hersch, Babken Asatryan, Christian Schyma, Ardan Saguner, Daniel Wyler, Zahir Bhuiyan, Florence Fellman, Antonio Marco Osculati, Rebekka Ringger, Siv Fokstuen, Sara Sabatasso, Matthias Wilhelm, Katarzyna Michaud
There is a need to standardise, within a coordinated Swiss framework, the practical aspects of genetic testing and genetic counselling on possibly inherited cardiovascular disorders in relatives of a sudden cardiac death (SCD) victim. Because of the major advances in genetic investigation techniques and recent publication of international guidelines in the field of cardiology, genetics and pathology, we consider it important to summarise the current evidence and propose an optimal approach to post-mortem genetic investigation for SCD victims and their families in Switzerland...
2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
Peter Gill, Tacha Hicks, John M Butler, Ed Connolly, Leonor Gusmão, Bas Kokshoorn, Niels Morling, Roland A H van Oorschot, Walther Parson, Mechthild Prinz, Peter M Schneider, Titia Sijen, Duncan Taylor
The interpretation of evidence continues to be one of the biggest challenges facing the forensic community. This is the first of two papers intended to provide advice on difficult aspects of evaluation and in particular on the formulation of propositions. The scientist has a dual role: investigator (crime-focused), where often there is no suspect available and a database search may be required; evaluator (suspect-focused), where the strength of evidence is assessed in the context of the case. In investigative mode, generally the aim is to produce leads regarding the source of the DNA...
July 8, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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