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Scorpion snake

Erick Bermúdez-Méndez, Albert Fuglsang-Madsen, Sofie Føns, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Andreas Hougaard Laustsen
Snakes, scorpions, and spiders are venomous animals that pose a threat to human health, and severe envenomings from the bites or stings of these animals must be treated with antivenom. Current antivenoms are based on plasma-derived immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments from hyper-immunized animals. Although these medicines have been life-saving for more than 120 years, opportunities to improve envenoming therapy exist. In the later decades, new biotechnological tools have been applied with the aim of improving the efficacy, safety, and affordability of antivenoms...
November 2, 2018: Toxins
Ehsan Alirahimi, Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Mohammad Hosseininejad Chafi, Nazli Sotoudeh, Hajarossadat Ghaderi, Serge Muyldermans, Mahdi Behdani
BACKGROUND: An effective therapy against envenoming should be a priority in view of the high number scorpion stings and snakebites. Serum therapy is still widely applied to treat the envenomation victims; however this approach suffers from several shortcomings. The employment of monoclonal antibodies might be an outcome as these molecules are at the core of a variety of applications from protein structure determination to cancer treatment. The progress of activities in the twilight zone between genetic and antibody engineering have led to the development of a unique class of antibody fragments...
December 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Ajay Mishra, Aditya Binu, George Abraham, Harshad Vanjare, Tina George, Ramya Iyadurai
BACKGROUND: Neurological complications following snake and scorpion bite are diverse. Literature regarding patterns of cerebrovascular injury (CVI) and outcomes among these patients is scarce. This is a descriptive study of the clinical profile, brain imaging findings, mechanisms of injury, vascular territory involvement and outcomes of CVI following scorpion and snake envenomation, in a tertiary care center in South India.MethodologyPatients with scorpion sting- and snake envenomation-related complications were retrospectively enrolled...
October 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Oussema Khamessi, Hazem Ben Mabrouk, Houcemeddine Othman, Rym ElFessi-Magouri, Michel De Waard, Mejdoub Hafedh, Naziha Marrakchi, Najet Srairi-Abid, Riadh Kharrat
Scorpion peptides are well known for their pharmaceutical potential on different targets. These include mainly the ion channels which were found to be highly expressed in many diseases, including cancer, auto-immune pathologies and Alzheimer. So far, however, the disintegrin activity had only been characterized for snake venom molecules. Herein, we present the first short peptide, purified from the venom of Buthus occitanus tunetanus, (termed RK) able to inhibit the cell adhesion of Glioblastoma, Melanoma and Rat pheochromocytoma to different extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors...
December 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego, Raymundo Rene Rivas-Cáceres, Moisés Cipriano-Salazar
Cancer and infectious diseases are the preeminent causes of human morbidities and mortalities worldwide. At present, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and gene therapy are considered as predominant options in order to treat cancer. But these therapies provide inadequate consequences by affecting both the normal and tumor cells. On the other hand, tuberculosis (TB), and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infections are significant threats, causing over a million mortalities each year. The extensive applications of antibiotics have caused the microbes to acquire resistance to the existing antibiotics...
September 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Don Walter Kannangara, Pritiben Patel
Erythema migrans (EM) rashes once considered pathognomonic of Lyme disease (LD) have been reported following bites of arthropods that do not transmit LD and in areas with no LD. Also, EM rashes have been reported in association with organisms other than members of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Arthropod saliva has chemicals that have effects on the host and pathogen transmission. Tick saliva has protein families similar to spiders and scorpions and even substances homologous to those found in snakes and other venomous animals...
August 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xian-Hong Ji, Shang-Fei Zhang, Bin Gao, Shun-Yi Zhu
Three-finger toxins (TFTs) are well-recognized non-enzymatic venom proteins found in snakes. However, although TFTs exhibit accelerated evolution, the drivers of this evolution remain poorly understood. The structural complexes between long-chain α-neurotoxins, a subfamily of TFTs, and their nicotinic acetylcholine receptor targets have been determined in previous research, providing an opportunity to address such questions. In the current study, we observed several previously identified positively selected sites (PSSs) and the highly variable C-terminal loop of these toxins at the toxin/receptor interface...
November 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Jason Macrander, Jyothirmayi Panda, Daniel Janies, Marymegan Daly, Adam M Reitzel
The advent of next-generation sequencing has resulted in transcriptome-based approaches to investigate functionally significant biological components in a variety of non-model organism. This has resulted in the area of "venomics": a rapidly growing field using combined transcriptomic and proteomic datasets to characterize toxin diversity in a variety of venomous taxa. Ultimately, the transcriptomic portion of these analyses follows very similar pathways after transcriptome assembly often including candidate toxin identification using BLAST, expression level screening, protein sequence alignment, gene tree reconstruction, and characterization of potential toxin function...
2018: PeerJ
Agnieszka Klupczynska, Magdalena Pawlak, Zenon J Kokot, Jan Matysiak
Both venoms and poisonous secretions are complex mixtures that assist in defense, predation, communication, and competition in the animal world. They consist of variable bioactive molecules, such as proteins, peptides, salts and also metabolites. Metabolomics opens up new perspectives for the study of venoms and poisons as it gives an opportunity to investigate their previously unexplored low molecular-weight components. The aim of this article is to summarize the available literature where metabolomic technologies were used for examining the composition of animal venoms and poisons...
July 24, 2018: Toxins
Aynur Şahin, Mualla Aylin Arıcı, Nil Hocaoğlu, Şule Kalkan, Yeşim Tunçok
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the distribution of bite and sting cases presenting to a district public hospital and the use of antivenom in scorpion sting and snake bite cases. METHODS: The demographic characteristics of patients with bites/stings reporting to a public hospital in 2014, the agent involved, the season of reporting, severity of clinical findings during presentation, and use of antivenom in scorpion sting and snake bite cases were evaluated retrospectively...
July 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Naqab Khan, Zahid Rasul Niazi, Fazu Ur Rehman, Anum Akhtar, Maryam Muhammad Khan, Samiullah Khan, Natasha Baloch, Sheraz Khan
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronidase is the most important enzyme found in the interstitial matrix, effectively degrading the hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronidases are extensively found in the venom of various animals such as snake, scorpion, spider and others. Up till now five venom hyaluronidases are identified with a defined three-dimensional structure. These enzymes are involved in different biochemical, physiological and pathological conditions like degradation of hyaluronic acid, embryogenesis, transmembrane diffusion of drugs and toxins, inflammatory and allergic response to antigens, healing of wounds, bacterial meningitis, bacteremia and pneumonia...
2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Bushra Uzair, Rabia Bushra, Barkat Ali Khan, Sarwat Zareen, Fehmida Fasim
BACKGROUND: For about 30 years Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been a significant social and health issue. It has been a perilous opponent in the human contest against HIV. At the end of 2015 there were 26.7 million people worldwide who were affected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and this number is expected to increase. Unfortunately, currently there are no vaccines available for prevention and control of HIV. The global burden of HIV articulates the need for anti-HIV therapeutic factors...
2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Matthew L Holding, Mark J Margres, Andrew J Mason, Christopher L Parkinson, Darin R Rokyta
Venom-gland transcriptomics is a key tool in the study of the evolution, ecology, function, and pharmacology of animal venoms. In particular, gene-expression variation and coding sequences gained through transcriptomics provide key information for explaining functional venom variation over both ecological and evolutionary timescales. The accuracy and usefulness of inferences made through transcriptomics, however, is limited by the accuracy of the transcriptome assembly, which is a bioinformatic problem with several possible solutions...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
Naqab Khan, Zahid Rasul Niazi, Nauman Rahim Khan, Kifayatullah Shah, Khurram Rehman, Abdul Wahab, Samiullah Khan
BACKGROUND: Arthropods such as scorpion, snake, insects, and spider as well as the marine animals like sea anemone and cone snails are venomous animals producing venoms with a complex mixture of peptide, poly peptides and small proteins. The disulfide rich peptides isolated from these animals are potent substances which specifically and selectively modulate different ion channels. The significant characteristics of these distinctive pharmacologically potent compounds highlights the molecular details of their peptide-ion channels interactions as well as provides the opportunities for the development of novel and natural therapeutic agents to treat various diseases including neurological disorders also...
2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Karina F Zoccal, Giovana Z Ferreira, Morgana K B Prado, Luiz G Gardinassi, Suely V Sampaio, Lúcia H Faccioli
Envenomation by Bothrops snakes promotes the release of inflammatory mediators, whose effects during this context are not well understood. These mediators include chemokines, cytokines and eicosanoids. Indeed, Bothrops snake envenomation results in local and systemic perturbations, including leukocyte recruitment, edema, pain and extensive tissue damage. Recently, our group demonstrated that leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) regulate macrophage production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by scorpion venom...
August 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Aseem Mehra, Debashish Basu, Sandeep Grover
The mind-altering agents such as tobacco, cannabis, and opium have been widely used since the evolution of human being. These substances have been widely used for recreational purposes. However, derivatives from reptiles such as snakes, reptiles, and scorpions can also be used for recreational purposes and as a substitute for other substances. Their use is rare and related literature is very scanty. In this report, we present a case of snake venom abuse and review the existing literature.
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Pablo Ariel Martinez, Mayane Alves Andrade, Claudio Juan Bidau
The temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic variables, we constructed models of species distribution (SMDs) under current and future climatic conditions...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Andrew Allan Walker, Max Rosenthal, Eivind E A Undheim, Glenn F King
Heteropteran insects such as assassin bugs (Reduviidae) and giant water bugs (Belostomatidae) descended from a common predaceous and venomous ancestor, and the majority of extant heteropterans retain this trophic strategy. Some heteropterans have transitioned to feeding on vertebrate blood (such as the kissing bugs, Triatominae; and bed bugs, Cimicidae) while others have reverted to feeding on plants (most Pentatomomorpha). However, with the exception of saliva used by kissing bugs to facilitate blood-feeding, little is known about heteropteran venoms compared to the venoms of spiders, scorpions and snakes...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
Jessica M de Souza, Bruno D C Goncalves, Marcus V Gomez, Luciene B Vieira, Fabiola M Ribeiro
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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