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Interstitial Diseases

Ming Wu, Weixia Han, Shan Song, Yunxia Du, Chao Liu, Nan Chen, Haijiang Wu, Yonghong Shi, Huijun Duan
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Activation of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been reported in diabetic kidney, yet the potential role of NLRP3 inflammasome in DN is not well known. In this study, we explored the role of NLRP3 inflammasome on inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic kidney using NLRP3 knockout mice. Renal expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 p10, interleukin-18 (IL-18) and cleaved IL-1β was increased in diabetic wild-type (WT) mice at 24 weeks...
August 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Jonathan H Chung, Jonathan G Goldin
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD). In this review, we describe the central role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the diagnosis of IPF and discuss how communication between pulmonologists and radiologists might be improved to make the interpretation of HRCT scans more effective. Clinical information is important in the interpretation of HRCT scans, as the likelihood that specific radiologic features reflect IPF is not absolute, but dependent on the clinical context...
August 10, 2018: Lung
Siu Chiu Chan, Ying Zhang, Annie Shao, Svetlana Avdulov, Jeremy Herrera, Karam Aboudehen, Marco Pontoglio, Peter Igarashi
BACKGROUND: Mutation of HNF1B , the gene encoding transcription factor HNF-1 β , is one cause of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease, a syndrome characterized by tubular cysts, renal fibrosis, and progressive decline in renal function. HNF-1 β has also been implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathways, and sustained EMT is associated with tissue fibrosis. The mechanism whereby mutated HNF1B leads to tubulointerstitial fibrosis is not known. METHODS: To explore the mechanism of fibrosis, we created HNF-1 β -deficient mIMCD3 renal epithelial cells, used RNA-sequencing analysis to reveal differentially expressed genes in wild-type and HNF-1 β -deficient mIMCD3 cells, and performed cell lineage analysis in HNF-1 β mutant mice...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Giuseppe Luigi Banna, Francesco Passiglia, Francesca Colonese, Stefania Canova, Jessica Menis, Alfredo Addeo, Antonio Russo, Diego Luigi Cortinovis
The identification of reliable predictive biomarkers of efficacy or resistance to immune-oncology (I-O) agents is a major issue for translational research and clinical practice. However, along with PDL1 and molecular features other clinical, radiological and laboratory factors can be considered for the selection of those patients who would not be the best candidate for immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs). We examined these factors, emerging from the results of currently available studies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aiming to provide a useful and manageable tool which can help Oncologists in their everyday clinical practice...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Rosaria Santoro, Denis Scaini, Luisa Ulloa Severino, Francesco Amadeo, Silvia Ferrari, Giacomo Bernava, Gloria Garoffolo, Marco Agrifoglio, Loredana Casalis, Maurizio Pesce
Differentiation of valve interstitial cells (VICs) into pro-calcific cells is one of the central events in calcific aortic valve (AoV) disease (CAVD). While the paracrine pathways and the responsivity of VICs to mechanical compliance of the surrounding environment are well characterized, the molecular programming related to variations in local stiffness, and its link to cytoskeleton dynamics, is less consolidated. By using a simple method to produce 2D poly-acrylamide gels with stiffness controlled with atomic force microscopy (AFM), we manufactured adhesion substrates onto which human VICs from stenotic valves were plated, and subsequently investigated for cytoskeleton dynamics and activation of the mechanosensing-related transcription factor YAP...
July 31, 2018: Biomaterials
Amit Kumar, Julie R Melotti, Thomas M Cooley, Scott D Fitzgerald
Three separate mortality events affecting wild eastern fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger) were investigated in suburban areas within southeastern Michigan over a 3-yr period from the summer of 2015 through the winter of 2017. A total of seven squirrels were submitted for investigation. The squirrels were generally in fair to good body condition with moderate fat deposits. The tissues that most commonly exhibited gross or histologic lesions included the lungs, liver, and heart, whereas spleen and brain exhibited lesions less frequently...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Christina H Wei, Felicita E Baratelli, Guang-Qian Xiao, Michael N Koss, Wafaa Elatre
BACKGROUND: Distinction of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) from other chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonitides, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and connective tissue diseases, is critical due to varied biological and clinical outcomes. However, their histologic overlaps often pose diagnostic challenges. A recent study suggested an association of herpesvirus saimiri infection with IPF. Productive viral infection is associated with coexpression of pirated mammalian protein cyclin D1, shown to be overexpressed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the regenerating alveolar epithelium in IPF but not in normal lungs...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
U Herbers, C Trautwein, F Tacke, A Koch
Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening disease, which is morphologically classified into interstitial edematous or necrotizing pancreatitis. According to the revised Atlanta classification, mild, moderate and severe clinical courses are differentiated regarding local and systemic complications as well as concomitant organ failure. In the initial disease phase, the therapeutic measures are focused on (aggressive) volume replacement, early enteral nutrition and adequate analgesia. Characteristic in the course of severe acute pancreatitis are abdominal necroses, which require individualized and interdisciplinary treatment with antibiotic therapy, drainage and definitive necrosectomy...
August 9, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Ankit Gupta, Atul Palkar, Priya Narwal
We present the case of a 71 y/o man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who presented with 3 weeks of cough, phlegm, fever, and failed outpatient antibiotic therapy for pneumonia. CT of the chest showed unilateral interstitial changes and bronchoscopic biopsies demonstrated primary lung papillary adenocarcinoma and extensive concentric psammomatous calcifications.
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Diana Marangu, Komala Pillay, Ebrahim Banderker, Diane Gray, Aneesa Vanker, Marco Zampoli
Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation...
October 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Carlos G Musso, Alejandrina Castañeda, María Giordani, Cesar Mombelli, Silvia Groppa, Nora Imperiali, Guillermo Rosa Diez
Kidney transplant patients (KTPs), and particularly those with advanced chronic kidney rejection, may be affected by opportunistic infections, metabolic alterations and vascular and oncologic diseases that promote clinical conditions that require a variety of treatments, the combinations of which may predispose them to hyponatremia. Salt and water imbalance can induce abnormalities in volemia and/or serum sodium depending on the nature of this alteration (increase or decrease), its absolute magnitude (mild or severe) and its relative magnitude (body sodium:water ratio)...
August 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Thiago Ferreira de Souza, Thiago Quinaglia A C Silva, Felipe Osorio Costa, Ravi Shah, Tomas G Neilan, Lício Velloso, Wilson Nadruz, Fabricio Brenelli, Andrei Carvalho Sposito, Jose Roberto Matos-Souza, Fernando Cendes, Otávio Rizzi Coelho, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Otavio Rizzi Coelho-Filho
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to demonstrate that cardiac magnetic resonance could reveal anthracycline-induced early tissue remodeling and its relation to cardiac dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) atrophy. BACKGROUND: Serum biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction, although elevated after chemotherapy, lack specificity for the mechanism of myocardial tissue alterations. METHODS: A total of 27 women with breast cancer (mean age 51.8 ± 8...
August 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Naomi Iwata, Haruna Nakaseko, Toaki Kohagura, Ryuhei Yasuoka, Naoki Abe, Shinji Kawabe, Shiro Sugiura, Yoshinao Muro
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and clinical subsets of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) in Japanese patients. METHODS: Twenty-one patients at a single center who developed initial or relapsed JDM from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed. Serum concentrations of MSAs against TIF1-γ, MDA5, NXP2, Mi-2, ARS, and SAE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were obtained from clinical records...
August 10, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Justine Briand, Hélène Behal, Cécile Chenivesse, Lidwine Wémeau-Stervinou, Benoit Wallaert
BACKGROUND: Although the 6-min walk test (6MWT) is the gold standard for assessing exercise-induced impairment of gas exchange, it cannot easily be performed in a clinical office environment. The aim of this study was to compare the 1-min sit-to-stand test (1STST) with the 6MWT for the ability to assess exercise-induced oxygen desaturation in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). METHODS: A total of 107 patients were enrolled and classified into three groups: sarcoidosis, fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (f-IIP), and other forms of ILD...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
J M Braga Diniz, M C Espaladori, M E Souza E Silva, L C N Brito, L Q Vieira, A P Ribeiro Sobrinho
AIM: To evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the cytokines interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, IL-6, VEGF, and AGT and the chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 in periapical interstitial fluid associated with root canal infections before and after the reduction of the bacterial load using a cleaning procedure. METHODOLOGY: The case group included 11 patients with chronic liver disease, and the control group included 11 healthy patients. Clinical samples were taken from teeth with pulp necrosis...
August 8, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Noha A T Abbas, Amal El Salem, Mohammed M Awad
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global healthcare problem; however until now, there is no effective treatment that can stop its progression. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2 I) in a model of unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) in rats, as a model of progressive renal interstitial fibrosis in vivo and the possibility of inclusion of klotho protein. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: group 1: control group, group 2: UUO untreated group, group 3: prophylactic SGLT2 I treatment before UUO, group 4: immediate SGLT2 I treatment after UUO, and group 5: delayed SGLT2 I treatment (this group received distilled water 1 week after UUO then empagliflozin for 2 weeks)...
August 8, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Priyanka Krishna, Prasan Kumar Panda, Sudarsan Hariprasad, Shiv Shankar Singh, S R Gedela
Respiratory distress is very uncommon as a presenting symptom of Chilaiditi syndrome. Furthermore, pneumonia is not documented with the syndrome, compromising further to the distress. We describe a middle-aged man, chronic alcoholic, recently diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, presented with a 1-year history of slowly progressive breathlessness. Recently, he developed mild-to-moderate hemoptysis and cough with aggravation of breathlessness. He did not have fever, chest pain, or orthopnea. He was cyanosed, requiring high-dose oxygen therapy...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Sili Fan, Austin Yeon, Muhammad Shahid, Jennifer T Anger, Karyn S Eilber, Oliver Fiehn, Jayoung Kim
The biological basis for gender variability among disease states is not well established. There have been many prior efforts attempting to identify the unique urine metabolomic profiles associated with specific diseases. However, there has been little advancement in investigating the metabolomic differences associated with gender, which underlies the misconception that risk factors and treatment regimens should be the same for both male and female patients. This present study aimed to identify biologically-meaningful baseline sex-related differences using urine samples provided by healthy female and male participants...
August 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rehab Ali Ibrahim, Nour El-Hoda Hussien Abdalla, Engy Amr Husssein Shabaan, Noha Bassiouny Hassan Mostafa
BACKGROUND: Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare systemic autoimmune disease. Many conditions mimic the presentation of SSc, especially skin thickening and fibrosis. One of these conditions is scleredema, a rare collagen and mucin deposition disorder which was found to be associated with diabetes mellitus, streptococcal infection or monoclonal gammopathy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55 years old female presented with insidious onset and progressive course of diffuse skin thickening of face, neck, arms, forearms, thighs, chest, back, and sparing both hands and feet of 6 years duration associated with arthralgia, dysphagia and dyspnea on exertion of 1-year duration...
August 7, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
Antonia Graja, Francisco Garcia-Carrizo, Anne-Marie Jank, Sabrina Gohlke, Thomas H Ambrosi, Wenke Jonas, Siegfried Ussar, Matthias Kern, Annette Schürmann, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Matthias Blüher, Tim J Schulz
Remodeling of the extracellular matrix is a key component of the metabolic adaptations of adipose tissue in response to dietary and physiological challenges. Disruption of its integrity is a well-known aspect of adipose tissue dysfunction, for instance, during aging and obesity. Adipocyte regeneration from a tissue-resident pool of mesenchymal stem cells is part of normal tissue homeostasis. Among the pathophysiological consequences of adipogenic stem cell aging, characteristic changes in the secretory phenotype, which includes matrix-modifying proteins, have been described...
August 7, 2018: Aging Cell
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