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Clot composition

Patrick A Brouwer, Waleed Brinjikji, Simon F De Meyer
Cerebral ischemic stroke treatment may change significantly now that clots are actually physically removed from the patient using thrombectomy. This allows for an analysis of the content of the clots as well as the correlation of the imaging findings and the clot behavior and morphology. This article illustrates how the interaction of different clots varies in the clinical setting and how analysis of clot composition, as well as the search for new pharmacologic targets, can lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy resistance, in turn providing possibilities for a better approach in the treatment...
November 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Artur Y Prilepskii, Anna F Fakhardo, Andrey S Drozdov, Vasiliy V Vinogradov, Ivan P Dudanov, Alexander A Shtil, Petr P Bel'tyukov, Alexey M Shibeko, Ekaterina M Koltsova, Dmitry Y Nechipurenko, Vladimir V Vinogradov
Mortality and disabilities as outcomes of cardiovascular diseases are primarily related to blood clotting. Optimization of thrombolytic drugs is aimed at the prevention of side effects (in particular, bleeding) associated with a disbalance between coagulation and anticoagulation caused by systemically administered agents. Minimally invasive and efficient approaches to deliver the thrombolytic agent to the site of clot formation are needed. Herein we report a novel nanocomposite prepared by heparin-mediated cross-linking of urokinase with magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs@uPA)...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Moslem Afsharnezhad, S Shirin Shahangian, Reyhaneh Sariri
Due to the need for calf rennet alternatives, many attempts have been made to find new proteases. A novel cysteine protease with milk-clotting activity was purified from Ficus johannis by cation exchange chromatography. The protease was stable in various pH (3.0-10.5) with the optimum at 6.5 and showed its maximum activity at 60 °C. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme were obtained to be 0.604 mg/ml and 0.0273 μmol Tyr/min, respectively. The purified protease exhibited considerable activity towards κ-casein in comparison to α-casein and β-casein...
October 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Karla P Mercado-Shekhar, Robert T Kleven, Hermes Aponte Rivera, Ryden Lewis, Kunal B Karani, Hendrik J Vos, Todd A Abruzzo, Kevin J Haworth, Christy K Holland
The lytic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating ischemic stroke. Less than 40% of patients with large vessel occlusions who are treated with rt-PA have improved blood flow. However, up to 6% of all patients receiving rt-PA develop intracerebral hemorrhage. Predicting the efficacy of rt-PA treatment a priori could help guide therapeutic decision making, such that rt-PA is administered only to those individuals who would benefit from this treatment...
September 26, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Anne Preut, Megan Laughlin, Hanna Jensen, Jamie Hestekin, Morten Jensen
BACKGROUND: Unsuccessful recanalization attempts in stroke patients have been associated with fibrin-rich thromboemboli linking retrieval mechanism performance and clot composition. To continue development of stroke retrieval mechanisms, the material properties of cerebral thromboemboli must be replicated; however, current methods for emboli analog formation lack quantitative measurements for both material stiffness and composition of cerebral thromboemboli. This study investigates emboli analog (EA) formation to mimic the material stiffness and composition of cerebral thromboemboli to develop new retrieval mechanisms...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jonathan Vigne, James Thackeray, Jeroen Essers, Marcus Makowski, Zoreh Varasteh, Adelina Curaj, Angelos Karlas, Emmanuel Canet-Soulas, Willem Mulder, Fabian Kiessling, Michael Schäfers, René Botnar, Moritz Wildgruber, Fabien Hyafil
Atherosclerotic plaques can remain quiescent for years, but become life threatening upon rupture or disruption, initiating clot formation in the vessel lumen and causing acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Whether and how a plaque ruptures is determined by its macroscopic structure and microscopic composition. Rupture-prone plaques usually consist of a thin fibrous cap with few smooth muscle cells, a large lipid core, a dense infiltrate of inflammatory cells, and neovessels. Such lesions, termed high-risk plaques, can remain asymptomatic until the thrombotic event...
September 24, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Yuqing Cai, Peng Chen, Cuiyun Wu, Jinyou Duan, Hongjin Bai
Two polysaccharides JCS-1 and JCS-2 were successfully purified by DEAE-52 Cellulose chromatography from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Jinchangzao. Their structures were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Further, eight sulfated derivatives are prepared by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr). Structural analysis revealed that both JCS-1 and JCS-2 were size uniform polysaccharides with the average molecular weight (Mw) of 71...
December 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mohsen Ramazani, Saeed Asgary
This case report describes miniature pulpotomy (MP) with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, 1 week after carious pulpal exposure of a symptomatic mature molar. A 24-year-old woman was referred with complaining of severe lingering pain on the second upper left molar; a dental history revealed that the tooth had been prepared 1 week ago, but on pulp exposure, her dentist just dressed the cavity. After anesthesia/isolation in the same session, the temporary restoration was removed, the previously pulpal exposure was observed, and MP was carried out...
July 2018: Dental Research Journal
Nicoletta Riva, Kevin Vella, Kieron Hickey, Lorenza Bertù, Daniel Zammit, Silvana Spiteri, Steve Kitchen, Michael Makris, Walter Ageno, Alex Gatt
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic algorithm for venous thromboembolism (VTE) currently involves a composite of pre-test probability, D-dimer and imaging. Other laboratory tests, however, may assist in the identification of patients with VTE. AIM: To assess the accuracy of different coagulation tests (D-dimer, thrombin generation, phospholipid-dependent (PPL) clotting time, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin)) as biomarkers of acute VTE. METHODS: Random samples arriving at the Coagulation Laboratory at Mater Dei Hospital (Msida, Malta) from the Accident and Emergency Department with a request for D-dimer measurement were collected between August 2015 and February 2016...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Mohan Prasath Mani
In this study, a wound dressing based on polyurethane (PU) blended with copper sulphate nanofibers was developed using an electrospinning technique. The prepared PU and PU nanocomposites showed smooth fibers without any bead defects. The prepared nanocomposites showed smaller fiber (663 ± 156.30 nm) and pore (888 ± 70.93 nm) diameter compared to the pristine PU (fiber diameter 1159 ± 147.48 nm and pore diameter 1087 ± 62.51 nm). The interaction of PU with copper sulphate was evident in the infrared spectrum through hydrogen-bond formation...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Marinus Fw Te Pas, Sietse-Jan Koopmans, Leo Kruijt, Sjef Boeren, Mari A Smits
Recognition of the preclinical stages of metabolic diseases such as diabetes helps to prevent full development of the disease. In our research, we alter the diet composition of pigs to create a model of human metabolic disease. The objective of the current study was to identify plasma proteins and biologic mechanisms that differed in expression between pigs fed a 'cafeteria diet' (considered unhealthy; high in saturated fats) and those fed a 'Mediterranean diet' (considered healthy; high in unsaturated fats)...
August 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Adrian Chlanda, Justyna Witkowska, Jerzy Morgiel, Katarzyna Nowińska, Emilia Choińska, Wojciech Swieszkowski, Tadeusz Wierzchoń
NiTi shape memory alloys are characterized by relatively good biocompatibility primarily thanks to their ability to self-passivate. However, before they can be used as medical implants for long term use, they need to undergo treatment aimed at producing layers on their surface that are superior to spontaneously formed oxide layers and that would increase their resistance to corrosion, limit nickel ion release from the surface (metallosis) and have the capability to shape their biological properties depending on the application...
July 24, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Neidy S Corredor Gerber, Beatriz S Coelho, Tatiana M Deliberador, Darlan R Junior, Flares Baratto-Filho, Fernando LE Florez, João C Zielak, Denise P Leonardi
Novel endodontic revascularization techniques have been considered as alternative options for treatment of immature teeth affected by apical periodontitis. The continuous development of the root canal has been recognized as a major advantage of these techniques over traditional apexification approaches. This article reports a case in which endodontic revascularization using extracellular matrix proteins (EMPs) as a scaffold was utilized to treat an immature maxillary lateral incisor with history of trauma and chronic apical periodontitis...
July 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Alisa S Wolberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In spite of significant morbidity and mortality associated with venous thromboembolism, the underlying pathogenesis remains poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Clues to operant pathogenic mechanisms are found in the unique morphology and composition of these thrombi, which have substantial red blood cell and fibrin content. Recent studies have revealed biochemical and biophysical mechanisms that dictate fibrin structure in venous thrombi and promote retention of red blood cells within the contracted clots...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Andréa Vaz Braga Pintor, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito Resende, Adriana Terezinha Novelino Neves, Gutemberg Gomes Alves, Paulo G Coelho, José Mauro Granjeiro, Monica Diuana Calasans-Maia
This study evaluated comparatively two configurations (powder and putty) of a composite biomaterial based on PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/nanoescale hydroxyapatite (ReOss®, Intra-Lock International) through microscopic morphology, in vitro cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and in vivo response as a bone substitute. SEM and EDS characterized the biomaterials before/after grafting. Cytocompatibility was assessed with murine pre-osteoblasts. Osteoconductivity and biocompatibility were evaluated in White New Zealand rabbits...
March 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Kazuki Takeda, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Kazuyuki D Tanaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Tsutomu Tanikawa, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
Anti-blood coagulation rodenticides, such as warfarin, have been used all over the world. They inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), which is necessary for producing several blood clotting factors. This inhibition by rodenticides results in lethal hemorrhage in rodents. However, heavy usage of these agents has led to the appearance of rodenticide-resistant rats. There are two major mechanisms underlying this resistance, i.e., mutation of the target enzyme of warfarin, VKOR, and enhanced metabolism of warfarin...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Michael Feehan, Michael Walsh, Heather Van Duker, Jon Godin, Mark A Munger, Ryan Fleming, Stacy A Johnson, Margaux A Morrison, Margaret M DeAngelis, Daniel M Witt
INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with reduced survival, poorer quality of life, and substantial health-care-costs. Limited research, primarily qualitative, suggests that those with VTE may have elevated fear of recurrence, and associated emotional dysfunction and distress. METHODS: A national online survey was administered to 907 patients who had experienced a VTE event in the past two years...
May 23, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Pei-Xin Lai, Ju-Yi Mao, Binesh Unnikrishnan, Han-Wei Chu, Chien-Wei Wu, Huan-Tsung Chang, Chih-Ching Huang
Graphene oxide (GO) has unique structural properties, can effectively adsorb single-strand DNA through π-π stacking, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions, and is useful in many biotechnology applications. In this study, we developed a thrombin-binding-aptamers (15- and 29-mer) conjugated graphene oxide (TBA15/TBA29-GO) composite for the efficient inhibition of thrombin activity towards the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen. The TBA15/TBA29-GO composite was simply obtained by the self-assembly of TBA15/TBA29 hybrids on GO...
June 25, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Ludmila A Zabodalova, Maria S Belozerova, Tatiana N Evstigneeva
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of elderly people has increased, and the diseases that arise in old age are associated, amongst other factors, with malnutrition. In the elderly, the need for primary nutrients and energy changes, so the development of food products intended for this particular group of people is becom- ing increasingly important. The purpose of this research is to work out the composition of and technology for producing low-fat curd products from raw milk and vegetable components...
April 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Jong Wook Shin, Hye Seon Jeong, Hyon-Jo Kwon, Kyu Sang Song, Jei Kim
We evaluated the composition of individual clots retrieved during intra-arterial thrombectomy in relation to recanalization success, stroke subtype, and the presence of clot signs on initial brain images. We analyzed clot and interventional data from 145 retrieval trials performed for 37 patients (69.5±14.0 years, 20 men, large artery atherosclerosis, n = 7; cardioembolism, n = 22; undetermined etiology, n = 8) who had undergone intra-arterial thrombectomy. Rates of clot retrieval and successful recanalization (Arterial Occlusive Lesion score of 2-3) for separate retrieval trials were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
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