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Denise F Blake, Melissa Crowe, Simon J Mitchell, Peter Aitken, Neal W Pollock
INTRODUCTION: Vibration from a helicopter during aeromedical retrieval of divers may increase venous gas emboli (VGE) production, evolution or distribution, potentially worsening the patient's condition. AIM: To review the literature surrounding the helicopter transport of injured divers and establish if vibration contributes to increased VGE. METHOD: A systematic literature search of key databases was conducted to identify articles investigating vibration and bubbles during helicopter retrieval of divers...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Adam C O'Neill, Christina Kyrousi, Johannes Klaus, Richard J Leventer, Edwin P Kirk, Andrew Fry, Daniela T Pilz, Tim Morgan, Zandra A Jenkins, Micha Drukker, Samuel F Berkovic, Ingrid E Scheffer, Renzo Guerrini, David M Markie, Magdalena Götz, Silvia Cappello, Stephen P Robertson
The mammalian neocortex has undergone remarkable changes through evolution. A consequence of such rapid evolutionary events could be a trade-off that has rendered the brain susceptible to certain neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions. We analyzed the exomes of 65 patients with the structural brain malformation periventricular nodular heterotopia (PH). De novo coding variants were observed in excess in genes defining a transcriptomic signature of basal radial glia, a cell type linked to brain evolution...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Ya You, Andrei Dolocan, Wangda Li, Arumugam Manthiram
Undesired reactions between layered sodium transition-metal oxide cathodes and air impede their utilization in practical sodium-ion batteries. Consequently, a fundamental understanding of how layered oxide cathodes degrade in air is of paramount importance, but it has not been fully understood yet. Here a comprehensive study on a model material NaNi0.7Mn0.15Co0.15O2 reveals its reaction chemistry with air and the dynamic evolution of the degradation species upon air exposure. We find that besides the extraction of Na+ ions from the crystal lattice to form NaOH, Na2CO3, and Na2CO3•H2O in contact with air, nickel ions gradually dissolve from the bulk to form NiO and accumulate on the particle surface as revealed by sub-nanometer surface sensitive time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy...
December 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Bowei Zhang, Kun Jiang, Haotian Wang, Shan Hu
Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a key process in water splitting systems, fuel cells, and metal-air batteries, but the development of highly active and robust OER catalyst by simple methods is a great challenge. Here, we report an in situ dynamic surface self-reconstruction that can dramatically improve the catalytic activity of electrocatalysts. The fluoride (F-)-incorporated NiFe hydroxide (NiFe-OH-F) nanosheets array was initially grown on Ni foam by a one-step hydrothermal method, which requires a 243 mV overpotential (η) to achieve 10 mA cm-2 current density (j) with a Tafel slope of 42...
December 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Paolo Armando Gagliardi, Luca Primo
Activation of Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and myotonic dystrophy kinase-related CDC42-binding kinase alpha (MRCKα) by caspases during apoptosis in vertebrates represents a prototypical example of co-option of kinases by proteases. How caspases acquired the ability to control these proteins during evolution of vertebrates is still unknown. Here, we report a phylogenetic and molecular study on the acquisition of caspase-cleavage sites in the family of Rho-activated kinases (RaKs). We demonstrate that the acquisition of such sites has more frequently occurred in identifiable intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) within or flanking the coiled-coil domain...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Rebekah L Rogers, Long Zhou, Chong Chu, Roberto Márquez, Ammon Corl, Tyler Linderoth, Layla Freeborn, Matthew D MacManes, Zijun Xiong, Jiao Zheng, Chunxue Guo, Xu Xun, Marcus R Kronforst, Kyle Summers, Yufeng Wu, Huanming Yang, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki, Guojie Zhang, Rasmus Nielsen
We sequenced the genome of the strawberry poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, at a depth of 127.5× using variable insert size libraries. The total genome size is estimated to be 6.76 Gb, of which 4.76 Gb are from high copy number repetitive elements with low differentiation across copies. These repeats encompass DNA transposons, RNA transposons, and LTR retrotransposons, including at least 0.4 and 1.0 Gb of Mariner/Tc1 and Gypsy elements, respectively. Expression data indicate high levels of gypsy and Mariner/Tc1 expression in ova of O...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Anton S Petrov, Elizabeth C Wood, Chad R Bernier, Ashlyn M Norris, Alan Brown, A Amunts
Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are essential components of all mitochondria that synthesize proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome. Unlike other ribosomes, mitoribosomes are highly variable across species. The basis for this diversity is not known. Here, we examine the composition and evolutionary history of mitoribosomes across the phylogenetic tree by combining three-dimensional structural information with a comparative analysis of the secondary structures of mitochondrial rRNAs (mt-rRNAs) and available proteomic data...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Florian Ehrlich, Heinz Fischer, Lutz Langbein, Silke Praetzel-Wunder, Bettina Ebner, Katarzyna Figlak, Anton Weissenbacher, Wolfgang Sipos, Erwin Tschachler, Leopold Eckhart
Keratins are the main intermediate filament proteins of epithelial cells. In keratinocytes of the mammalian epidermis they form a cytoskeleton that resists mechanical stress and thereby are essential for the function of the skin as a barrier against the environment. Here, we performed a comparative genomics study of epidermal keratin genes in terrestrial and fully aquatic mammals to determine adaptations of the epidermal keratin cytoskeleton to different environments. We show that keratins K5 and K14 of the innermost (basal), proliferation-competent layer of the epidermis are conserved in all mammals investigated...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Matjaž Kuntner, Chris A Hamilton, Ren-Chung Cheng, Matjaž Gregoric, Nik Lupše, Tjaša Lokovšek, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R Lemmon, Ingi Agnarsson, Jonathan A Coddington, Jason E Bond
Instances of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) provide the context for rigorous tests of biological rules of size evolution, such as Cope's Rule (phyletic size increase), Rensch's Rule (allometric patterns of male and female size), as well as male and female body size optima. In certain spider groups, such as the golden orbweavers (Nephilidae), extreme female-biased SSD (eSSD, female:male body length ≥ 2) is the norm. Nephilid genera construct webs of exaggerated proportions, which can be aerial, arboricolous, or intermediate (hybrid)...
December 4, 2018: Systematic Biology
Pierre Dupuy, Laurent Sauviac, Claude Bruand
DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in bacteria can be repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), a two-component system relying on Ku and LigD. While performing a genetic characterization of NHEJ in Sinorhizobium meliloti, a representative of bacterial species encoding several Ku and LigD orthologues, we found that at least two distinct functional NHEJ repair pathways co-exist: one is dependent on Ku2 and LigD2, while the other depends on Ku3, Ku4 and LigD4. Whereas Ku2 likely acts as canonical bacterial Ku homodimers, genetic evidences suggest that Ku3-Ku4 form eukaryotic-like heterodimers...
December 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Judith Ilhan, Anne Kupczok, Christian Woehle, Tanita Wein, Nils F Hülter, Philip Rosenstiel, Giddy Landan, Itzhak Mizrahi, Tal Dagan
The ubiquity of plasmids in all prokaryotic phyla and habitats and their ability to transfer between cells marks them as prominent constituents of prokaryotic genomes. Many plasmids are found in their host cell in multiple copies. This leads to an increased mutational supply of plasmid-encoded genes and genetically heterogeneous plasmid genomes. Nonetheless, the segregation of plasmid copies into daughter cells during cell division is considered to occur in the absence of selection on the plasmid alleles. We investigate the implications of random genetic drift of multicopy plasmids during cell division - termed here segregational drift - to plasmid evolution...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Kelly L Wyres, Jane Hawkey, Marit A K Hetland, Aasmund Fostervold, Ryan R Wick, Louise M Judd, Mohammad Hamidian, Benjamin P Howden, Iren H Löhr, Kathryn E Holt
Objectives: Recent reports indicate the emergence of a new carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone, ST307. We sought to better understand the global epidemiology and evolution of this clone and evaluate its association with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Methods: We collated information from the literature and public databases and performed a comparative analysis of 95 ST307 genomes (including 37 that were newly sequenced). Results: We show that ST307 emerged in the mid-1990s (nearly 20 years prior to its first report), is already globally distributed and is intimately associated with a conserved plasmid harbouring the blaCTX-M-15 ESBL gene and several other AMR determinants...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Antônio Rafael da Silva, Pedro Martins Lima Neto, Leonardo Hunaldo Dos Santos, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp Lima, Pedro Luiz Tauil, Eloísa da Graça do Rosário Gonçalves
INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Program of Leprosy Control was initiated in the municipality of Buriticupu, Maranhão, Brazil, an area considered hyperendemic for leprosy in 2003. It aims at assessing the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease to reduce the detection rate of new cases until 2015. Here, we present the evolution of the indicators of leprosy within the period from 2003 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive analytical study based on the active search for and voluntary referral of cases of leprosy...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Maurício Lima Barreto, Dandara Ramos, Alvaro Augusto Cruz, Maryane Oliveira-Campos, Deborah Carvalho Malta
OBJECTIVE: To compare the evolution of asthma indicators in the editions of the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012 and 2015). METHODS: Cross-sectional study including Brazilian 9th grade students from public and private schools. Wheezing was assessed through the question: "In the past 12 months, did you have wheezing (or chirping) chest? (yes/no)", and to assess lifetime presence of asthma, the question was "Have you ever had asthma? (yes/no)"...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Flávia Carvalho Malta Mello, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Maria Goreth Santos, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi Silva
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this paper was to compare the tendency of bullying across Brazilian capitals, considering the editions of National Scholl Health Survey (PeNSE) 2009, 2012 and 2015, and to describe the prevalence of bullying by sex, age and administrative dependence of the school in the 2015 sample. METHODOLOGY: The prevalence of bullying and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were assessed per State capital and for all capitals. 95%CI was used to check for differences in the period...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Mariana Borsa Mallmann, Antonio Fernando Boing, Yaná Tamara Tomasi, Juliana Cristine Dos Anjos, Alexandra Crispim Boing
OBJECTIVE: to analyze evolution as to conducting seven or more prenatal consultations with pregnant women in Brazil, in the period 2000-2015 according to maternal education level and race/skin color of the newborn baby. METHODS: this was a time series study based on Live Births Information System (SINASC) data; relative and absolute inequalities were investigated, adjusted for maternal age and gestational week in which childbirth occurred. RESULTS: we analyzed approximately 48 million births; the proportion of seven or more prenatal consultations increased nationally (from 46...
November 29, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Carlos Dornels Freire de Souza, Franklin Gerônimo Bispo Santos, Caroline de Sales Marques, Thiago Cavalcanti Leal, João Paulo Silva de Paiva, Emmylly Maria Correia Ferro de Araújo
OBJECTIVE: to compare the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of epidemiological indicators of leprosy, both crude and also corrected using the empirical Bayesian model, Bahia, Brazil, 2001-2012. METHODS: this was an ecological study using data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System; all 417 municipalities in Bahia were included and the following indicators per 100,000 inhabitants were analyzed - detection rate of new cases in the general population, in those <15 years old, and in those with grade 2 physical disability -; the local empirical Bayesian model was used to smoothen the indicators, and Student's t-test was used to compare means...
November 29, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Maria Clara Ponce, Alessandro Rozim Zorzi, João Batista de Miranda, Eliane Maria Ingrid Amstalden
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a new histological scoring system for use in a partial-thickness cartilage repair animal model. Although previous papers have investigated the regeneration of articular cartilage, the good results achieved in small animals have not been replicated in large animal models or humans, possibly because of the frequent use of models with perforation of the subchondral bone plates. Partial-thickness lesions spare the subchondral bone, and this pattern is the most frequent in humans; therefore, new therapies should be tested using this model...
November 29, 2018: Clinics
P L da Luz, D Favarato, E H Moriguchi, W de Carli, N Bruscato, R I Mochiduky, P Schwartzman, C E Rochitte, F R Laurindo
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with atherosclerotic complications. However, elevated CAC may not always imply a worse prognosis. Herein, we report the clinical evolution of long-term red wine (RW) drinkers in relation to CAC. We followed 200 healthy male habitual RW drinkers and compared them to 154 abstainers for a period of 5.5 years. The initial evaluation included coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), clinical, demographics, and laboratory data. CAC was quantified by the Agatston score...
November 29, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Friedrich Ehrendorfer, Michael H J Barfuss, Jean-Francois Manen, Gerald M Schneeweiss
The Rubiaceae tribe Rubieae has a world-wide distribution with up to 1,000 species. These collectively exhibit an enormous ecological and morphological diversity, making Rubieae an excellent group for macro- and microevolutionary studies. Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses used only a limited sampling within the tribe or missed lineages crucial for understanding character evolution in this group. Here, we analyze sequences from two plastid spacer regions as well as morphological and biogeographic data from an extensive and evenly distributed sampling to establish a sound phylogenetic framework...
2018: PloS One
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