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Hongbo Ling, Lirong Peng, Jianbo Wang, Raneen Rahhal, Edward Seto
The protein deacetylase SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) regulates many cellular processes, including cell-cycle progression, DNA damage response, and metabolism. Although the centrosome is a key regulator of cell-cycle progression and genome stability, little is known concerning SIRT1 controlled centrosome-associated events. Here we report that the centrosome protein Plk2 is acetylated and undergoes deacetylation by SIRT1. Acetylation protects Plk2 from ubiquitination, and SIRT1-mediated deacetylation promotes ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Plk2...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Christopher Trent Brewer, Lei Yang, Anne Edwards, Yan Lu, Jonathan Low, Jing Wu, Richard E Lee, Taosheng Chen
In a mouse model, rifampicin and isoniazid combination treatment results in cholestatic liver injury that is associated with an increase in protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), the penultimate heme precursor. Both ferrochelatase (FECH/Fech) and aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1/Alas1) are crucial enzymes in regulating heme biosynthesis. Isoniazid has recently been reported to upregulate Alas1 but downregulate Fech protein levels in mice; however, the mechanism by which isoniazid mediates disruption of heme synthesis has been unclear...
December 4, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Elena V Daoud, Megan Wachsmann, Timothy E Richardson, Divya Mella, Edward Pan, Anna Schwarzbach, Dwight Oliver, Kimmo J Hatanpaa
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a slow-growing neoplasm that predominantly affects the pediatric and young adult population. This neoplasm has a good prognosis, with a median 10-year survival rate of 70%. The majority of tumors are supratentorial and arise in the temporal lobe, while spinal tumors are extremely rare, with only 8 reported cases. Molecular perturbations involving the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway have been described in PXAs. The most common mutation is BRAF V600E in 60%-80% of cases. Other mechanisms activating this pathway in the absence of this mutation are rare and include CRAF (RAF1) fusion genes...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Alexandre R Carvalho, Solange Guizilini, Gustavo M Murai, Isis Begot, Isadora S Rocco, Nelson A Hossne, Eduardo G Chamlian, João Manoel T Santos, Ricardo A Macedo, Gustavo C O Lisboa, Alberto C Nasciutti, Carlos Eduardo R Santos, João Paulo M Figueiredo, Walter J Gomes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sequential changes of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in patients who underwent aorta no-touch off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). METHODS: Prospective study involving twenty-seven consecutive patients who underwent aorta no-touch OPCAB. The FloTrac/PreSep/Vigileo™ system (Edwards Lifesciences) was used to continuously record heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), central venous pressure (CVP), continuous cardiac index (FCI), stroke volume (SV), stroke volume variation (SVV), and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2)...
September 2018: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Girish Choppala, Edward D Burton
Schwertmannite is an Fe(III)-oxyhydroxysulfate which is common in acid mine drainage (AMD) and acid sulfate soil (ASS) environments. Natural schwertmannite is often enriched in Cr(III), yet the effects of Cr(III) substitution on schwertmannite transformation to more stable Fe(III) minerals has not been addressed. Here we examine, for the first time, the effects of Cr(III) substitution on the Fe(II)-accelerated transformation of schwertmannite. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy shows that Cr(III) substitution inhibits schwertmannite transformation...
2018: PloS One
Andrew O Finley, Patrick S Forsythe, James A Crossman, Edward A Baker, Kim T Scribner
Modeling spatially explicit data provides a powerful approach to identify the effects of exogenous features associated with biological processes, including recruitment of stream fishes. However, the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of the stream and the species' reproductive and early life stage behaviors present challenges to drawing valid inference using traditional regression models. In these settings it is often difficult to ensure the spatial independence among model residuals-a key assumption that must be met to ensure valid inference...
2018: PloS One
Krish C Dewan, Karan S Dewan, Jay J Idrees, Suparna M Navale, Brad F Rosinski, Lars G Svensson, A Marc Gillinov, Douglas R Johnston, Faisal Bakaeen, Edward G Soltesz
Importance: Persistent opioid use is currently a major health care crisis. There is a lack of knowledge regarding its prevalence and effect among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objective: To characterize the national population of cardiac surgery patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and compare outcomes with the cardiac surgery population without OUD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective population-based cohort study, more than 5...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Edward Y Cheng, Marc F Swiontkowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Edward A Graviss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Siobhan Farley, Bonita Libman, Melinda Edwards, Carl J Possidente, Amanda G Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to implement a nurse telephone education programme for patients with recently diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that promotes shared decision-making and a treat-to-target approach. METHODS: This was a pilot project of newly diagnosed adult RA patients conducted between November 2015 and December 2016. A rheumatology clinic nurse telephoned patients to offer disease education. A toolkit was mailed to patients. Measures included call attempts, call time, a qualitative description of free-text notes and the proportion of patients who adhered to their next clinic visit...
December 5, 2018: Musculoskeletal Care
Emma Quinn, Zeina Najjar, Esther Huhtinen, Edward Jegasothy, Leena Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiological differences between culture-positive and culture-negative (but ipaH PCR-positive) cases of shigellosis in Sydney Local Health District (SLHD), NSW, to inform whether changes to the national case definition for shigellosis are required. METHODS: An audit of all cases of shigellosis (culture-positive vs. culture-negative/PCR-positive) in SLHD from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2015 was conducted and demographic, clinical and risk factors were analysed and compared between these groups...
December 5, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Diane K Brown, Sue Fosnight, Maureen Whitford, Susan Hazelett, Colleen Mcquown, Jenifer C Drost, Denise J Kropp, Cynthia A Hovland, Joan E Niederriter, Rikki Patton, Abigail Morgan, Eileen Fleming, Richard P Steiner, Edward Demond Scott, Fabiana Ortiz-Figueroa
Background: One in three people over the age of 65 fall every year, with 1/3 sustaining at least moderate injury. Falls risk reduction requires an interprofessional health team approach. The literature is lacking in effective models to teach students how to work collaboratively in interprofessional teams for geriatric falls prevention. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, administration and outcome measures of an education programme to teach principles of interprofessional care for older adults in the context of falls prevention...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Susan Woolley, Ray Goetz, Pam Factor-Litvak, Jennifer Murphy, Jonathan Hupf, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Howard Andrews, Daragh Heitzman, Richard Bedlack, Jonathan Katz, Richard Barohn, Eric Sorenson, Bjorn Oskarsson, Americo Fernandes Filho, Edward Kasarskis, Tahseen Mozaffar, Sharon Nations, Andrea Swenson, Agnes Koczon-Jaremko, Georgia Christodoulou, Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS). Methods: We analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Julia E Rood, Thomas N Burn, Vanessa Neal, Niansheng Chu, Edward M Behrens
Danger signals mediated through ST2, the interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor, amplify CD8+ T cell-mediated inflammation in the murine model of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (FHL2), and blockade of ST2 provides a potential therapeutic strategy in this disease. However, the long-term effects of disrupting IL-33/ST2 signaling on the CD8+ T cell compartment are unknown. Here, we examined the evolution of the T cell response in murine FHL type 2 in the absence of ST2 signaling and found that CD8+ T cells gradually undergo exhaustion, similar to a related nonfatal FHL model...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Glenn E Palomaki, Edward M Kloza
PURPOSE: We systematically reviewed the published literature on test failure rates for the sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal plasma to identify Down syndrome. METHODS: We searched peer-reviewed English publications with diagnostic results on all pregnancies that provided test failure rates. Data on the odds of failure in Down syndrome and euploid pregnancies and the impact of repeat testing were extracted. Random-effects modeling was then used to identify moderators that could explain variability...
November 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Aslak Tveito, Karoline Horgmo Jæger, Nathaniel Huebsch, Bérénice Charrez, Andrew G Edwards, Samuel Wall, Kevin E Healy
While cardiomyocytes differentiated from human induced pluripotent stems cells (hiPSCs) hold great promise for drug screening, the electrophysiological properties of these cells can be variable and immature, producing results that are significantly different from their human adult counterparts. Here, we describe a computational framework to address this limitation, and show how in silico methods, applied to measurements on immature cardiomyocytes, can be used to both identify drug action and to predict its effect in mature cells...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kenichiro Yamamura, Darren Yuen, Edward J Hickey, Xiaolin He, Rajiv R Chaturvedi, Mark K Friedberg, Lars Grosse-Wortmann, Kate Hanneman, Filio Billia, Michael E Farkouh, Rachel M Wald
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between right ventricular (RV) fibrosis and right heart reverse remodelling following pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) has not been well studied in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). Our aims were to histologically quantify RV fibrosis and to explore the relationship between fibrosis severity and cardiac remodelling post-PVR. METHODS: Adults with rTOF and pre-PVR cardiovascular (CMR) imaging were consented to procurement of RV muscle during PVR...
December 4, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Edward Meinert, Michelle Van Velthoven, David Brindley, Abrar Alturkistani, Kimberley Foley, Sian Rees, Glenn Wells, Nick de Pennington
BACKGROUND: Demands on health services across are increasing because of the combined challenges of an expanding and aging population, alongside complex comorbidities that transcend the classical boundaries of modern health care. Continuing to provide and coordinate care in the current manner is not a viable route to sustain the improvements in health outcomes observed in recent history. To ensure that there continues to be improvement in patient care, prevention of disease, and reduced burden on health systems, it is essential that we adapt our models of delivery...
December 4, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Melissa Wasserstein, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Roberto Giugliani, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Olivier Lidove, Zoltan Lukacs, Eugen Mengel, Pramod K Mistry, Edward H Schuchman, Margaret McGovern
BACKGROUND: Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD), a rare lysosomal storage disease, results from mutations in SMPD1, the gene encoding acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). As a result, sphingomyelin accumulates in multiple organs including spleen, liver, lung, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and in the most severe form, in the CNS and peripheral nerves. Clinical manifestations range from rapidly progressive and fatal infantile neurovisceral disease, to less rapidly progressing chronic neurovisceral and visceral forms that are associated with significant morbidity and shorter life span due to respiratory or liver disease...
November 29, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Siu Fai Li, Lindsey Edwards, Vincent Nguyen
A 27-year-old man presented with an intentional overdose of concentrated caffeine powder that he bought over the internet. The patient received benzodiazepines and ondansetron for symptomatic treatment when he arrived in the Emergency Department (ED). Subsequently, he developed recurrent supraventricular tachycardia in the ED. The SVT was successfully treated with metoprolol. The patient's caffeine level was >90 mg/L. This is the first known report of treatment of caffeine-induced supraventricular tachycardia with metoprolol...
November 26, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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