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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333717/anandamide-effects-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-like-sporadic-dementia-in-rats
#1
Daniel Moreira-Silva, Daniel C Carrettiero, Adriele S A Oliveira, Samanta Rodrigues, Joyce Dos Santos-Lopes, Paula M Canas, Rodrigo A Cunha, Maria C Almeida, Tatiana L Ferreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by multiple cognitive deficits including memory and sensorimotor gating impairments as a result of neuronal and synaptic loss. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in these deficits but little is known about its influence on the molecular mechanism regarding phosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein accumulation - one of the hallmarks of AD -, and on the density of synaptic proteins. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of anandamide ( N -arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) on multiple cognitive deficits and on the levels of synaptic proteins (syntaxin 1, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein, SNAP-25), cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 ) and molecules related to p-tau degradation machinery (heat shock protein 70, HSP70), and Bcl2-associated athanogene (BAG2) in an AD-like sporadic dementia model in rats using intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326197/hypophagic-effects-of-insulin-is-mediated-via-npy1-npy2-receptors-in-broiler-cockerels
#2
Shiba Yousefvand, Farshid Hamidi, Morteza Zendehdel, Abbas Parham
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a mediatory role on cerebral insulin function in maintaining energy balance. The current study was deigned to determine the role of insulin in food intake and its interaction with NPY receptors in 8 experiments of broiler cockerels,(each with 4 treatment groups except 8). Chickens received control solution, 2.5, 5, and 10 ng of insulin in experiment 1 and control solution, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μg of B5063, SF22 and SML0891 in experiments 2, 3 and 4 through intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, respectively...
October 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317216/assessment-of-vibration-exposure-and-physiological-responses-of-crew-members-during-infantry-combat-vehicle-icv-operation-a-pilot-study
#3
Archana A Malhari, D Bhattacharyya, K Arya, T Chatterjee, M Pal
BACKGROUND: Operation of infantry combat vehicle (ICV) influences the cardiorespiratory responses as well as the risk of vibration exposure on the crew members which adversely affect their performance and health. AIM: To assess the effect of stress factors, that is, ICV's compartmental temperature, relative humidity (RH) and vehicular vibration on the physiological parameters (heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (RF), estimated core body temperature (ECT)) of the crew members during the ICV operation...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314380/-n-acetyl-cysteine-supplement-minimize-tau-expression-and-neuronal-loss-in-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Teresa Joy, Muddanna S Rao, Sampath Madhyastha
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), deposition of beta amyloid plaques, and consequent neuronal loss in the brain tissue. Oxidative stress to the neurons is often attributed to AD, but its link to NFT and β-amyloid protein (BAP) still remains unclear. In an animal model of AD, we boosted the oxidative defense by N -Acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger, to understand the link between oxidative stress and NFT...
October 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312751/neuropeptide-y-impairs-the-acquisition-of-conditioned-defeat-in-syrian-hamsters
#5
Tiara Lacey, Josiah Sweeting, Rody Kingston, Chris M Markham
Recent evidence indicates that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) may function as a potent anxiolytic as well as a resilience factor that can insulate the brain from the effects of stress. However, most of these studies have utilized physical stressors such as shock or restraint. In the present study, we use an ethologically-based model in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) called Conditioned Defeat (CD) to investigate whether NPY can ameliorate the effect of social defeat stress. In the CD model, a male Syrian hamster is socially defeated by a larger, more aggressive conspecific...
October 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302375/insertability-comparison-of-passive-bending-single-balloon-prototype-versus-standard-single-balloon-enteroscopy-a-multicenter-randomized-non-blinded-trial
#6
Naoki Hosoe, Kazuo Ohtsuka, Yutaka Endo, Makoto Naganuma, Noriyuki Ogata, Yuichiro Kuroki, Seiko Sasanuma, Kaoru Takabayashi, Shin-Ei Kudo, Hiroshi Takahashi, Haruhiko Ogata, Takanori Kanai
Background and study aims  Traversing the ileocecal valve (ICV) is technically challenging with a retrograde approach to single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE). A novel technique called responsive insertion technology (RIT) colonoscopy was developed to obtain a higher cecal intubation rate in this setting. A prototype long SBE equipped with RIT (P-SBE) was developed to obtain superior insertability. The aim of this study was to compare the insertability of a standard single-balloon enteroscope (S-SBE) versus a P-SBE...
October 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301302/effects-of-5ht1a-activation-on-depression-profile-following-5-ht-depletion-in-rats-lacking-social-attachment-since-weanling
#7
Kuo-Jung Chang, Yu-Jung Chen, Jing-Yi Chung, Chen-Cheng Lin, Yia-Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: Post weanling isolation-reared (IR) rats are featured with depressive phenotype, yet its mechanism is not clearly defined particularly in terms of the involvement of central 5-HT1A receptors. The present study aims to examine the effects of 5HT1A activation on forced swim test (FST) in IR rats following 5-HT depletion. METHODS: Social control (SOC) and IR rats received an intracerebraoventricular (ICV) injection of 5-HT depletion agent, 5,7-DHT. 14 days after the surgery, rats were assessed their performance in FST with or without the challenge with a 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT...
October 11, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298965/brain-corticotropin-releasing-factor-signaling-involvement-in-acute-stress-induced-visceral-pain-in-male-rats
#8
Muriel Larauche, Nabila Moussaoui, Mandy Biraud, Won Ki Bae, Henri Duboc, Mulugeta Million, Yvette Taché
BACKGROUND: Water avoidance stress (WAS) induces a naloxone-independent visceral analgesia in male rats under non-invasive conditions of monitoring. The objective of the study was to examine the role of brain CRF signaling in acute stress-induced visceral analgesia (SIVA). METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically implanted with an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula. The visceromotor response (VMR) to graded phasic colorectal distension (CRD: 10, 20, 40, 60 mm Hg, 20 seconds, 4 minutes intervals) was monitored using manometry...
October 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296459/na-k-atpase-inhibition-causes-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-in-mice-via-dopamine-d2-receptor-mediated-mechanism
#9
Yuki Kurauchi, Yuko Yoshimaru, Yuto Kajiwara, Taishi Yamada, Keigo Matsuda, Akinori Hisatsune, Takahiro Seki, Hiroshi Katsuki
Hyperactivity and impulsivity are common symptoms in several psychiatric disorders. Although dysfunction of Na+ , K+ -ATPase has been reported to be associated with the psychiatric disorders, it is not clear whether inhibition of Na+ , K+ -ATPase causes behavioral effects, including hyperactivity and impulsivity, in mice. Here, we evaluated the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+ , K+ -ATPase, on hyperactivity and impulsivity in mice. At seven days after icv injection, ouabain-injected mice displayed the increase in the distance traveled in the open field arena in the open field test and the increase in the number of head-dipping behavior in the cliff avoidance test...
October 5, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287160/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-1-treatment-stabilizes-the-microvascular-cytoskeleton-under-ischemic-conditions
#10
Shameena Bake, Andre Okoreeh, Homa Khosravian, Farida Sohrabji
Our previous studies showed that Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 reduced blood brain barrier permeability and decreased infarct volume caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in middle aged female rats. Similarly, cultures of primary brain microvessel endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats and exposed to stroke-like conditions (oxygen glucose deprivation; OGD) confirmed that IGF-1 reduced dye transfer across this cell monolayer. Surprisingly, IGF-1 did not attenuate endothelial cell death caused by OGD...
October 1, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283035/dose-response-of-the-16p11-2-distal-copy-number-variant-on-intracranial-volume-and-basal-ganglia
#11
Ida Elken Sønderby, Ómar Gústafsson, Nhat Trung Doan, Derrek Paul Hibar, Sandra Martin-Brevet, Lars T Westlye, Sébastien Jacquemont, Srdjan Djurovic, Hreinn Stefánsson, Kari Stefánsson, Paul M Thompson, Ole A Andreassen
Carriers of large recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) have a higher risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. The 16p11.2 distal CNV predisposes carriers to e.g., autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We compared subcortical brain volumes of 12 16p11.2 distal deletion and 12 duplication carriers to 6882 non-carriers from the large-scale brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging collaboration, ENIGMA-CNV. After stringent CNV calling procedures, and standardized FreeSurfer image analysis, we found negative dose-response associations with copy number on intracranial volume and on regional caudate, pallidum and putamen volumes (β = -0...
October 3, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279646/inhibition-of-dna-methylation-with-zebularine-alters-lipopolysaccharide-induced-sickness-behavior-and-neuroinflammation-in-mice
#12
Stephanie M Matt, Jalisa D Zimmerman, Marcus A Lawson, Angela C Bustamante, Monica Uddin, Rodney W Johnson
Activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), the enzymes that catalyze DNA methylation, is dynamically regulated in the brain. DNMT inhibitors alter DNA methylation globally in the brain and at individual neural plasticity-associated genes, but how DNMT inhibitors centrally influence lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation is not known. We investigated whether the DMNT inhibitor, zebularine, would alter sickness behavior, DNA methylation of the Il-1β promoter and expression of inflammatory genes in hippocampus and microglia...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278200/antidepressant-like-effects-of-insulin-and-igf-1-are-mediated-by-igf-1-receptors-in-the-brain
#13
Paul L Mueller, Carolyn E Pritchett, Tyler N Wiechman, Alevtina Zharikov, Andras Hajnal
Depression is associated with uncontrolled diabetes, which indicates a lack of insulin effect, yet the role of the insulin receptor in mediating depression is not clearly established because insulin receptors are not required for glucose entry into the brain. However, insulin receptors are important for brain function since insulin receptor knockout mice have depressive-like activity. Depression and cognitive problems are also associated with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the elderly. Rodent studies showed chronic IGF-1 administration had antidepressant-like (AD) activity...
September 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276333/neuroprotective-effects-of-tenuigenin-on-neurobehavior-oxidative-stress-and-tau-hyperphosphorylation-induced-by-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-in-rats
#14
Xiao-Bo Huang, Yu-Jing Chen, Wen-Qiang Chen, Ning-Qun Wang, Xi-Ling Wu, Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: Tenuigenin (TEN), a major active component of the Chinese herb Polygala tenuifolia root, has been used to improve memory and cognitive function in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. PURPOSE: The present study was designed to explore the possible neuroprotective effect of TEN on the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). METHODS: STZ was injected twice intracerebroventrically (3 mg/kg, ICV) on alternate days (day 1 and day 3) in Rats...
January 2018: Brain Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264926/a-newly-developed-tetraplex-real-time-rt-pcr-for-simultaneous-screening-of-influenza-virus-types-a-b-c-and-d
#15
D Henritzi, B Hoffmann, S Wacheck, S Pesch, G Herrler, M Beer, T C Harder
BACKGROUND: Human- or avian-to-swine transmissions have founded several autonomously circulating influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in swine populations that cause economically important respiratory disease. Little is known on other human influenza virus types, like B (IBV) and C (ICV) in European swine, and of the recently detected novel animal influenza virus type D (IDV). OBJECTIVES: Development of a cost-effective diagnostic tool for large-scale surveillance programmes targeting all four influenza virus types...
September 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30244292/intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induces-impaired-barnes-maze-spatial-memory-and-reduces-astrocyte-branching-in-the-ca1-and-ca3-hippocampal-regions
#16
María F Zappa Villar, Juliette López Hanotte, Eugenia Falomir Lockhart, Lucía S Trípodi, Gustavo R Morel, Paula C Reggiani
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is the most common form of dementia; therefore, there is an urgent need for a model that recapitulates the main pathologic hallmarks of this disease. The intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ) in rats constitutes a promising model, and thus, icv-STZ rats develop insulin-resistant brain state and cognitive impairments. Even though a great piece of studies has hitherto described this system as a model for SAD, further behavioral and morphometric studies are still needed to fully characterize it...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243236/the-bayesian-risk-estimate-at-onset-bremso-correlates-with-cognitive-and-physical-disability-in-patients-with-early-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Marianne Said, Nabil K El Ayoubi, Salem Hannoun, Ribal Haddad, Leslie Saba, Youmna Jalkh, Bassem I Yamout, Samia J Khoury
BACKGROUND: Prevention of long-term disability is the goal of therapeutic intervention in Relapsing Remitting MS (RRMS). The Bayesian Risk Estimate for MS at Onset (BREMSO) gives an individual risk score predicting disease evolution into Secondary Progressive MS (SPMS). We investigated whether BREMSO correlates with physical disability, cognitive dysfunction, and regional brain atrophy early in MS. METHODS: One hundred RRMS patients with at least two years of follow-up were enrolled...
September 13, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240784/orexin-2-receptor-stimulation-enhances-resilience-while-orexin-2-inhibition-promotes-susceptibility-to-social-stress-anxiety-and-depression
#18
Clarissa D Staton, Jazmine D W Yaeger, Delan Khalid, Fadi Haroun, Belissa S Fernandez, Jessica S Fernandez, Bali K Summers, Tangi R Summers, Monica Sathyanesan, Samuel S Newton, Cliff H Summers
Knockdown of orexin/hypocretin 2 receptor (Orx2 ) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) affects anxious and depressive behavior. We use a new behavioral paradigm, the Stress Alternatives Model (SAM), designed to improve translational impact. The SAM induces social stress in adult male mice by aggression from larger mice, allowing for adaptive decision-making regarding escape. In this model, mice remain (Stay) in the oval SAM arena or escape from social aggression (Escape) via routes only large enough for the smaller mouse...
September 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237514/polybrene-induces-neural-degeneration-by-bidirectional-ca-2-influx-dependent-mitochondrial-and-er-mitochondrial-dynamics
#19
Feixiang Bao, Hongyan Shi, Mi Gao, Liang Yang, Lingyan Zhou, Qiuge Zhao, Yi Wu, Keshi Chen, Ge Xiang, Qi Long, Jingyi Guo, Jian Zhang, Xingguo Liu
Hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene) was once used clinically as a heparin neutralizer and has recently found use as a promoter in virus-mediated gene therapy trials and gene transfer in research. However, the potential for tissue-specific toxicity of polybrene at low doses has been ignored so far. Here, we found that after intracerebroventricular (ICV) polybrene injection, mice showed disability of movement accompanied neural death and gliosis in brain, and in human neurons, polybrene induces concentration-dependent neuritic beading and fragmentation...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233313/a-single-dose-of-5-meo-dmt-stimulates-cell-proliferation-neuronal-survivability-morphological-and-functional-changes-in-adult-mice-ventral-dentate-gyrus
#20
Rafael Vitor Lima da Cruz, Thiago C Moulin, Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Richardson N Leão
The subgranular zone (SGZ) of dentate gyrus (DG) is one of the few regions in which neurogenesis is maintained throughout adulthood. It is believed that newborn neurons in this region encode temporal information about partially overlapping contextual memories. The 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a naturally occurring compound capable of inducing a powerful psychedelic state. Recently, it has been suggested that DMT analogs may be used in the treatment of mood disorders. Due to the strong link between altered neurogenesis and mood disorders, we tested whether 5-MeO-DMT is capable of increasing DG cell proliferation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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