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Guilherme Garcia Barros, Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri, Ítalo Gerardo Rotondo, Vitor Van Vaisberg, Leandro Silveira Sarmento, Cícero Mendes Neto, Suellen Serafini, Josiane de Oliveira Gonçalves, Maria Cecília Mendonça Coelho, Uenis Tannuri
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of maintenance of the ileocecal valve (ICV) in intestinal adaptation mechanisms, in a weaning rat experimental model of short bowel. METHODS: Forty animals were operated on to produce short bowel syndrome. They were divided into five groups: maintenance (MV) or resection of ICV (RV), kill after 4 days (MV4 and RV4) or 21 days (MV21 and RV21), and a control group (21-day-old rats). Body weights, small bowel and colon lengths and diameters, villus heights, crypt depths, lamina propria and muscle layer thickness, as well as the apoptosis index of villi and crypts and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes, were studied...
August 18, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Masoumeh Faezi, Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Nahid Aboutaleb, Mahin Nikougoftar
OBJECTIVE: The mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane have the ability to secrete and release some factors that can promote the repair of damaged tissues. This secretome contains proteins and factors that reduce apoptosis and increase angiogenesis in the ischemia/reperfusion models. The present study was conducted to determine whether this secretome provides protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was established through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 min and 24 h reperfusion...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Gustavo Roberto Thomé, Vitor Antunes Oliveira, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Rogério Aquino Saraiva, Diego Souza, Oscar Endrigo Dorneles Rodrigues, João Batista Teixeira Rocha, Rafael Porto Ineu, Maria Ester Pereira
The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of one selenium-containing AZT derivative compound (S1073) in memory and learning impairment caused by Intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ). ICV-STZ in mice causes impairment of energy metabolism with oxidative damage and cholinergic dysfunction, and provides a relevant model for sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (AD). Acetylcolinesterase (AChE), Catalase (CAT), dichlorofluorescein oxidation (DCFH), TBARS and thiol content were measured...
August 15, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Priyal Barai, Nisith Raval, Sanjeev Acharya, Ankit Borisa, Hardik Bhatt, Niyati Acharya
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an enervating and chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, occurring frequently in the elderly and adversely affecting intellectual capabilities and the cognitive processes. Bergenin possesses efficacious antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity along with antinociceptive effect and wound healing properties. Previous studies have shown that bergenin has in vitro bovine adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitory activity, mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, β-secretase (BACE-1) enzyme inhibitory activity and prevented neuronal death in the primary culture of rat cortical neurons...
August 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
R William F Breakey, Paul G M Knoops, Alessandro Borghi, Naiara Rodriguez-Florez, Justine O'Hara, Gregory James, David J Dunaway, Silvia Schievano, N U Owase Jeelani
OBJECTIVE: When analysing intracranial volume gain due to operative intervention in craniosynostosis, it is necessary to understand the underlying growth. We sought to create comprehensive intracranial volume (ICV) and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) growth charts, as measured on unoperated craniosynostotic children. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether ICV and OFC could act as a proxy measure for each other. METHODS: All pre-operative Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) patients with a diagnosis of Apert, Crouzon-Pfeiffer or Saethre-Chotzen syndrome from 2004 onwards were considered for this study...
August 11, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Narjes Soltani, Ali Roohbakhsh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Elham Salari, Vahid Sheibani, Iman Fatemi, Ali Shamsizadeh
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most studied neuropeptides in the brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of CCK-8s and LY225910 (CCK2 receptor antagonist) on properties of neuronal response to natural stimuli (whisker deflection) in deep layers of rat barrel cortex. This study was done on 20 male Wistar rats, weighing 230-260 g. CCK-8s (300 nmol/rat) and LY225910 (1 µmol/rat) were administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV). Neuronal responses to deflection of principal (PW) and adjacent (AW) whiskers were recorded in the barrel cortex using tungsten microelectrodes...
August 14, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Ahmad Badr, Yousef Shabana, Khaled Mokbel, Ayman Elsharabasy, Mohamed Ghonim, Mario Sanna
OBJECTIVES: While an accurate placement in cochleostomy is critical to ensure appropriate insertion of the cochlear implant (CI) electrode into the scala tympani (ST), the choice of preferred cochleostomy sites widely varied among experienced surgeons. We present a novel technique for precise yet readily applicable localization of the optimum site for performing ST cochleostomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty fresh frozen temporal bones were dissected using the mastoidectomy-posterior tympanotomy approach...
August 3, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Ji Yeon Choi, In Jun Yeo, Ki Cheon Kim, Won Rack Choi, Jae-Kyung Jung, Sang-Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease, which is pathologically characterized by an excessive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) fibrils, is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia. In a previous study, it was reported that an increased level of CHI3L1 in plasma was found in AD patients. We investigated the inhibitory effect of 2-({3-[2-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethyl]-6,7-dimethoxy-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2-quinazolinyl}sulfanyl)-N-(4-ethylphenyl)butanamide (K284-6111), an inhibitor of chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1), on memory impairment in Aβ1-42 -infused mice, and microglial BV-2 cells and astrocytes...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Florian Hansmann, Nicole Jungwirth, Ning Zhang, Thomas Skripuletz, Veronika Maria Stein, Andrea Tipold, Martin Stangel, Wolfgang Baumgärtner
In recent years stem cell therapies have been broadly applied in various disease models specifically immune mediated and degenerative diseases. Whether adipose-derived stem cells might represent a useful therapeutic option in virus-triggered central nervous system diseases has not been investigated so far. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) and canine distemper encephalitis are established, virus-mediated animal models sharing many similarities with multiple sclerosis (MS). Canine adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were selected since dogs might serve as an important translational model for further therapeutic applications...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Binghan Xie, Weijia Gong, Huarong Yu, Xiaobin Tang, Zhongsen Yan, Xinsheng Luo, Zhendong Gan, Tianyu Wang, Guibai Li, Heng Liang
A photobioreactor (PBR) coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) system was developed with goals of microalgae cultivation, harvest, and membrane fouling control in the anaerobic digestion effluent purification. Firstly, three-sequencing batch PBRs were started-up with suspended Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris, SCV), immobilized C. vulgaris (ICV) and immobilized C. vulgaris with powdered activated carbon (ICV + PAC). The results exhibited high DOC degradation (66.61%-84.35%) and completely nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) removals were attained in PBRs...
July 24, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kendall J Keck, Jessica E Maxwell, Alan F Utria, Andrew M Bellizzi, Joseph S Dillon, Thomas M O'Dorisio, James R Howe
BACKGROUND: The small bowel (SB) is the most common site of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the GI tract. These are described as being predominantly jejunoileal, but their exact locations within the SB have not been well defined. We sought to determine prospectively the spectrum of SBNET locations. METHODS: Patients undergoing exploration for SBNET primaries had measurement of bowel length, tumor locations, and resection length recorded. Correlations of clinicopathologic factors were performed, and analysis done utilizing Welch's t test, Chi square test, and the Kaplan-Meier method...
July 27, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Laura K Borkenhagen, Kerry A Mallinson, Rick W Tsao, Siaw-Jing Ha, Wei-Honn Lim, Teck-Hock Toh, Benjamin D Anderson, Jane K Fieldhouse, Sarah E Philo, Kuek-Sen Chong, William G Lindsley, Alejandro Ramirez, James F Lowe, Kristen K Coleman, Gregory C Gray
BACKGROUND: The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses. OBJECTIVES: To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine rotaviruses A and C (RVA and RVC), are aerosolized at the animal-interface, and if humans working in these environments are carrying these viruses in their nasal airways...
2018: PloS One
Martin A Sticht, David D Lau, Catherine M Keenan, Jean-Baptiste Cavin, Maria Morena, Venkata Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Benjamin F Cravatt, Keith A Sharkey, Matthew N Hill
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stress is known to reduce food intake. Many aspects of the stress response and feeding are regulated by the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, but the roles of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in stress-induced anorexia are unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effects of acute restraint stress on eCBs were investigated in male Sprague Dawley rats. Systemic and central pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) was used to determine the potential of elevated AEA and 2-AG to stimulate homeostatic feeding and modulate food consumption after stress...
July 26, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jacopo Di Lucente, Hai M Nguyen, Heike Wulff, Lee-Way Jin, Izumi Maezawa
Microglia show a rich repertoire of activation patterns regulated by a complex ensemble of surface ion channels, receptors, and transporters. We and others have investigated whether microglia vary their K+ channel expression as a means to achieve functional diversity. However, most of the prior studies were conducted using in vitro models such as BV2 cells, primary microglia, or brain slices in culture, which may not accurately reflect microglia physiology in adult individuals. Here we employed an in vivo mouse model of selective innate immune activation by intracerebroventricular injection of lipopolysaccharides (ICV-LPS) to determine the role of the voltage-gated Kv1...
July 25, 2018: Glia
Simin Afshar, Siamak Shahidi, Ali Haeri Rohani, Alireza Komaki, Sara Soleimani Asl
RATIONALE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function. The serotonergic system via the 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT2A receptor is proposed to affect the cognitive process. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the effects of NAD-299 (5-HT1AR antagonist) and TCB-2 (5-HT2AR agonist) on learning and memory processes, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, neuronal necrosis, and Aβ plaque production have been investigated on the intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory deficits in rats...
July 19, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Gustavo C Dal-Pont, Wilson R Resende, Roger B Varela, Samira Menegas, Kerolen S Trajano, Bruna R Peterle, João Quevedo, Samira S Valvassori
The present study evaluated the effects of AR-A014418 on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters of rats submitted to the animal model of mania induced by ouabain (OUA). Wistar rats were submitted to stereotaxic surgery and received a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), OUA, or AR-A014418. After 7 days, the animals were submitted to open-field test. After behavioral analysis, the brains were dissected in frontal cortex and hippocampus to the evaluation of oxidative stress...
July 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Karolina Haziak, Andrzej Przemysław Herman, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Bartosz Pawlina, Kamila Paczesna, Joanna Bochenek, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
Background: Immune stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) influences the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Presence of LPS interacting Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in the hypothalamus may enable the direct action of LPS on the GnRH/LH secretion. So, the aim of the study was to investigate the influence of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of TLR4 antagonist on GnRH/LH secretion in anestrous ewes during LPS-induced central inflammation. Animals were divided into three groups icv-treated with: Ringer-Locke solution, LPS and TLR4 antagonist followed by LPS...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Tiejun Li, Yanli Chen, Chaojun Gua, Baogang Wu
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep leading to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Sympathetic excitation has been shown to play a major role in the pathogenesis of OSA-associated hypertension. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress and inflammation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a critical cardiovascular and autonomic center, mediate sympathetic excitation in many cardiovascular diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cheng Jiang, Wei-Jye Lin, Stephen R Salton
Members of the neurotrophin family and in particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulate the response to rapid- and slow-acting chemical antidepressants and voluntary exercise. Recent work suggests that rapid-acting antidepressants that modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) signaling (e.g., ketamine and GLYX-13) require expression of VGF (non-acronymic), the BDNF-inducible secreted neuronal protein and peptide precursor, for efficacy. In addition, the VGF-derived C-terminal peptide TLQP-62 (named by its 4 N-terminal amino acids and length) has antidepressant efficacy following icv or intra-hippocampal administration, in the forced swim test (FST)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Tiril P Gurholt, Kåre Osnes, Mari Nerhus, Kjetil N Jørgensen, Vera Lonning, Akiah O Berg, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz
Vitamin D and folate deficiency are considered risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but it is unknown how vitamin D and folate influence the growing brain, cranium or the clinical phenotype. Serum vitamin D and folate levels are in part genetically regulated. We investigated whether adult vitamin D and folate levels are associated with the intracranial volume (ICV) under the hypothesis that developmental vitamin D or folate levels influence neurodevelopment and that current levels are associated with ICV...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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