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Hei-Jen Huang, Shu-Ling Chen, Yen-Ting Chang, Jong-Ho Chyuan, Hsiu Mei Hsieh-Li
Recently, the use of natural food supplements to reduce the side effects of chemical compounds used for the treatment of various diseases has become popular. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has some protective effects in neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its toxic effects on various systems and some relevant interactions with other drugs limit its broader use in clinical practice. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological functions of LiCl combined with Momordica charantia (MC) in the treatment of AD...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Stephanie Gladys Kühne, Martha Anna Schalla, Tiemo Friedrich, Peter Kobelt, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Melissa Long, Marion Rivalan, York Winter, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
Nesfatin-1 is a well-established anorexigenic peptide. Recent studies indicated an association between nesfatin-1 and anxiety/depression-like behavior. However, it is unclear whether this effect is retained in obesity. The aim was to investigate the effect of nesfatin-130-59 -the active core of nesfatin-1-on anxiety and depression-like behavior in normal weight (NW) and diet-induced (DIO) obese rats. Male rats were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) cannulated and received nesfatin-130-59 (0.1, 0.3, or 0.9 nmol/rat) or vehicle 30 min before testing...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Pouneh Shahmohamady, Akram Eidi, Pejman Mortazavi, Negar Panahi, Dariush Minai-Tehrani
The present study aimed to elucidate the neuroprotective effect of sinapic acid on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced neuronal loss and memory impairment. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 11 groups: normal control, sham-operated control, sinapic acid (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg bw intragastrically, daily) alone, Alzheimer control rats (ICV-STZ, 3 mg/kg bw), sinapic acid (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg bw intragastrically, daily) together with STZ, and the treatment was performed accordingly...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Gozal Bahlakeh, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Mohsen Saeidi
INTRODUCTION: The pharmacological suppression of luteinising hormone or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can reduce Aβ plaques in the brains of rats and mice, but the effects of hCG on the phosphorylated tau protein level in the hippocampus have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hCG on the phosphorylated tau protein level and its effect on hCG receptor-immunoreactive neuron density in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats (streptozotocin [STZ] injected intracerebroventricularly)...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
Murat Çakır, Suat Tekin, Züleyha Doğanyiğit, Yavuz Erden, Merve Soytürk, Yılmaz Çiğremiş, Süleyman Sandal
AIM: Cannabinoid system has various physiological roles such as neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and emotional state regulation in the body. The presence of cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2), a member of the cannabinoid system, was detected in different regions of the brain. CB2 receptor plays a role in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. We aimed to determine the possible effect of CB2 agonist JWH-133 in Okadaic acid (OKA)-induced neurodegeneration model mimicking Alzheimer's Disease (AD) through tau pathology...
November 27, 2018: Life Sciences
Daiki Senda, Doruk Orgun, Azusa Shimizu, Kazuaki Shimoji, Masakazu Miyajima, Hajime Arai, Hiroshi Mizuno, Yuzo Komuro
INTRODUCTION: Patients with craniosynostosis with shortened occipitofrontal diameter are mainly treated with posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO) in our institution. If further intracranial volume (ICV) expansion is needed, additional treatment with frontal orbital advancement (FOA) is done. On the contrary, frontal orbital remodeling (FOR) is done for better aesthetic results. In this study, post-treatment ICV changes in patients with craniosynostosis treated with these methods have been investigated...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Priya J Ghumatkar, Sachin P Patil, Vaibhavi Peshattiwar, Tushara Vijaykumar, Vikas Dighe, Geeta Vanage, Sadhana Sathaye
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading neurodegenerative disorder with extracellular senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles as the major hallmarks. The objective was to evaluate the effect of phloretin in a chronic model of sporadic AD by injecting aggregated form of Aβ25-35 peptide sequence intracerebroventricularly (icv) in Wistar rats. To achieve this, male Wistar rats were injected with aggregated Aβ25-35 peptide icv, followed by 21 days phloretin (2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg) administration after recovery period...
November 28, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Zhenxing Ren, Junlong Yu, Zimei Wu, Wenwen Si, Xianqian Li, Yuqing Liu, Jianhong Zhou, Rudong Deng, Dongfeng Chen
Vascular dementia (VD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly people. However, little is understood about the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in cognitive impairment in early VD. Here, a VD model induced by chronic cerebral ischemia and fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free cell model that detects synapse formation was established to investigate the function of miRNAs in early VD. The microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that miR-210-5p increased significantly in the hippocampus of rats with 4 weeks of ischemia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Saima Zameer, Madhu Kaundal, Divya Vohora, Javed Ali, Abul Kalam Najmi, Mohd Akhtar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age related neurodegenerative disorder manifested by progressive cognitive decline and neuronal loss in the brain, yet precise etiopathology of majority of sporadic or late-onset AD cases is unknown. AD is associated with various pathological events such as Aβ deposition due to BACE-1 induced cleavage of APP, neuroinflammation, increased cholesterol synthesis, cholinergic deficit and oxidative stress. It was found that bone drug, alendronate (ALN) that cross blood brain barrier inhibits brain cholesterol synthesis and AChE enzyme activity...
November 24, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Hua Jiang, Yuwei Wu, Paloma Valverde, Dana Murray, Jin Tang, Qi Yao, Qianqian Han, Jin Zhang, Lan Zhang, Lei Sui, Yin Tang, Qisheng Tu, Jake Chen
Central adiponectin (APN) in either the globular (gAPN) or full-length forms decreases sympathetic tone and increases trabecular bone mass in mice through the hypothalamus. It is known that cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors are expressed in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus and participate in energy metabolism by controlling sympathetic activity. However, whether central APN could influence endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 receptor to regulate bone metabolism has not been characterized. Here we demonstrate that gAPN downregulated CB1 expression in embryonic mouse hypothalamus N1 cells in vitro...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Haibo Zhang, Ding Wang, Ping Gong, Aihua Lin, Yan Zhang, Richard D Ye, Yang Yu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are two major neuropathological features of AD. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2), contributing to innate immunity and inflammation, has been implicated in the uptake and clearance of Aβ. It remains unclear whether FPR2 affects cognition and tau phosphorylation. The effects of FPR2 in cognition and tau phosphorylation were examined using FPR2 knock-out (Fpr2-/-) mice receiving intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ)...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jussara M do Carmo, Alexandre A da Silva, Sydney P Moak, Fernanda S da Silva, Frank T Spradley, John E Hall
AIM: We previously demonstrated that central nervous system (CNS) melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) play a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP) in some conditions associated with increased SNS activity, including obesity. In this study we examined if activation of CNS MC4R contributes to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced hypertension and ventilatory responses to hypercapnia. METHODS: Rats were instrumented with an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula in the lateral cerebral ventricle for continuous infusion of MC4R antagonist (SHU-9119) and telemetry probes for measuring mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR)...
November 22, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Hyo Rim Ko, So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Inwoo Hwang, Taegwan Yun, Dong Kyung Sung, Se In Sung, Won Soon Park, Jee-Yin Ahn
BACKGROUND: Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have been shown to prevent brain damage and improve neurocognition following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of hUCB-MSCs are still elusive. Thus, as the hippocampus is essential for learning, memory, and cognitive functions and is intimately involved in the ventricular system, making it a potential site of IVH-induced injury, we determined the molecular basis of the effects of hUCB-derived MSCs on hippocampal neurogenesis and the recovery of hippocampal neural circuits after IVH in a rodent model...
November 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Edward G Meloni, Karen T Kaye, Archana Venkataraman, William A Carlezon
The stress-related neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is implicated in neuromodulation of learning and memory. PACAP can alter synaptic plasticity and has direct actions on neurons in the amygdala and hippocampus that could contribute to its acute and persistent effects on the consolidation and expression of conditioned fear. We recently demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of PACAP prior to fear conditioning (FC) results in initial amnestic-like effects followed by hyper-expression of conditioned freezing with repeated testing, and analyses of immediate-early gene c-Fos expression suggested that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), but not the lateral/basolateral amygdala (LA/BLA) or hippocampus, are involved in these PACAP effects...
November 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Luis Alameda, Margot Fournier, Ines Khadimallah, Alessandra Griffa, Martine Cleusix, Raoul Jenni, Carina Ferrari, Paul Klauser, Philipp S Baumann, Michel Cuenod, Patric Hagmann, Philippe Conus, Kim Q Do
Exposure to childhood trauma (CT) increases the risk for psychosis and affects the development of brain structures, possibly through oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is also linked to psychosis, it may interact with CT, leading to a more severe clinical phenotype. In 133 patients with early psychosis (EPP), we explored the relationships between CT and hippocampal, amygdala, and intracranial volume (ICV); blood antioxidant defenses [glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx)]; psychopathological results; and neuropsychological results...
November 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kalina Ilieva, Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova
Experimental findings suggest that the melatonin system has a beneficial role in models of Alzheimer's disease (ADs). The aim of the present study was to explore whether the atypical antidepressant agomelatine (Ago), which is a melatonin MT1 and MT2 agonist and 5-HT2C antagonist, is effective against behavioral, biochemical and histological impairments in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of ADs in male rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Ago (40 mg/kg) for 30 days starting three months following the intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of STZ...
November 21, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Shiba Yousefvand, Farshid Hamidi, Morteza Zendehdel, Abbas Parham
1 The present study was conducted to investigate whether brain somatostatin increases feed intake in neonatal chickens. The mediating role of neuropeptide Y receptors on feed intake induced by somatostatin was investigated. 2. In this study, seven experiments were designed, each with four treatment groups (n=44 in each experiment). In Experiment 1, chicks received control solution and 0.5, 1, and 2 nmol of somatostatin through intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. In experiments 2, 3 and 4, chickens were ICV injected with control solution and 1...
November 16, 2018: British Poultry Science
Jun Chen, Yao Li
Coherence vortex (CV) states provide a new way for optical manipulation and communication. As a promising option for increasing the data-transmission capacity, CV multiplexing warrants investigation. However, few studies have focused on discriminating and sorting CV states with different topological charges. In this work, we examine the cross-spectral density (CSD) of a CV state embedded in an incoherent light field and so-called incoherent vortex (ICV). Given a multiplexed ICV, we propose a method to recognize the constituting single ICVs therein...
November 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Xiao-Jing Yu, Ya-Nan Zhao, Yi-Kang Hou, Hong-Bao Li, Wen-Jie Xia, Hong-Li Gao, Kai-Li Liu, Qing Su, Hui-Yu Yang, Bin Liang, Wen-Sheng Chen, Wei Cui, Ying Li, Guo-Qing Zhu, Zhi-Ming Yang, Yu-Ming Kang
Metformin (MET), an antidiabetic agent, also has antioxidative effects in metabolic-related hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether MET has anti-hypertensive effects in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by inhibiting oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Salt-sensitive rats received a high-salt (HS) diet to induce hypertension, or a normal-salt (NS) diet as control. At the same time, they received intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of MET or vehicle for 6 weeks...
November 14, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Sheetal Sharma, Neha Sharma, Avneet Saini, Bimla Nehru
The characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid beta inside the brain mainly consisting of Aβ 40 and 42 aggregates. Soluble aggregates of Aβ 42 are reported to be more toxic and exert their neurotoxicity by the induction of oxidative damage and cognitive deficits such as anxiety-like behavior. These alterations emerge due to the induction of gap junction communication through increased activity and expression of connexins such as connexin43 (Cx43) leading to the release of small neurotoxic molecules...
November 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
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