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Joanna Borowska-Fielding, Natalia Murataeva, Ben Smith, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, Emma Leishmann, Laura Daily, Tom Toguri, Cecelia Hillard, Julian Romero, Heather Bradshaw, Melanie Kelly, Alex Straiker
The cannabinoid receptor CB2 plays a significant role in the regulation of immune function whereas neuronal expression remains a subject of contention. Multiple studies have described CB2 in retina and a recent study showed that CB2 deletion altered retinal visual processing. We revisited CB2 expression using immunohistochemistry and a recently developed CB2-eGFP reporter mouse. We examined the consequence of acute vs. prolonged CB2 deactivation on the electroretinogram (ERG) responses. We also examined lipidomics in CB2 knockout mice and potential changes in microglia using Scholl analysis...
August 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
A Vysakh, Kuriakose Jayesh, Lal Raisa Helen, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
BACKGROUND: The plant Rotula aquatica Lour. was traditionally well known due to its large number of pharmacological action and medicinal uses. The plant is a necessary component of many Ayurvedic drug preparations since historical times. It is widely used as a crucial ancient drug for kidney and bladder stones. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and anti inflammatory efficacy of methanolic extract of R.aquatica Lour. in in vivo models...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha, Bathlomew Maduka Okeke, Ganiyu Oboh, Omamuyovwi M Ijomone, Sunday Idowu Oyeleye
This study investigated the effect of eugenol on arginase, nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities in platelets of carrageenan-induced arthritic rat model to explain a possible anti-arthritic mechanism of eugenol. Fifty adult female rats (140-250 g) were divided into ten (10) groups (n = 5). Group I received oral administration of corn oil, group II received 2.50 mg/kg of eugenol, group III and IV rats received oral administration of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg of eugenol respectively, group V received 0...
July 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Zhiping Yang, Yifu Guan, Jun Li, Li Li, Zhipeng Li
Chrysin, a natural polyphenol plentifully contained in honey, propolis, vegetables and fruits, it has been reported to exert a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we mainly investigated the protective effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of chrysin on carrageenan-induced lung injury in rats. The results showed that chrysin inhibited the neutrophils infiltration, attenuated histological injury of lung tissues, decreased PMNs markers level and oxidative stress markers levels of lungs in rats...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Taline Baganha Stefanello Catelan, Joyce Alencar Santos, Maicon Matos Leitão, Lidiane Schultz Branquinho, Paulo César de Paula Vasconcelos, Silvia Cristina Heredia-Vieira, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Some species of Campomanesia are used in the folk medicine due to anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, anti-diabetes and hypercholesterolemic. However studies with Campomanesia guazumifolia (Cambess.) O. Berg. are scarce. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and toxicological profile of infusion obtained from leaves of Campomanesia guazumifolia in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaves infusion of C...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Karama Zouari Bouassida, Samar Makni, Amina Tounsi, Lobna Jlaiel, Mohamed Trigui, Slim Tounsi
Juniperus phoenicea ( J. phoenicea ) is a wild tree belonging to the Cupressaceae family, commonly used for the treatment of several disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of J. phoenicea hydroethanolic extract (EtOH-H2 OE) against oxidation, acute inflammation, and pain in mice models. For the purpose, chemical compounds of J. phoenicea EtOH-H2 OE were also analyzed by GC-MS. The J. phoenicea EtOH-H2 OE showed a potent antioxidant activity in vitro , thanks to its richness in phenolic and flavonoid compounds...
2018: BioMed Research International
Felix Agyei Ampadu, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Newman Osafo, Charles Kwaku Benneh, Edmund Ekuadzi, Eric Woode
Maerua angolensis has been used traditionally in the management of pain, arthritis, and rheumatism in Ghana and Nigeria but no scientific evidence is currently available to give credence to its folkloric use. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of a stem bark extract of Maerua angolensis DC (MAE) in acute inflammatory models. The effects of MAE (30-300 mg kg-1 ) on neutrophil infiltration, exudate volume, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes in lung tissues and lung morphology were evaluated with the carrageenan induced pleurisy model in Sprague Dawley rats...
2018: International Journal of Inflammation
Ramanathan Yegappan, Vignesh Selvaprithiviraj, Sivashanmugam Amirthalingam, R Jayakumar
Carrageenan is a class of naturally occurring sulphated polysaccharides, which is currently a promising candidate in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as it resemblances native glycosaminoglycans. From pharmaceutical drug formulations to tissue engineered scaffolds, carrageenan has broad range of applications. Here we provide an overview of developing various forms of carrageenan based hydrogels. We focus on how these fabrication processes has an effect on physiochemical properties of the hydrogel...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yanyun Gao, Wei Liu, Wei Wang, Xiaoshuang Zhang, Xia Zhao
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can lead to the development of cervical cancers that are a significant health burden worldwide. The heparin-like polysaccharides such as dextran sulfate and carrageenan were reported to be able to prevent the binding of HPV to the cell surface. In this study, a 3,6-O-sulfated chitosan (36S) was prepared, and its anti-HPV effects were explored. The results showed that 36S effectively inhibited multiple genital HPV genotypes in different cell lines with low cytotoxicity...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Huijun Li, Yu Jun Tan, Lin Li
A promising approach for improving the interfacial bonding of a three-dimensionally (3D) printed multilayered structure has been investigated by taking advantage of the electrostatic interactions between two hydrogels with oppositely charges. Here, two hydrogels namely gelatin and κ-carrageenan, which are the cationic and anionic hydrogels respectively, are used. It is found that the interfacial bonding strength between these two oppositely charged hydrogels is significantly higher than that of a bilayered gelatin or a bilayered κ-carrageenan...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
A A Aly, A Abou-Okeil, H M Fahmy
A water soluble, non-gel, poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/κ-carrageenan (PVP/KC) hybrid was synthesized by graft copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP) onto κ-carrageenan in an aqueous medium using ammonium persulphate (APS) as an initiator. Factors affecting the polymerization reaction such as ammonium persulfate concentration, reaction temperature and time, liquor to KC ratio (LR) and KC to VP molar ratio were studied. The results obtained revealed that the optimum reaction polymerization conditions to prepare that hybrid with a total conversion of 93...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiangyan Chen, Xia Zhao, Yanyun Gao, Jiaqi Yin, Mingyue Bai, Fahe Wang
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely used in catalysis, photothermal therapy, and targeted drug delivery. Carrageenan oligosaccharide (CAO) derived from marine red algae was used as a reducing and capping agent to obtain AuNPs by an eco-friendly, efficient, and simple synthetic route for the first time. The synthetic conditions of AuNPs were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), and the CAO-AuNPs obtained were demonstrated to be ellipsoidal, stable and crystalline by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
August 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
I D Grice, G L Mariottini
There remains today a critical need for new antiviral agents, particularly in view of the alarming increase in drug resistance and associated issues. The marine environment has been a prolific contributor towards the identification of novel therapeutic agents in the recent few decades. Added to this, glycans (or carbohydrate- or sugar-based compounds) have in very recent decades made outstanding contributions to the development of novel therapeutics. This review brings together these significant facets of modern drug discovery by presenting the reported literature on glycans derived from marine organisms that possess antiviral activity...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Fatima Naaz, M C Preeti Pallavi, Syed Shafi, Naveen Mulakayala, M Shahar Yar, H M Sampath Kumar
To evaluate the role of COX-2 and 5-LOX as dual inhibitors in controlling the cancer cell proliferation, a set of two series having 42 compounds of 1, 2, 3-Tethered Indole-3-glyoxamide derivatives were synthesized by employing click chemistry approach and were also evaluated for their in vitro cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory activities with in vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro anti-proliferative potencies. Among the compounds tested, compounds 11q and 13s displayed excellent inhibition of COX-2 (IC50 0...
July 27, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Shazia Tabasum, Aqdas Noreen, Muhammad Farzam Maqsood, Hijab Umar, Nadia Akram, Zill-I-Huma Nazli, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Khalid Mahmood Zia
Pullulan is a non-ionic, linear, water-soluble and a neutral polysaccharide. It is composed of α-(1,6) repeated maltotriose units via α-(1,4) glycosidic bond having chemical formula (C6 H10 O5 )n . It shows non-immunogenic, non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic properties. It is used in food edible coatings, films, as flocculant, foaming agent and adhesive. It may also be used as a carrier for bioactive compounds and a protective packaging for food and pharmaceutical products. Therefore, it is blended with different polymers such as carrageenan, mucilages, chitosan, cellulose, sodium alginate, starch, polyethyleneimine, whey-protein, polyisopropylacrylamide, histone, jeffamine, polyamidoamine, pemulen, hyaluronic acid, polyvinyl alcohol and caboxymethyl cellulose...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eirini D Tseligka, Komla Sobo, Luc Stoppini, Valeria Cagno, Fabien Abdul, Isabelle Piuz, Pascal Meylan, Song Huang, Samuel Constant, Caroline Tapparel
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease, a mild and self-limited illness that is sometimes associated with severe neurological complications. EV71 neurotropic determinants remain ill-defined to date. We previously identified a mutation in the VP1 capsid protein (L97R) that was acquired over the course of a disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. The mutation was absent in the respiratory tract but was present in the gut (as a mixed population) and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (as a dominant species)...
August 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jazia Sdayria, Ilhem Rjeibi, Anouar Feriani, Sana Ncib, Wided Bouguerra, Najla Hfaiedh, Abdelfattah Elfeki, Mohamed Salah Allagui
Plants provide an alternative source to manage different human disorders due to various metabolites. The aim of this study is to investigate the phytochemical constituents of the methanolic extracts of Euphorbia retusa and to evaluate their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. The phytochemical results obtained by HPLC and by chemical assay reactions have revealed the richness of the methanolic extract of E. retusa in active compounds, in particular polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Wei Xu, Weiping Jin, Yuan Wang, Juan Li, Kunling Huang, Bakht Ramin Shah, Bin Li
In this work the influences of κ -carrageenan (CRG), konjac glucomannan (KGM) and inulin on lysozyme (Ly)'s structure, activity, and their complex phase behavior were investigated through spectroscopy and activity measurement in heated and unheated conditions. It was found that the impact on the structure and activity of Ly was determined by the interactions with polysaccharides. After heat treatment, KGM and CRG improved the stability of complex systems. However, inulin did not have significant impact. Heating process promoted to change the structure of Ly, and the intervention retard following the sequence of CRG > KGM > inulin...
August 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Juliane Cabral Silva, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior, Mariana Gama E Silva, Érica Martins de Lavor, Juliana Mikaelly Dias Soares, Sarah Raquel Gomes de Lima-Saraiva, Tâmara Coimbra Diniz, Rosemairy Luciane Mendes, Edilson Beserra de Alencar Filho, Eliezer Jesus de Lacerda Barreiro, Lídia Moreira Lima, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
Pain and inflammation are complex clinical conditions that are present in a wide variety of disorders. Most drugs used to treat pain and inflammation have potential side effects, which makes it necessary to search for new sources of bioactive molecules. In this paper, we describe the ability of LASSBio-1586, an N-acylhydrazone derivative, to attenuate nociceptive behavior and the inflammatory response in mice. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated through acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced nociception tests...
2018: PloS One
Xiao Cui, Fanqianhui Yu, Yong Xue, Tao Zhang, Lei Ji, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue
In order to widen the application of Alaska Pollock salt-soluble protein and improve the properties of κ-carrageenan (KC), we evaluated whether the electrostatic interaction between KC and hydrolyzed protein (HP) improved the solubility of salt-soluble proteins and assessed acid hydrolysis-induced changes in the viscosity of KC. Moreover, we determined the effects of pH, KC, and HP mixing weight ratio (R, from 1:8 to 8:1) on the properties of mixtures. ζ-Potential results demonstrated that there were electrostatic interactions between KC and HP...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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