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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013542/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-in-the-crosstalk-between-cancer-cells-microenvironment-and-plasticity-a-new-perspective-for-combination-therapy
#1
Emanuela Balestrieri, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Alessandra Gambacurta, Chiara Cipriani, Roberto Bei, Annalucia Serafino, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Claudia Matteucci
Abnormal activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) has been associated with several diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and neurological disorders. In particular, in cancer HERV activity and expression have been specifically associated with tumor aggressiveness and patient outcomes. Cancer cell aggressiveness is intimately linked to the acquisition of peculiar plasticity and heterogeneity based on cell stemness features, as well as on the crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887869/inhibitory-role-of-growth-hormone-in-the-induction-and-progression-phases-of-collagen-induced-arthritis
#2
Ricardo Villares, Gabriel Criado, Yasmina Juarranz, Mercedes Lopez-Santalla, Eva M García-Cuesta, José M Rodríguez-Frade, Javier Leceta, Pilar Lucas, José Luis Pablos, Carlos Martínez-A, Marina I Garin, Rosa P Gomariz, Mario Mellado
Evidence indicates an intimate connection between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated growth hormone (GH) involvement in immune regulation. The GH receptor is expressed by several leukocyte subpopulations, and GH modulates immune cell proliferation and activity. Here, we found that sustained GH expression protected against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA); in GH-transgenic C57BL/6 (GHTg) mice, disease onset was delayed, and its overall severity was decreased...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867655/working-memory-for-linguistic-and-non-linguistic-manual-gestures-evidence-theory-and-application
#3
REVIEW
Mary Rudner
Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778303/the-physiopathologic-interplay-between-stem-cells-and-tissue-niche-in-muscle-regeneration-and-the-role-of-il-6-on-muscle-homeostasis-and-diseases
#4
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558369/uhrf1-epigenetically-orchestrates-smooth-muscle-cell-plasticity-in-arterial-disease
#5
Leonardo Elia, Paolo Kunderfranco, Pierluigi Carullo, Marco Vacchiano, Floriana Maria Farina, Ignacio Fernando Hall, Stefano Mantero, Cristina Panico, Roberto Papait, Gianluigi Condorelli, Manuela Quintavalle
Adult vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) dedifferentiate in response to extracellular cues such as vascular damage and inflammation. Dedifferentiated VSMCs are proliferative, migratory, less contractile, and can contribute to vascular repair as well as to cardiovascular pathologies such as intimal hyperplasia/restenosis in coronary artery and arterial aneurysm. We here demonstrate the role of ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) as an epigenetic master regulator of VSMC plasticity...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547843/what-neurons-tell-themselves-autocrine-signals-play-essential-roles-in-neuronal-development-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Kelsey A Herrmann, Heather T Broihier
Although retrograde neurotrophin signaling has provided an immensely influential paradigm for understanding growth factor signaling in the nervous system, recent studies indicate that growth factors also signal via cell-autonomous, or autocrine, mechanisms. Autocrine signals have been discovered in many neuronal contexts, providing insights into their regulation and function. The growing realization of the importance of cell-autonomous signaling stems from advances in both conditional genetic approaches and in sophisticated analyses of growth factor dynamics, which combine to enable rigorous in vivo dissection of signaling pathways...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#7
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410617/long-term-potentiation-decay-and-poor-long-lasting-memory-process-in-the-wild-rodents-proechimys-from-brazil-s-amazon-rainforest
#8
Marcia J Guimarães Marques, Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, José E Marques-Carneiro, Leonardo B Lopes-Silva, Monica L Andersen, Esper A Cavalheiro, Fulvio A Scorza, Carla A Scorza
Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385543/smooth-muscle-cell-fate-and-plasticity-in-atherosclerosis
#9
Sima Allahverdian, Chiraz Chaabane, Kamel Boukais, Gordon A Francis, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat
Current knowledge suggests that intimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in native atherosclerotic plaque derive mainly from the medial arterial layer. During this process, SMCs undergo complex structural and functional changes giving rise to a broad spectrum of phenotypes. Classically, intimal SMCs are described as dedifferentiated/synthetic SMCs, a phenotype characterized by reduced expression of contractile proteins. Intimal SMCs are considered to have a beneficial role by contributing to the fibrous cap and thereby stabilizing atherosclerotic plaque...
March 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325627/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nervous-system-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Irfan A Qureshi, Mark F Mehler
Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178634/two-distinct-substrate-binding-modes-for-the-normal-and-reverse-prenylation-of-hapalindoles-by-the-prenyltransferase-ambp3
#11
Chin Piow Wong, Takayoshi Awakawa, Yu Nakashima, Takahiro Mori, Qin Zhu, Xinyu Liu, Ikuro Abe
The cyanobacterial prenyltransferase AmbP3 catalyzes the reverse prenylation of the tetracyclic indole alkaloid hapalindole U at its C-2 position. Interestingly, AmbP3 also accepts hapalindole A, a halogenated C-10 epimer of hapalindole U, and catalyzes normal prenylation at its C-2 position. The comparison of the two ternary crystal structures, AmbP3-DMSPP/hapalindole U and AmbP3-DMSPP/hapalindole A, at 1.65-2.00 Å resolution revealed two distinct orientations for the substrate binding that define reverse or normal prenylation...
January 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178461/the-guardian-of-the-genome-p53-regulates-exercise-induced-mitochondrial-plasticity-beyond-organelle-biogenesis
#12
REVIEW
W J Smiles, D M Camera
The Guardian of the Genome p53 has been established as a potent tumour suppressor. However, culminating from seminal findings in rodents more than a decade ago, several studies have demonstrated that p53 is required to maintain basal mitochondrial function [ie, respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis]. Specifically, via its role(s) as a tumour suppressor, p53 intimately surveys cellular DNA damage, in particular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), to ensure that the mitochondrial network is carefully monitored and cell viability is upheld, because aberrant mtDNA damage leads to apoptosis and widespread cellular perturbations...
March 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142108/growth-and-size-control-during-development
#13
REVIEW
Jannik Vollmer, Fernando Casares, Dagmar Iber
The size and shape of organs are characteristic for each species. Even when organisms develop to different sizes due to varying environmental conditions, such as nutrition, organ size follows species-specific rules of proportionality to the rest of the body, a phenomenon referred to as allometry. Therefore, for a given environment, organs stop growth at a predictable size set by the species's genotype. How do organs stop growth? How can related species give rise to organs of strikingly different size? No definitive answer has been given to date...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136202/a-conceptual-framework-for-cell-identity-transitions-in-plants
#14
Idan Efroni
Multicellular organisms develop from a single cell that proliferates to form different cell types with specialized functions. Sixty years ago, Waddington suggested the 'epigenetic landscape' as a useful metaphor for the process. According to this view, cells move through a rugged identity space along genetically encoded trajectories, until arriving at one of the possible final fates. In plants in particular, these trajectories have strong spatial correlates, as cell identity is intimately linked to its relative position within the plant...
April 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121398/protein-phosphatase-2a-and-tau-an-orchestrated-pas-de-deux
#15
REVIEW
Goce Taleski, Estelle Sontag
The neuronal microtubule-associated protein tau serves a critical role in regulating axonal microtubule dynamics to support neuronal and synaptic functions. Furthermore, it contributes to glutamatergic regulation and synaptic plasticity. Emerging evidence also suggests that tau serves as a signaling scaffold. Tau function and subcellular localization are tightly regulated, in part, by the orchestrated interplay between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. Significantly, protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A), encompassing the regulatory PPP2R2A (or Bα) subunit, is a major brain heterotrimeric enzyme and the primary tau Ser/Thr phosphatase in vivo...
April 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992511/plant-mitochondrial-membranes-adding-structure-and-new-functions-to-respiratory-physiology
#16
REVIEW
Markus Schwarzländer, Philippe Fuchs
The membranes of mitochondria are focal points of cellular physiology and respiratory energy transformation. Recent discoveries have started painting a refined picture of plant mitochondrial membranes as platforms in which structure and function have evolved in an interconnected and dynamically regulated manner. Hosting ancillary functions that interact with other mitochondrial properties gives mitochondria the characteristics of multitasking and integrated molecular mega machines. We review recent insights into the makeup and the plasticity of the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, their intimate relationship with respiratory function and regulation, and their properties in mediating solute transport...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880988/the-10-item-standardized-cosmesis-and-health-nasal-outcomes-survey-schnos-for-functional-and-cosmetic-rhinoplasty
#17
Sami P Moubayed, John P A Ioannidis, Mikhail Saltychev, Sam P Most
Importance: Rhinoplasty is a common operation in which shape and function are intimately related, whether the procedure is cosmetic, functional, or combined in nature. There is currently no properly developed and validated patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to evaluate both functional and cosmetic components of rhinoplasty. Objective: To develop, validate, and field test the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS) to evaluate both functional and cosmetic outcomes of rhinoplasty...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864313/toe-to-finger-combined-with-free-flap-transfer-for-primary-one-stage-post-traumatic-reconstruction-of-the-complex-fingerless-hand
#18
Hua Chen, Chaoyin Jiang, Yaozeng Xu, Yangbai Sun
Toe-to-finger transplantation is intimately related to the development of microsurgical free tissue transplantation, which is one of the most important advances in the history of reconstructive surgery. It is also generally acknowledged that a mangled hand with massive tissue loss and amputation of multiple digits presents a challenge for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. In this retrospective study we reviewed 11 cases of primary one-stage post-traumatic reconstruction of complex fingerless hands using a combination of toe-to-finger and free tissue transplantation performed in Shanghai Jiao Tong University affiliated Sixth People's Hospital and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine affiliated Ninth People's Hospital from January 2001 to November 2014...
December 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796260/clinical-grade-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reverse-cognitive-aging-via-improving-synaptic-plasticity-and-endogenous-neurogenesis
#19
Ning Cao, Tuling Liao, Jiajing Liu, Zeng Fan, Quan Zeng, Junnian Zhou, Haiyun Pei, Jiafei Xi, Lijuan He, Lin Chen, Xue Nan, Yali Jia, Wen Yue, Xuetao Pei
Cognitive aging is a leading public health concern with the increasing aging population, but there is still lack of specific interventions directed against it. Recent studies have shown that cognitive function is intimately affected by systemic milieu in aging brain, and improvement of systemic environment in aging brain may be a promising approach for rejuvenating cognitive aging. Here, we sought to study the intervention effects of clinical-grade human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) on cognitive aging in a murine model of aging...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670266/gsk3%C3%AE-and-gsk3%C3%AE-phosphorylate-arc-and-regulate-its-degradation
#20
Agata Gozdz, Oleksii Nikolaienko, Malgorzata Urbanska, Iwona A Cymerman, Ewa Sitkiewicz, Magdalena Blazejczyk, Michal Dadlez, Clive R Bramham, Jacek Jaworski
The selective and neuronal activity-dependent degradation of synaptic proteins appears to be crucial for long-term synaptic plasticity. One such protein is activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), which regulates the synaptic content of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR), excitatory synapse strength and dendritic spine morphology. The levels of Arc protein are tightly regulated, and its removal occurs via proteasome-mediated degradation that requires prior ubiquitination...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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