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intimate plastic

Michael André Fritz, Stefanie Rosa, Adrien Sicard
The primary function of leaves is to provide an interface between plants and their environment for gas exchange, light exposure and thermoregulation. Leaves have, therefore a central contribution to plant fitness by allowing an efficient absorption of sunlight energy through photosynthesis to ensure an optimal growth. Their final geometry will result from a balance between the need to maximize energy uptake while minimizing the damage caused by environmental stresses. This intimate relationship between leaf and its surroundings has led to an enormous diversification in leaf forms...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
June Bryan de la Peña, Zachary T Campbell
RNA-protein interactions permeate biology. Transcription, translation, processing, and mRNA decay all hinge on widespread use of regulatory information decoded by RNA-binding proteins. The final committed step of protein synthesis, translation, is intimately linked to nociceptor excitability. Understanding the factors that control translation is essential as nociceptor plasticity is a hallmark of persistent pain. Here, we review the growing body of evidence for widespread involvement of RNA-binding proteins in pain...
August 2018: Neurobiology of Pain
Louis Nerurkar, Stefan Siebert, Iain B McInnes, Jonathan Cavanagh
The coexistence of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases with depression has long been recognised. Data that illustrate the intimate associations between peripheral and brain immune responses raise the possibility of shared pathophysiological mechanisms. These associations include the negative effects of proinflammatory cytokines on monoaminergic neurotransmission, neurotrophic factors, and measures of synaptic plasticity. The evidence supporting this association is accumulating and includes findings from clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy, indicating that these interventions can provide benefits to mental health independent of improvements in physical disease scores...
October 23, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Behnaz Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Juan Guan, Yiwei Wang, Adam D Martin, Rebecca Dawson, Suzanne M Mithieux, Anthony S Weiss
Damaged corneas can lead to blindness. Due to the worldwide shortage of donor corneas there is a tremendous unmet demand for a robust corneal replacement that supports growth of the major corneal cell types. Commercial artificial corneas comprise plastic polymers that do not adequately support diverse cell growth. We present a new class of protein elastomer-dominated synthetic corneas with attractive performance that intimately couple biologically active tropoelastin to mechanically robust and durable protein silk...
October 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Nico Eisenhauer, Jeff R Powell
Global change alters the composition and functioning of ecosystems by creating novel environmental conditions and thereby selecting for specific traits of organisms. Thus, trait-based approaches are promising tools to more mechanistically understand compositional and functional shifts in ecological communities as well as the dependency of response and effect traits upon global change. Such approaches have been particularly successful for the study of plant communities in terrestrial ecosystems. However, given the intimate linkages between aboveground and belowground compartments as well as the significance of plants as integrating organisms across those compartments, the role of plant traits in affecting soils communities has been understudied...
November 2017: Pedobiologia
Theodore P Rasmussen
Cellular identity is established and maintained by the interplay of cell type-specific transcription factors and epigenetic regulation of the genome. During development in vivo and differentiation in vitro, transitions from one cell type to the next are triggered by cell signaling events culminating in modifications of chromatin that render genes accessible or inaccessible to the transcriptional apparatus. In recent years it has become apparent that cellular identity is plastic, and technological reprogramming methods such as somatic cell nuclear transfer and induced pluripotency can yield reprogrammed cells that have been restored to a state of developmental potency...
September 28, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Emanuela Balestrieri, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Alessandra Gambacurta, Chiara Cipriani, Roberto Bei, Annalucia Serafino, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Claudia Matteucci
Abnormal activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) has been associated with several diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and neurological disorders. In particular, in cancer HERV activity and expression have been specifically associated with tumor aggressiveness and patient outcomes. Cancer cell aggressiveness is intimately linked to the acquisition of peculiar plasticity and heterogeneity based on cell stemness features, as well as on the crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ricardo Villares, Gabriel Criado, Yasmina Juarranz, Mercedes Lopez-Santalla, Eva M García-Cuesta, José M Rodríguez-Frade, Javier Leceta, Pilar Lucas, José Luis Pablos, Carlos Martínez-A, Marina I Garin, Rosa P Gomariz, Mario Mellado
Evidence indicates an intimate connection between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated growth hormone (GH) involvement in immune regulation. The GH receptor is expressed by several leukocyte subpopulations, and GH modulates immune cell proliferation and activity. Here, we found that sustained GH expression protected against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA); in GH-transgenic C57BL/6 (GHTg) mice, disease onset was delayed, and its overall severity was decreased...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mary Rudner
Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Leonardo Elia, Paolo Kunderfranco, Pierluigi Carullo, Marco Vacchiano, Floriana Maria Farina, Ignacio Fernando Hall, Stefano Mantero, Cristina Panico, Roberto Papait, Gianluigi Condorelli, Manuela Quintavalle
Adult vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) dedifferentiate in response to extracellular cues such as vascular damage and inflammation. Dedifferentiated VSMCs are proliferative, migratory, less contractile, and can contribute to vascular repair as well as to cardiovascular pathologies such as intimal hyperplasia/restenosis in coronary artery and arterial aneurysm. We here demonstrate the role of ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) as an epigenetic master regulator of VSMC plasticity...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kelsey A Herrmann, Heather T Broihier
Although retrograde neurotrophin signaling has provided an immensely influential paradigm for understanding growth factor signaling in the nervous system, recent studies indicate that growth factors also signal via cell-autonomous, or autocrine, mechanisms. Autocrine signals have been discovered in many neuronal contexts, providing insights into their regulation and function. The growing realization of the importance of cell-autonomous signaling stems from advances in both conditional genetic approaches and in sophisticated analyses of growth factor dynamics, which combine to enable rigorous in vivo dissection of signaling pathways...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Marcia J Guimarães Marques, Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, José E Marques-Carneiro, Leonardo B Lopes-Silva, Monica L Andersen, Esper A Cavalheiro, Fulvio A Scorza, Carla A Scorza
Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sima Allahverdian, Chiraz Chaabane, Kamel Boukais, Gordon A Francis, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat
Current knowledge suggests that intimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in native atherosclerotic plaque derive mainly from the medial arterial layer. During this process, SMCs undergo complex structural and functional changes giving rise to a broad spectrum of phenotypes. Classically, intimal SMCs are described as dedifferentiated/synthetic SMCs, a phenotype characterized by reduced expression of contractile proteins. Intimal SMCs are considered to have a beneficial role by contributing to the fibrous cap and thereby stabilizing atherosclerotic plaque...
March 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Irfan A Qureshi, Mark F Mehler
Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Chin Piow Wong, Takayoshi Awakawa, Yu Nakashima, Takahiro Mori, Qin Zhu, Xinyu Liu, Ikuro Abe
The cyanobacterial prenyltransferase AmbP3 catalyzes the reverse prenylation of the tetracyclic indole alkaloid hapalindole U at its C-2 position. Interestingly, AmbP3 also accepts hapalindole A, a halogenated C-10 epimer of hapalindole U, and catalyzes normal prenylation at its C-2 position. The comparison of the two ternary crystal structures, AmbP3-DMSPP/hapalindole U and AmbP3-DMSPP/hapalindole A, at 1.65-2.00 Å resolution revealed two distinct orientations for the substrate binding that define reverse or normal prenylation...
January 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
W J Smiles, D M Camera
The Guardian of the Genome p53 has been established as a potent tumour suppressor. However, culminating from seminal findings in rodents more than a decade ago, several studies have demonstrated that p53 is required to maintain basal mitochondrial function [ie, respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis]. Specifically, via its role(s) as a tumour suppressor, p53 intimately surveys cellular DNA damage, in particular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), to ensure that the mitochondrial network is carefully monitored and cell viability is upheld, because aberrant mtDNA damage leads to apoptosis and widespread cellular perturbations...
March 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jannik Vollmer, Fernando Casares, Dagmar Iber
The size and shape of organs are characteristic for each species. Even when organisms develop to different sizes due to varying environmental conditions, such as nutrition, organ size follows species-specific rules of proportionality to the rest of the body, a phenomenon referred to as allometry. Therefore, for a given environment, organs stop growth at a predictable size set by the species's genotype. How do organs stop growth? How can related species give rise to organs of strikingly different size? No definitive answer has been given to date...
November 2017: Open Biology
Idan Efroni
Multicellular organisms develop from a single cell that proliferates to form different cell types with specialized functions. Sixty years ago, Waddington suggested the 'epigenetic landscape' as a useful metaphor for the process. According to this view, cells move through a rugged identity space along genetically encoded trajectories, until arriving at one of the possible final fates. In plants in particular, these trajectories have strong spatial correlates, as cell identity is intimately linked to its relative position within the plant...
April 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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