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Cell AND Therapy

Hamed Ghaffari, Linda R Petzold
BACKGROUND: In the classical pathway of retinoic acid (RA) mediated gene transcription, RA binds to a nuclear hormone receptor dimer composed of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), to induce the expression of its downstream target genes. In addition to nuclear receptors, there are other intracellular RA binding proteins such as cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP1 and CRABP2) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, whose contributions to the RA signaling pathway have not been fully understood...
October 16, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Pier Luigi Zinzani, Armando Santoro, Arturo Chiti, Secondo Lastoria, Antonio Pinto, Lugi Rigacci, Giovanni Barosi, Martina Pennisi, Paolo Corradini
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) blocking antibodies now represent a major advance in the treatment of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) who relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and pre- and/or post-ASCT brentuximab vedotin or after at least three lines of therapy. However, uncertainties still remain on the optimal use of these agents in refractory Hodgkin disease. A panel of experts was convened to produce a consensus document aimed at providing practice recommendations for the optimal use of PD-1 blocking antibodies in cHL, especially on pretreatment selection and evaluation of cHL patients' response and treatment length, management of PD-1 blockade therapy-treated patients, evaluation and management of toxicity...
October 15, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Poonam Parashar, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi, Malti Arya, Jovita Kanoujia, Mahendra Singh, Abhishek Yadav, Amit Kumar, Anupam Guleria, Shubhini A Saraf
Co-therapy through biotin modified nanoparticles (NPs) of gefitinib (Gnb) and naringenin (Nar) was investigated for its therapeutic and synergistic potential against lung cancer. The biotin-conjugated polymeric NPs (bty-Nar/Gnb) were developed using oil in water emulsion technique and optimized using central composite design. The formulations were subjected to various in vitro (A549 cell lines) and in vivo evaluations in urethane-induced lung cancer. Co-administration of Gnb and Nar NPs displayed a significant reduction in tumour volume while restoring the biochemical parameters and serum metabolites to normal levels...
October 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Durai Murugan Muniswami, George Tharion
Study Design: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) from rat olfactory mucosa were cultured, characterized, and transplanted into a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose: To evaluate different doses of OECs in a rat model of SCI. Overview of Literature: SCI causes permanent functional deficit because the central nervous system lacks the ability to perform spontaneous repair. Cell therapy strategies are being explored globally. The clinical use of human embryonic stem cell is hampered by ethical controversies...
October 16, 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Eunah Chung, Jae Myoung Noh, Kyu Chan Lee, Jin Hee Kim, Wonkyu Chung, Yang-Gun Suh, Jung Ae Lee, Ki Ho Seol, Hong Gyun Wu, Yeon Sil Kim, O Kyu Noh, Jae Won Park, Dong Soo Lee, Jihae Lee, Young Suk Kim, Woo-Yoon Park, Min Kyu Kang, Sunmi Jo, Yong Chan Ahn
Purpose: Lung Cancer Subcommittee of Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) has recently launched a prospective clinical trial (KROG 17-06) of hippocampus-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in treating multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. In order to improve trial quality, dummy run studies among the participating institutions were designed. This work reported the results of two-step dummy run study of the KROG 17-06 protocol...
October 15, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Yu Fujita, Tsukasa Kadota, Jun Araya, Takahiro Ochiya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano
It is currently thought that extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, play an important autocrine/paracrine role in intercellular communication. EVs package proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), which have the ability to transfer biological information to recipient cells in the lungs. Depending on their origin, EVs fulfil different functions. EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to promote therapeutic activities that are comparable to MSCs themselves. Recent animal model-based studies suggest that MSC-derived EVs have significant potential as a novel alternative to whole-cell therapies...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Swati Agarwal, Faisal A Alzahrani, Asif Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Throughout history, menopause has been regarded as a transition in a woman's life. With the increase in life expectancy, women now spend more than a third of their lives in menopause. During these years, women may experience intolerable symptoms both physically and mentally, leading them to seek clinical advice. It is imperative for healthcare providers to improve the quality of life by reducing bothersome menopausal symptoms and preventing disorders such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis...
October 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Giuseppe Floresta, Emanuele Amata, Carla Barbaraci, Davide Gentile, Rita Turnaturi, Agostino Marrazzo, Antonio Rescifina
Sigma receptors are a fascinating receptor protein class whose ligands are actually under clinical evaluation for the modulation of opioid analgesia and their use as positron emission tomography radiotracers. In particular, peculiar biological and therapeutic functions are associated with the sigma-2 (σ₂) receptor. The σ ₂ receptor ligands determine tumor cell death through apoptotic and non-apoptotic pathways, and the overexpression of σ ₂ receptors in several tumor cell lines has been well documented, with significantly higher levels in proliferating tumor cells compared to quiescent ones...
October 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Randolph Stone Ii, John T Wall, Shanmugasundaram Natesan, Robert J Christy
In vitro cell culture methods are used extensively to study cellular migration, proliferation, and differentiation, which play major roles in wound healing but the results often do not translate to the in vivo environment. One alternative would be to establish an ex vivo model utilizing human discarded skin to evaluate therapies in a more natural setting. The purpose of this study was to institute such a model by creating 'wounds' in the center of a piece of discarded skin and treating them with three different biomaterials: collagen, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-fibrin, or PEG-platelet free plasma (PFP)...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mariangela Garofalo, Alessandro Villa, Nicoletta Rizzi, Lukasz Kuryk, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Paolo Ciana
Oncolytic viruses (OV) are engineered to infect, replicate in and kill cancer cells. Currently, the OV therapeutic approach is mainly restricted to neoplasia amenable to direct local administration of viral particles, while the possibility of a systemic delivery of cancer-tropic viruses would extend the OV application to the treatment of metastatic neoplasia. Herein, we applied in vivo/ex vivo imaging to demonstrate that cancer tropism is achieved when OV are encapsulated inside extracellular vesicles (EV) administered intravenously (i...
October 13, 2018: Viruses
Bremansu Osa-Andrews, Kee W Tan, Angelina Sampson, Surtaj H Iram
Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) can efflux a wide variety of molecules including toxic chemicals, drugs, and their derivatives out of cells. Substrates of MRP1 include anti-cancer agents, antibiotics, anti-virals, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and many other drugs. To identify novel substrates and modulators of MRP1 by exploiting intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we genetically engineered six different two-color MRP1 proteins by changing green fluorescent protein (GFP) insertion sites, while keeping the red fluorescent protein (RFP) at the C-terminal of MRP1...
October 13, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Muhammad Nawaz, Neelam Shah, Bruna Riedo Zanetti, Marco Maugeri, Renata Nacasaki Silvestre, Farah Fatima, Luciano Neder, Hadi Valadi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane enclosed micro- and nano-sized vesicles that are secreted from almost every species, ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, and from almost every cell type studied so far. EVs contain repertoire of bioactive molecules such as proteins (including enzymes and transcriptional factors), lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids including DNA, coding and non-coding RNAs. The secreted EVs are taken up by neighboring cells where they release their content in recipient cells, or can sail through body fluids to reach distant organs...
October 13, 2018: Cells
Cherie Ann Kruger, Heidi Abrahamse
The cancer incidence world-wide has caused an increase in the demand for effective forms of treatment. One unconventional form of treatment for cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT has 3 fundamental factors, namely a photosensitiser (PS) drug, light and oxygen. When a PS drug is administered to a patient, it can either passively or actively accumulate within a tumour site and once exposed to a specific wavelength of light, it is excited to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in tumour destruction...
October 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Abdulmalik M Alqarni, Valerie A Ferro, John A Parkinson, Mark J Dufton, David G Watson
Melittin, the major active peptide of honeybee venom (BV), has potential for use in adjuvant immunotherapy. The immune system response to different stimuli depends on the secretion of different metabolites from macrophages. One potent stimulus is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component isolated from gram-negative bacteria, which induces the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophage cell cultures. This secretion is amplified when LPS is combined with melittin. In the present study, pure melittin was isolated from whole BV by flash chromatography to obtain pure melittin...
October 13, 2018: Vaccines
Eunice L Lozada-Delgado, Nilmary Grafals-Ruiz, Miguel A Miranda-Román, Yasmarie Santana-Rivera, Fatma Valiyeva, Mónica Rivera-Díaz, María J Marcos-Martínez, Pablo E Vivas-Mejía
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive of all brain tumors, with a median survival of only 14 months after initial diagnosis. Novel therapeutic approaches are an unmet need for GBM treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several dysregulated miRNAs have been identified in all cancer types including GBM. In this study, we aimed to uncover the role of miR-143 in GBM cell lines, patient samples, and mouse models...
October 12, 2018: Cancers
Logan Boles, Christopher Alexander, Leslie Pace, Warren Haggard, Joel Bumgardner, Jessica Jennings
Complex open musculoskeletal wounds are a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, partially due to a high risk of bacterial contamination. Local delivery systems may be used as adjunctive therapies to prevent infection, but they may be nondegradable, possess inadequate wound coverage, or migrate from the wound site. To address this issue, a thermo-responsive, injectable chitosan paste was fabricated by incorporating beta-glycerophosphate. The efficacy of thermo-paste as an adjunctive infection prevention tool was evaluated in terms of cytocompatibility, degradation, antibacterial, injectability, and inflammation properties...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Angelika Terbuch, Jan B Adiprasito, Verena Stiegelbauer, Maximilian Seles, Christiane Klec, Georg P Pichler, Margit Resel, Florian Posch, Anna L Lembeck, Herbert Stöger, Joanna Szkandera, Karl Pummer, Thomas Bauernhofer, Georg C Hutterer, Armin Gerger, Michael Stotz, Martin Pichler
Metastatic testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are a potentially curable disease by administration of risk-adapted cytotoxic chemotherapy. Nevertheless, a disease-relapse after curative chemotherapy needs more intensive salvage chemotherapy and significantly worsens the prognosis of TGCT patients. Circulating tumor markers (β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP), and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)) are frequently used for monitoring disease recurrence in TGCT patients, though they lack diagnostic sensitivity and specificity...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Julia Wanek, Martin Gaisberger, Marlena Beyreis, Christian Mayr, Katharina Helm, Florian Primavesi, Tarkan Jäger, Pietro Di Fazio, Martin Jakab, Andrej Wagner, Daniel Neureiter, Tobias Kiesslich
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in epigenetic mechanisms in health and disease and their dysfunction is implied in several cancer entities. Analysis of expression patterns in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) indicated HDAC5 to be a potential target for future therapies. As a first step towards a possible treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cellular and molecular effects of HDAC5 inhibition in pNET cells. Two pNET cell lines, BON-1 and QGP-1, were incubated with different concentrations of the selective class IIA HDAC inhibitor, LMK-235...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Young-Seon Kim, Yoon-Mi Lee, Taek-In Oh, Dong Hoon Shin, Geon-Hee Kim, Sang-Yeon Kan, Hyeji Kang, Ji Hyung Kim, Byeong Mo Kim, Woo Jong Yim, Ji-Hong Lim
Reduced therapeutic efficacy of sorafenib, a first-generation multikinase inhibitor, is often observed during the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emodin is an active component of Chinese herbs, and is effective against leukemia, lung cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, and HCC; however, the sensitizing effect of emodin on sorafenib-based HCC therapy has not been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that emodin significantly improved the anti-cancer effect of sorafenib in HCC cells, such as HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, SK-HEP-1, and PLC/PRF5...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elaine L Ferguson, Sameza Naseer, Lydia C Powell, Joseph Hardwicke, Fraser I Young, Bangfu Zhu, Qian Liu, Bing Song, David W Thomas
An essential aspect of stem cell in vitro culture and in vivo therapy is achieving sustained levels of growth factors to support stem cell survival and expansion, while maintaining their multipotency and differentiation potential. This study investigated the ability of dextrin (~74,000 g/mol; 27.8 mol% succinoylation) conjugated to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; or FGF-2) (3.9 and 6.7% w/w protein loading, respectively) to support the expansion and differentiation of stem cells in vitro via sustained, controllable growth factor release...
October 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research
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