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anti-obesity drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120753/patients-perspectives-of-oral-and-injectable-type-2-diabetes-medicines-their-body-weight-and-medicine-taking-behavior-in-the-uk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-ethnography
#1
REVIEW
Aikaterini Psarou, Helen Cooper, John P H Wilding
The aim of this review is to identify peoples' perspectives of their glucose-lowering and anti-obesity drugs in relation to diabetes and weight control and to explore how these views affect medication adherence. Theoretical perspectives associated with medicine-taking behavior are also explored. The systematic review was based on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies identified through a search of 12 medical and social science databases and subsequent citation searches. The quality of all studies was assessed...
August 17, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090167/the-effects-of-brassica-juncea-l-leaf-extract-on-obesity-and-lipid-profiles-of-rats-fed-a-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet
#2
Jae-Joon Lee, Hyun A Kim, Joomin Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a global health problem of significant importance which increases mortality. In place of anti-obesity drugs, natural products are being developed as alternative therapeutic materials. In this study, we investigated the effect of Brassica juncea L. leaf extract (BLE) on fat deposition and lipid profiles in high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFC)-induced obese rats. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) according to diet: normal diet group (ND), high-fat/high-cholesterol diet group (HFC), HFC with 3% BLE diet group (HFC-A1), and HFC with 5% BLE diet group (HFC-A2)...
August 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087160/anti-obesity-therapy-from-rainbow-pills-to-polyagonists
#3
REVIEW
T D Müller, C Clemmensen, B Finan, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp
With their ever-growing prevalence, obesity and diabetes represent major health threats of our society. Based on estimations by the World Health Organization, approximately 300 million people will be obese in 2035. In 2015 alone there were more than 1.6 million fatalities attributable to hyperglycemia and diabetes. In addition, treatment of these diseases places an enormous burden on our health care system. As a result, the development of pharmacotherapies to tackle this life-threatening pandemic is of utmost importance...
October 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086613/recent-research-trends-and-updates-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Jeong-Ju Yoo, Won Kim, Moon Young Kim, Dae Won Jun, Sang Gyune Kim, Jong-Eun Yeon, Jin Woo Lee, Yong Kyun Cho, Sang Hoon Park, Joo Hyun Sohn
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), together with metabolic syndrome and obesity, has shown a rapid increase in prevalence worldwide and is emerging as a major cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation. Among the various phenotypes of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is highly likely to progress to development of end-stage liver disease and cardiometabolic disease, resulting in liver-related and non-liver-related mortality. Nonetheless, there is no standardized pharmacotherapy against NASH and many drugs are under development in ongoing clinical trials...
August 8, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073119/medicinal-mushroom-boon-for-therapeutic-applications
#5
REVIEW
Vivek Kumar Chaturvedi, Sonam Agarwal, Krishna Kumar Gupta, Pramod W Ramteke, M P Singh
Medicinal mushrooms are higher fungi with additional nutraceutical attributes having low fat content and a trans-isomer of unsaturated fatty acids along with high fibre content, triterpenes, phenolic compounds, sterols, eritadenine and chitosan. They are considered as the unmatched source of healthy foods and drugs. They have outstanding attractive taste, aroma and nutritional value, so are considered as functional food, which means they are beneficial to the body not only in terms of nutrition but also for improved health...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060570/chemopreventive-effects-of-phytochemicals-and-medicines-on-m1-m2-polarized-macrophage-role-in-inflammation-related-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Yen-Chun Koh, Guliang Yang, Ching-Shu Lai, Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Min-Hsiung Pan
Macrophages can polarize into two different states (M1 and M2), which play contrasting roles during pathogenesis or tissue damage. M1 polarized macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators resulting in inflammation, while M2 macrophages have an anti-inflammatory effect. Secretion of appropriate cytokines and chemokines from macrophages can lead to the modification of the microenvironment for bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Increasing evidence suggests that polarized macrophages are pivotal for disease progression, and the regulation of macrophage polarization may provide a new approach in therapeutic treatment of inflammation-related diseases, including cancer, obesity and metabolic diseases, fibrosis in organs, brain damage and neuron injuries, and colorectal disease...
July 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30052516/evaluation-of-anti-obesity-and-lipid-lowering-properties-of-vaccinium-myrtillus-leaves-powder-extract-in-a-hamster-model
#7
Andriy L Zagayko, Tetiana Ye Kolisnyk, Olena I Chumak, Olena A Ruban, Oleh M Koshovyi
Background Vaccinium myrtillus leaves are known to be rich in phenols and have been used in traditional medicine as an antidiabetic remedy. This study evaluated the powder extract of V. myrtillus leaves obtained with the use of L-arginine and myo-inositol for anti-obesity and lipid-lowering potential in hamsters. Methods Standard phytochemical methods were used to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extract. The obesity condition was induced in Syrian hamsters by feeding them with highly palatable fat- and sugar-rich diet (40...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037869/risk-factors-and-complications-of-lower-limb-cellulitis-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#8
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Clarence Mvalo Mbanga, Celestin Danwang, Valirie Ndip Agbor
OBJECTIVE: To summarise available data on the risk factors, complications and the factors associated with complications of lower limb cellulitis in Africa. METHODS: We did electronic searches on PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and African Journals Online from 1 January 1986 to 30 October 2017, extracted and summarised data on the risk factors, complications and the factors associated with the complications of lower limb cellulitis from eligible literature. RESULTS: A total of seven studies were retained for final review after the search and screening processes...
July 23, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036494/sweet-killing-in-obesity-and-diabetes-the-metabolic-role-of-the-bh3-only-protein-bim
#9
REVIEW
Michela Miani, Bernat Elvira, Esteban N Gurzov
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting more than 400 million individuals and their families worldwide. The major forms of diabetes (types 1 and 2) are characterized by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and, in some cases, loss of β-cell mass causing hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency. The BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only protein BIM has a wide role in apoptosis induction in cells. In this review, we describe the apoptotic mechanisms mediated by BIM activation in β cells in obesity and both forms of diabetes...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014268/centrally-acting-agents-for-obesity-past-present-and-future
#10
REVIEW
Ann A Coulter, Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway
For many years, obesity was believed to be a condition of overeating that could be resolved through counseling and short-term drug treatment. Obesity was not recognized as a chronic disease until 1985 by the scientific community, and 2013 by the medical community. Pharmacotherapy for obesity has advanced remarkably since the first class of drugs, amphetamines, were approved for short-term use. Most amphetamines were removed from the obesity market due to adverse events and potential for addiction, and it became apparent that obesity pharmacotherapies were needed that could safely be administered over the long term...
July 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30011911/overview-on-the-antihypertensive-and-anti-obesity-effects-of-secondary-metabolites-from-seaweeds
#11
REVIEW
Ana M L Seca, Diana C G A Pinto
Hypertension and obesity are two significant factors that contribute to the onset and exacerbation of a cascade of mechanisms including activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems, oxidative stress, release of inflammatory mediators, increase of adipogenesis and thus promotion of systemic dysfunction that leads to clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Seaweeds, in addition to their use as food, are now unanimously acknowledged as an invaluable source of new natural products that may hold noteworthy leads for future drug discovery and development, including in the prevention and/or treatment of the cardiovascular risk factors...
July 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009563/profiling-analysis-reveals-the-potential-contribution-of-peptides-to-human-adipocyte-differentiation
#12
Xingyun Wang, Siliang Xu, Ling Chen, Dan Shen, Yan Cao, Ranran Tang, Xing Wang, Chenbo Ji, Yun Li, Xianwei Cui, Xirong Guo
PURPOSE: Peptide drugs provide promising regimes in anti-obesity treatment. In order to identify potential bioactive peptides involved in adipogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The intracellular peptides between preadipocytes and adipocytes are compared by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The underlying biological function of the identified peptides are evaluated by gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis of their precursors. To find more potential bioactive peptides, 50 peptide sequences are identified located in the functional domains with the use of the SMART and UniProt databases...
July 16, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008375/monoclonal-antibody-targeting-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1c-causes-cardiac-valvulopathy-in-rats
#13
Nicholas Buss, Jean-Martin Lapointe, Lolke de Haan, Sally Price, Andrea Ahnmark, Lorraine Irving, Andrew Buchanan, Feenagh Keyes, Pia Davidsson, Rakesh Dixit, Daniel Lindén
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) have been proposed as potential drug targets for the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the potential toxicity in rats of three anti-FGFR1c mAbs with differential binding activity prior to clinical development. Groups of male rats received weekly injections of either one of two FGFR1c-specific mAbs or an FGFR1c/FGFR4-specific mAb at 10 mg/kg for up to 4 weeks. All three mAbs caused significant reductions in food intake and weight loss leading to some animals being euthanized early for welfare reasons...
July 2, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002410/authentication-of-garcinia-fruits-and-food-supplements-using-dna-barcoding-and-nmr-spectroscopy
#14
Gopalakrishnan Saroja Seethapathy, Margey Tadesse, Santhosh Kumar J Urumarudappa, Srikanth V Gunaga, Ramesh Vasudeva, Karl Egil Malterud, Ramanan Uma Shaanker, Hugo J de Boer, Gudasalamani Ravikanth, Helle Wangensteen
Garcinia L. (Clusiaceae) fruits are a rich source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid, and this has gained considerable attention as an anti-obesity agent and a popular weight loss food supplement. In this study, we assessed adulteration of morphologically similar samples of Garcinia using DNA barcoding, and used NMR to quantify the content of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and (-)-hydroxycitric acid lactone in raw herbal drugs and Garcinia food supplements. DNA barcoding revealed that mostly G. gummi-gutta (previously known as G...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999521/hypothalamic-ampk-and-energy-balance
#15
REVIEW
Miguel López
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the main cellular energy sensor. Activated following a depletion of cellular energy stores, AMPK will restore the energy homoeostasis by increasing energy production and limiting energy waste. At a central level, the AMPK pathway will integrate peripheral signals (mostly hormones and metabolites) through neuronal networks. Hypothalamic AMPK is directly implicated in feeding behaviour, brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). It also participates in other metabolic functions: glucose and muscle metabolisms, as well as hepatic function...
July 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974566/prevalence-of-primary-dysmenorrhea-and-its-relationship-with-body-mass-index
#16
Nazish Rafique, Mona H Al-Sheikh
AIM: To identify the association between primary dysmenorrhea (PD) and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted on 370 female students (aged 18-25 years) of Immam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University Dammam, from March 2016 till March 2017. Pretested dysmenorrhea questionnaire was filled by the students. Weight and heights of the subjects were measured, and BMI was calculated. Based on BMI, subjects were divided into four groups (underweight [UW], normal weight, overweight and obese [OB])...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971000/a-controlled-fermented-samjunghwan-herbal-formula-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-hepatosteatosis-in-hepg2-cells-and-oletf-rats
#17
AbuZar Ansari, Shambhunath Bose, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Na Rae Shin, Dong-Woo Lim, Koh-Woon Kim, Jing-Hua Wang, Young-Mi Kim, Young-Won Chin, Hojun Kim
Hepatosteatosis (HS), a clinical feature of fatty liver with the excessive intracellular accumulation of triglyceride in hepatocytes, is manifested by perturbation of the maintenance of liver lipid homeostasis. Samjunghwan (SJH) is an herbal formula used mostly in Korean traditional medicine that is effective against a number of metabolic diseases, including obesity. Herbal drugs, enriched with numerous bioactive substances, possess health-protective benefits. Meanwhile, fermented herbal products enriched with probiotics are known to improve metabolic processes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967454/cannabinoid-cb-1-receptor-neutral-antagonist-am4113-inhibits-heroin-self-administration-without-depressive-side-effects-in-rats
#18
Xiang-Hu He, Chloe J Jordan, Kiran Vemuri, Guo-Hua Bi, Jia Zhan, Eliot L Gardner, Alexandros Makriyannis, Yan-Lin Wang, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1 Rs) have been shown to be a promising target in medication development for the treatment of addiction. However, clinical trials with SR141716A (rimonabant, a selective CB1 R antagonist/inverse agonist) for the treatment of obesity and smoking cessation failed due to unwanted side effects, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal tendencies. Recent preclinical studies suggest that the neutral CB1 R antagonist AM4113 may retain the therapeutic anti-addictive effects of SR141716A in nicotine self-administration models and possibly has fewer unwanted side effects...
July 2, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959379/the-adiponectin-promoter-activator-np-1-induces-high-levels-of-circulating-tnf%C3%AE-and-weight-loss-in-obese-fa-fa-zucker-rats
#19
Juan Decara, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Patricia Rivera, Rocio Arco, Ana Gavito, Antonio Vargas, Juan A Navarro, Ruben Tovar, Antonio J Lopez-Gambero, Ana Martínez, Juan Suárez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Elena Baixeras
Chronic NP-1 administration reduces body weight and hepatic steatosis despite induction of tolerance in adiponectin gene transcription with respect to the acute actions of this drug. This study explored the hypothesis that NP-1 could exert these effects through mechanisms independent of adiponectin. To this aim, we took advantage of the Zucker (fa/fa) rat model, which exhibits obesity, fatty liver and elevated leptin and adiponectin levels. Body weight and food intake were reduced after chronic NP-1 treatment...
June 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958396/morphological-characteristics-nutrients-and-bioactive-compounds-of-zizania-latifolia-and-health-benefits-of-its-seeds
#20
REVIEW
Ning Yan, Yongmei Du, Xinmin Liu, Cheng Chu, John Shi, Hongbo Zhang, Yanhua Liu, Zhongfeng Zhang
Zizania latifolia (tribe Oryzeae Dum., subfamily Oryzoideae Care, family Gramineae) is native to East Asian countries. The seeds of Z. latifolia (Chinese wild rice) have been consumed as a cereal in China for >3000 years. Z. latifolia forms swollen culms when infected with Ustilago esculenta , which is the second most-cultivated aquatic vegetable in China. The current review summarizes the nutrients and bioactive compounds of Z. latifolia , and health benefits of its seeds. The seeds of Z. latifolia contain proteins, minerals, vitamins, and bioactive compounds, the activities of which—for example, antioxidant activity—have been characterized...
June 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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