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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911830/norovirus-infection-in-older-adults-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-opportunities-for-prevention-and-control
#1
REVIEW
Cristina V Cardemil, Umesh D Parashar, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. In older adults, it is responsible for an estimated 3.7 million illnesses; 320,000 outpatient visits; 69,000 emergency department visits; 39,000 hospitalizations; and 960 deaths annually in the United States. Older adults are particularly at risk for severe outcomes, including prolonged symptoms and death. Long-term care facilities and hospitals are the most common settings for norovirus outbreaks in developed countries. Diagnostic platforms are expanding...
September 12, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910926/-survey-on-a-public-health-emergency-event-caused-by-norovirus
#2
Y Xing, C Jiang, W Y Hua, F Liu, Z Zhao, Y J Ding, L Wang, J Li
Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by norovirus infection in a school in Haidian district, Beijing. Methods: Basic information of the school and data related to patients in the fields survey were collected and analyzed descriptively. Laboratory tests were performed to test the stool and anal swab specimens of both patients and cooks as well as the environmental specimens. Risk factors related to the incidence were analyzed through a case-control study. Results: A total number of 119 patients were identified in the school...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910371/surveillance-of-norovirus-among-children-with-diarrhea-in-four-major-hospitals-in-bhutan-replacement-of-gii-21-by-gii-3-as-a-dominant-genotype
#3
Sonam Wangchuk, Takashi Matsumoto, Hidekatsu Iha, Kamruddin Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Bhutanese children. The etiology of diarrhea is not well known due to the challenges of conducting routine surveillance with Bhutan's modest research facilities. Establishing an etiology is crucial toward generating evidence that will contribute to policy discussions on a diarrheal disease control program. Our previous study, during 2010-2012, revealed that norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of diarrhea among Bhutanese children, and that GII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910089/reduction-of-human-norovirus-gi-gii-and-surrogates-by-peracetic-acid-and-monochloramine-in-municipal-secondary-wastewater-effluent
#4
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Caroline G Coulter, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg Schwab
The objective of this study was to characterize human norovirus (hNoV) GI and GII reductions during disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) and monochloramine in secondary wastewater (WW) and phosphate buffer (PB) as assessed by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Infectivity and RT-qPCR reductions are also presented for surrogate viruses murine norovirus (MNV) and bacteriophage MS2 under identical experimental conditions to aid in interpretation of hNoV molecular data. In WW, RT-qPCR reductions were less than 0...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904188/characterization-of-antigenic-relatedness-between-gii-4-and-gii-17-noroviruses-using-serum-samples-from-norovirus-infected-patients
#5
Ying-Chun Dai, Ming Xia, Qiong Huang, Ming Tan, Lin Qin, Ya-Li Zhuang, Yan Long, Jian-Dong Li, Xi Jiang, Xu-Fu Zhang
A novel GII.17 norovirus variant caused major gastroenteritis epidemics in China in 2014 -2016. To explore the host immune factors in selection of the emergence of this new variant, we characterized its antigenic relatedness with the GII.4 noroviruses that have dominated in China for decades. Through ELISA and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assays using sera from GII.4 and the GII.17 variant-infected patients, respectively, we observed limited cross immune reactivity by the ELISA but little reactivity by the HBGA blocking assay between GII...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902863/identification-of-vaccine-derived-rotavirus-strains-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-japan-2012-2015
#6
Mei Kaneko, Sayaka Takanashi, Aksara Thongprachum, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Koo Nagasawa, Hirokazu Kimura, Shoko Okitsu, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hiroshi Ushijima
Two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been introduced as voluntary vaccination in Japan since 2011 and 2012, respectively. Effectiveness of the vaccines has been confirmed, whereas concerns such as shedding of the vaccine strains and gastroenteritis cases caused by vaccine strains are not well assessed. We aimed to identify the vaccine strains in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to investigate the prevalence of AGE caused by vaccination or horizontal transmission of vaccine strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901254/therapeutics-and-immunoprophylaxis-against-noroviruses-and-rotaviruses
#7
Souvik Ghosh, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses are the primary cause of non-bacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses, so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently completed phase-I and II trials...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898701/target-virus-log10-reduction-values-determined-for-two-reclaimed-wastewater-irrigation-scenarios-in-japan-based-on-tolerable-annual-disease-burden
#8
Toshihiro Ito, Masaaki Kitajima, Tsuyoshi Kato, Satoshi Ishii, Takahiro Segawa, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano
Multiple-barriers are widely employed for managing microbial risks in water reuse, in which different types of wastewater treatment units (biological treatment, disinfection, etc.) and health protection measures (use of personal protective gear, vegetable washing, etc.) are combined to achieve a performance target value of log10 reduction (LR) of viruses. The LR virus target value needs to be calculated based on the data obtained from monitoring the viruses of concern and the water reuse scheme in the context of the countries/regions where water reuse is implemented...
August 26, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890514/attack-rates-of-norovirus-and-campylobacter-food-poisonings-that-cannot-be-represented-by-numeric-constant-but-by-plotting-attack-rate-against-number-of-patients-per-incident-in-cartesian-coordinates
#9
Hiroshi Yoshikura, Fumihiko Takeuchi
 In norovirus and Campylobacter food poisonings, the frequencies of the number of patients per incident and that of the number of eaters per incident followed lognormal distribution, and their respective medians were 12~27 and 23~48 for norovirus food poisoning and 5~8 and 9~21 for Campylobacter food poisoning. The lognormal frequency distribution of eaters could be simulated by assuming that people are attracted more to a dish that has already attracted many. The number of patients per incident and that of eaters per incident were not necessarily inter-correlated; the frequencies of the attack rates (number of patients/number of eaters) were distributed evenly from ~0...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889082/comparison-of-three-multiplex-gastrointestinal-platforms-for-the-detection-of-gastroenteritis-viruses
#10
Preeti Chhabra, Nicole Gregoricus, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Natasha Halasa, James Chappell, Ferdaus Hassan, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, M Leanne Ward, Michael Bowen, Daniel C Payne, Jan Vinjé
BACKGROUND: Viruses are major etiological agents of childhood gastroenteritis. In recent years, several molecular platforms for the detection of viral enteric pathogens have become available. OBJECTIVE/STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the performance of three multiplex platforms including Biofire's Gastrointestinal Panel (FilmArray), Luminex xTAG(®) Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP), and the TaqMan Array Card (TAC) for the detection of five gastroenteritis viruses using a coded panel of 300 archived stool samples...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888451/application-of-gamma-radiation-for-the-reduction-of-norovirus-and-the-quality-stability-in-optimally-ripened-cabbage-kimchi
#11
Shin Young Park, Sang-Do Ha
Optimally ripened commercial cabbage kimchi is considered the main cause of enteric norovirus (NoV) outbreaks in Korea. This study investigated the effect of 1-10kGy gamma radiation on the inactivation of murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1; initial inoculum of 5-6log10PFU/ml), used as a human NoV surrogate, in kimchi. The effects of gamma radiation on the pH and acidity were also examined to address the index of quality and fermentation, respectively. Titers of MNV-1 significantly reduced (p<0.05) in kimchi subjected to increasing gamma radiation doses: MNV-1 titers in kimchi after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10kGy were 4...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887415/inactivation-of-human-norovirus-gi-gii-and-surrogates-by-free-chlorine-in-postharvest-leafy-green-wash-water
#12
Nathan Dunkin, Shih-Chi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
Human noroviruses (hNoVs) are a known public health concern associated with the consumption of leafy green vegetables. While a number of studies have investigated pathogen reduction on the surfaces of leafy greens during the postharvest washing process, there remains a paucity of data on the level of treatment needed to inactivate viruses in the wash water, which is critical for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to quantify the susceptibility of hNoV GI, hNoV GII, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 to free chlorine in whole leaf, chopped romaine, and shredded iceberg lettuce industrial leafy green wash waters, each sampled three times over a 4-month period...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883814/virucidal-influence-of-ionic-liquids-on-phages-p100-and-ms2
#13
Susanne Fister, Patrick Mester, Julia Sommer, Anna K Witte, Roland Kalb, Martin Wagner, Peter Rossmanith
An increasing number of publications describe the potential of ionic liquids (ILs) as novel antimicrobials, antibacterial coatings and even as active pharmaceutical ingredients. Nevertheless, a major research area, notably their impact on viruses, has so far been neglected. Consequently the aim of this study was to examine the effects of ILs on the infectivity of viruses. A systematic analysis to investigate the effects of defined structural elements of ILs on virus activity was performed using 55 ILs. All structure activity relationships (SARs) were tested on the human norovirus surrogate phage MS2 and phage P100 representing non-enveloped DNA viruses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883450/virome-analysis-for-identification-of-novel-mammalian-viruses-in-bats-from-southeast-china
#14
Dan Hu, Changqiang Zhu, Yi Wang, Lele Ai, Lu Yang, Fuqiang Ye, Chenxi Ding, Jiafeng Chen, Biao He, Jin Zhu, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu, Youjun Feng, Weilong Tan, Changjun Wang
Bats have been shown as important mammal resevoirs to carry a variety of zoonotic pathogens. To analyze pathogenic species in bats from southeast coastal regions of China, we performed metagenomic sequencing technology for high throughput sequencing of six sentinels from southeast coastal area of China. We obtained 5,990,261 high quality reads from intestine and lung tissue of 235 bats, including 2,975,371 assembled sequences. 631,490 reads predicted overlapping sequences for the open reading frame (ORF), which accounts for 2...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882643/efficacy-of-ethanol-against-viruses-in-hand-disinfection
#15
REVIEW
Günter Kampf
Ethanol is used worldwide in healthcare facilities for hand rubbing. It has been described to have a stronger and broader virucidal activity compared to propanols. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of virucidal activity of ethanol in solution or as commercially available products. A systematic search was conducted. Studies were selected when they contained original data on reduction of viral infectivity from suspension tests (49 studies) and contaminated hands (17 studies). Ethanol at 80% was highly effective against all tested 21 enveloped viruses within 30s...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882583/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-in-hospitalized-young-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-southern-taiwan-according-to-major-pathogens
#16
Ning Chung, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Fen Shen, Fu-Chun Kuo, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Jung-Jung Mu, Fang-Tzy Wu, Li-Min Huang, Yi-Chuan Huang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsin Chi, Hsiao-Chuan Lin, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) can be caused by a wide array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. A prospective study to investigate the epidemiology and clinical presentation in young children hospitalized with AGE was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. METHODS: Patients aged less than 5 years who was hospitalized due to AGE in National Cheng Kung University Hospital were enrolled from July 2014 to June 2016. The demographic information, clinical features and laboratory data were collected by chart reviews, and stool samples were sent to Centers of Disease Control, Taiwan (Taiwan CDC) for a panel of pathogen identification consisting of two viruses, nine bacteria, and five parasites...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871242/concurrent-detection-of-human-norovirus-and-bacterial-pathogens-in-water-samples-from-an-agricultural-region-in-central-california-coast
#17
Peng Tian, David Yang, Lei Shan, Dapeng Wang, Qianqian Li, Lisa Gorski, Bertram G Lee, Beatriz Quiñones, Michael B Cooley
Bacterial pathogens and human norovirus (HuNoV) are major cause for acute gastroenteritis caused by contaminated food and water. Public waterways can become contaminated from a variety of sources and flood after heavy rain events, leading to pathogen contamination of produce fields. We initiated a survey of several public watersheds in a major leafy green produce production region of the Central California Coast to determine the prevalence of HuNoV as well as bacterial pathogens. Moore swabs were used to collect environmental samples bi-monthly at over 30 sampling sites in the region...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866835/comprehensive-characterization-of-a-major-capsid-protein-derived-from-a-documented-gii-6-norovirus-strain
#18
Lijun Zheng, Wenhui Wang, Jinjin Liu, Yuqi Huo, Chuan Qin, Mingchen Wang, Shuo Shen
In this study, we successfully produced VLPs derived from full-length or chimeric VP1 of a documented GII.6 strain. Trypsin digestion of purified VLPs led to total cleavage of VP1, while the integrity of assembled VLPs was not affected. In vitro VLP-histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding and binding blockade assays indicated that trypsin digestion enhanced the binding of GII.6 VLPs to salivary HBGAs and that this binding could only be blocked by serum produced against a homologous strain. The data regarding the assembly, morphology and binding patterns of GII...
September 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866688/alpha-synuclein-to-the-rescue-immune-cell-recruitment-by-alpha-synuclein-during-gastrointestinal-infection
#19
Viviane Labrie, Patrik Brundin
Intraneuronal accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein in the central and peripheral nervous systems is strongly linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and other related synucleinopathies. In rare inherited forms of PD, point mutations or gene multiplications mediate the formation of alpha-synuclein protein aggregates. However, in most PD cases it is presumed that the combined effects of ageing and environmental factors drive the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates. Despite advances regarding alpha-synuclein pathobiology, the normal functions of this protein and factors that regulate its expression are not well understood...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864657/recovery-optimization-and-survival-of-human-norovirus-surrogates-feline-calicivirus-and-murine-norovirus-on-carpet
#20
David Buckley, Angela Fraser, Guohui Huang, Xiuping Jiang
Carpet been attributed to prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, then developed a mini-spin column elution method (MSC), and lastly characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under 30 and 70% relative humidity (RH) on two types of carpet and one glass surface...
September 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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