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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087593/norovirus-mediated-modification-of-the-translational-landscape-via-virus-and-host-induced-cleavage-of-translation-initiation-factors
#1
Edward Emmott, Frederic Sorgeloos, Sarah L Caddy, Surender Vashist, Stanislav Sosnovtsev, Richard Lloyd, Kate Heesom, Nicolas Locker, Ian Goodfellow
Noroviruses produce viral RNAs lacking a 5' cap structure and instead use a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to viral RNA to interact with translation initiation factors and drive viral protein synthesis. Norovirus infection results in the induction of the innate response leading to interferon stimulated gene (ISG) transcription. However the translation of the induced ISG mRNAs is suppressed. A SILAC-based mass spectrometry approach was employed to analyse changes to protein abundance in both whole cell and m7GTP-enriched samples to demonstrate that diminished host mRNA translation correlates with changes to the composition of the eukaryotic initiation factor complex...
January 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077655/expression-of-ifnlr1-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-critical-to-the-antiviral-effects-of-ifn-lambda-against-norovirus-and-reovirus
#2
Megan T Baldridge, Sanghyun Lee, Judy J Brown, Nicole McAllister, Kelly Urbanek, Terence S Dermody, Timothy J Nice, Herbert W Virgin
: Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) has potent antiviral effects against multiple enteric viral pathogens, including norovirus and rotavirus, in both preventing and curing infection. Because the intestine includes a diverse array of cell types, however, the cell(s) upon which IFN-λ acts to exert its antiviral effects are unclear. Here, we sought to identify IFN-λ responsive cells by generation of mice with lineage-specific deletion of the receptor for IFN-λ, Ifnlr1 We found that expression of IFNLR1 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the small intestine and colon is required for enteric IFN-λ antiviral activity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073745/norovirus-infections-in-england-hit-highest-rate-for-five-years
#3
Susan Mayor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067278/development-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-detection-of-epidemic-human-noroviruses
#4
Matthew D Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus is a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Rapid detection could facilitate control, however widespread point-of-care testing is infrequently done due to the lack of robust and portable methods. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal method which rapidly amplifies and detects nucleic acids using a simple device in near real-time. An RT-RPA assay targeting a recent epidemic human norovirus strain (GII.4 New Orleans) was developed and evaluated in this study...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063001/comparison-of-xpert-norovirus-and-ridagene-norovirus-assays-for-the-detection-of-noroviruses-in-clinical-fecal-specimens
#5
E Aho-Laukkanen, J J Hirvonen, K Saha
The purpose of this study was to investigate the usability and performance of the Xpert Norovirus and RidaGene Norovirus assays for the detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens. Of the 186 stool specimens, 53 (28.5%) were considered true-positive for norovirus (NoV). Of the true-positive specimens, Xpert detected 53 and RidaGene detected 52. The respective sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 94.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 91.0-98.5%] for the Xpert assay, and 98.1% (95% CI, 94.4-100%) and 97.0% (95% CI, 94...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057113/-monitoring-and-research-on-pathogen-spectrum-in-patients-with-acute-diarrhea-from-sentinel-hospital-of-zhejiang-province-during-2009-to-2014
#6
S F Zheng, F Yu, X Chen, D W Cui, X Z Yang, G L Xie, Y Y Wang, J X Yu, Z J Li, Y Chen
Objective: To explore pathogen spectrum constitution of acute diarrhea in outpatient and emergency of Zhejiang Province, and provide basis for treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Methods: During January 2009 to December 2014, we selected seven sentinel hospitals in different regions of Zhejiang, monitored and researched on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from outpatient and emergency. We recorded patients' personal basic information, the main symptoms and signs, and collected stool samples (5 g)...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056784/t-recs-rapid-and-large-scale-detection-of-recombination-events-among-different-evolutionary-lineages-of-viral-genomes
#7
Michail Tsimpidis, Georgios Bachoumis, Kalliopi Mimouli, Zaharoula Kyriakopoulou, David L Robertson, Panayotis Markoulatos, Grigoris D Amoutzias
BACKGROUND: Many computational tools that detect recombination in viruses are not adapted for the ongoing genomic revolution. A computational tool is needed, that will rapidly scan hundreds/thousands of genomes or sequence fragments and detect candidate recombination events that may later be further analyzed with more sensitive and specialized methods. RESULTS: T-RECs, a Windows based graphical tool, employs pairwise alignment of sliding windows and can perform (i) genotyping, (ii) clustering of new genomes, (iii) detect recent recombination events among different evolutionary lineages, (iv) manual inspection of detected recombination events by similarity plots and (v) annotation of genomic regions...
January 5, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056773/transcriptomic-analysis-of-human-norovirus-ns1-2-protein-highlights-a-multifunctional-role-in-murine-monocytes
#8
Zabeen Lateef, Gregory Gimenez, Estelle S Baker, Vernon K Ward
BACKGROUND: The GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain of human norovirus (HuNoV) is a pandemic strain that is responsible for the majority of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings. The function of the non-structural (NS)1-2 protein from HuNoV is unknown. RESULTS: In silico analysis of human norovirus NS1-2 protein showed that it shares features with the murine NS1-2 protein, including a disordered region, a transmembrane domain and H-box and NC sequence motifs. The proteins also contain caspase cleavage and phosphorylation sites, indicating that processing and phosphorylation may be a conserved feature of norovirus NS1-2 proteins...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056379/capturing-norovirus-transmission
#9
REVIEW
M de Graaf, Nele Villabruna, Marion Pg Koopmans
Human norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and is efficiently transmitted between humans and around the globe. The burden of norovirus infections in the global community and in health-care settings warrant the availability of outbreak prevention strategies and control measures that are tailored to the pathogen, outbreak setting and population at risk. A better understanding of viral and host determinants of transmission would aid in developing and fine-tuning such efforts. Here, we describe mechanisms of transmission, available model systems for studying norovirus transmission and their strengths and weaknesses as well as future research strategies...
January 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054332/prevalence-of-foodborne-viruses-in-mussels-in-southern-italy
#10
Giovanna Fusco, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Barbara Cioffi, Giovanni Ianiro, Pierpaolo Palermo, Marina Monini, Maria Grazia Amoroso
In this study, the prevalence of various enteric viruses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) belonging to class A and class B mollusc-harvesting areas in the Campania region in southern Italy was evaluated. One hundred and eight mussels were analysed using real-time reverse transcription PCR during a 2-year collection period (2014-2015) to detect the following viruses: human norovirus (genogroups I and II), rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, aichivirus, hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus...
January 4, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052549/adsorption-of-norovirus-and-ostreid-herpesvirus-type-1-to-polymer-membranes-for-the-development-of-passive-samplers
#11
Françoise Vincent-Hubert, Benjamin Morga, Tristan Renault, Françoise S Le Guyader
AIMS: This study was performed to develop passive sampling methodology for the detection of two viruses in seawater in the area of shellfish production, The Norovirus (NoV), a human pathogen implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks linked to oyster consumption and the ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) a virus associated with mass mortalities of Pacific oysters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Commercially membranes were tested for their capacity to adsorb virus: Zetapor, gauze, nylon, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049885/murine-norovirus-infection-in-brazilian-animal-facilities
#12
Daniele Masselli Rodrigues, Josélia Cristina de Oliveira Moreira, Marcelo Lancellotti, Rovilson Gilioli, Marcus Alexandre Finzi Corat
Murine norovirus (MNV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the Caliciviridae family. MNV has been reported to infect laboratory mice with the ability to cause lethal infections in strains lacking components of the innate immune response. Currently, MNV is considered the most prevalent infectious agent detected in laboratory mouse facilities. In this study, mice in 22 laboratory animal facilities within Brazil were analyzed for MNV infection. Using primers targeting a conserved region of the viral capsid, MNV was detected by RT-PCR in 137 of 359 mice from all 22 facilities...
December 29, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046108/norovirus-and-sapovirus-epidemiology-and-strain-characteristics-among-navajo-and-apache-infants
#13
Lindsay R Grant, Katherine L O'Brien, Robert C Weatherholtz, Raymond Reid, Novalene Goklish, Mathuram Santosham, Umesh Parashar, Jan Vinjé
Norovirus and sapovirus are important causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among American Indian infants. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of norovirus and sapovirus in American Indian infants who have historically experienced a high burden of AGE compared to other US populations. Stool samples were collected from 241 children with AGE (cases) and from 343 infants without AGE (controls) ≤9 months of age from 2002-2004. Cases experienced forceful vomiting and/or 3 or more watery or looser-than-normal stools in 24 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044439/hs-afm-and-sers-analysis-of-murine-norovirus-infection-involvement-of-the-lipid-rafts
#14
Ece N Aybeke, Gaël Belliot, Stéphanie Lemaire-Ewing, Marie Estienney, Yvon Lacroute, Pierre Pothier, Eric Bourillot, Eric Lesniewska
Studies on human norovirus are severely hampered by the absence of a cell culture system until the discovery of murine norovirus (MNV). The cell membrane domains called lipid rafts have been defined as a port of entry for viruses. This study is conducted to investigate murine norovirus binding on the mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line. Lipid raft related structures are extracted from cells by detergent treatment resulting detergent-resistant membrane (DRMs) domains. The real-time polymerase chain reaction technique is performed to detect the viral genome, thereby the MNV binding on the DRMs...
January 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041960/structure-s-function-s-and-inhibition-of-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-of-noroviruses
#15
REVIEW
Jerome Deval, Zhinan Jin, Ying-Chih Chuang, C Cheng Kao
Noroviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family of single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. The genus Norovirus includes seven genogroups (designated GI-GVII), of which GI, GII and GIV infect humans. Human noroviruses are responsible for widespread outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and represent one of the most common causes of foodborne illness. No vaccine or antiviral treatment options are available for norovirus infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of noroviruses is a key enzyme responsible for transcription and replication of the viral genome...
December 29, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040848/new-proof-of-concept-in-viral-inactivation-virucidal-efficacy-of-405%C3%A2-nm-light-against-feline-calicivirus-as-a-model-for-norovirus-decontamination
#16
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Elizabeth Graham, Michael McDonald, Chintamani D Atreya, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
The requirement for novel decontamination technologies for use in hospitals is ever present. One such system uses 405 nm visible light to inactivate microorganisms via ROS-generated oxidative damage. Although effective for bacterial and fungal inactivation, little is known about the virucidal effects of 405 nm light. Norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks often occur in the clinical setting, and this study was designed to investigate potential inactivation effects of 405 nm light on the NoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV)...
December 31, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040514/the-development-of-a-multiplex-real-time-rt-pcr-for-the-detection-of-adenovirus-astrovirus-rotavirus-and-sapovirus-from-stool-samples
#17
Susan Bennett, Rory N Gunson
Viral gastroenteritis is a major health problem with significant morbidity and economic consequences. Viral gastroenteritis is caused by a number of viruses, including norovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus. Conventional diagnosis is based on direct antigen detection and electron microscopy, however enzyme immunoassay's are insensitive and not available for all relevant pathogens, and electron microscope (EM) is no longer routinely carried out in most laboratories. Most laboratories now offer norovirus real-time PCR testing however the availability of other assays is variable...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040178/blueberry-proanthocyanidins-against-human-norovirus-surrogates-in-model-foods-and-under-simulated-gastric-conditions
#18
Snehal Joshi, Amy B Howell, Doris H D'Souza
Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040176/rapid-and-sensitive-method-to-assess-human-viral-pollution-in-shellfish-using-infectious-f-specific-rna-bacteriophages-application-to-marketed-products
#19
Cédric Hartard, Sandrine Banas, Romain Rivet, Nicolas Boudaud, Christophe Gantzer
F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH) have been used as indicators of environmental fecal pollution for many years. While FRNAPH subgroup I (FRNAPH-I) are not host specific, some FRNAPH-II and -III strains appear specific to human pollution. Because a close relationship has been observed between FRNAPH-II genome and human norovirus (NoV) in shellfish, and because FRNAPH infectivity can easily be investigated unlike that of NoV, the detection of human infectious FRNAPH could therefore provide a valuable tool for assessing viral risk...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040173/application-of-low-frequency-pulsed-ohmic-heating-for-inactivation-of-foodborne-pathogens-and-ms-2-phage-in-buffered-peptone-water-and-tomato-juice
#20
Sang-Soon Kim, Won Choi, Dong-Hyun Kang
The purpose of this study was to inactivate foodborne pathogens effectively by ohmic heating in buffered peptone water and tomato juice without causing electrode corrosion and quality degradation. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were used as representative foodborne pathogens and MS-2 phage was used as a norovirus surrogate. Buffered peptone water and tomato juice inoculated with pathogens were treated with pulsed ohmic heating at different frequencies (0.06-1 kHz)...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
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