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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793207/infectivity-reduction-efficacy-of-uv-irradiation-and-peracetic-acid-uv-combined-treatment-on-ms2-bacteriophage-and-murine-norovirus-in-secondary-wastewater-effluent
#1
ShihChi Weng, Nathan Dunkin, Kellogg J Schwab, James McQuarrie, Kati Bell, Joseph G Jacangelo
Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong oxidant/bactericide that has been applied in various industries (e.g., food processing, pharmaceuticals, medical device sterilization, etc.) as a disinfectant. There is increasing interest in using PAA for wastewater disinfection because it does not form halogenated byproducts, and no post-treatment quenching is required. Previous studies have demonstrated good efficiency in controlling bacteria in wastewater, but limited information is available for viruses, especially those hosted by mammals (e...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789565/the-wide-utility-of-rabbits-as-models-of-human-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Lbachir BenMohamed, Yuxing Chen, Neil Christensen, Javier González-Gallego, Lorenzo Giacani, Jiafen Hu, Gilla Kaplan, Oliver T Keppler, Katherine L Knight, Xiang-Peng Kong, Dennis K Lanning, Jacques Le Pendu, Ana Lemos de Matos, Jia Liu, Shuying Liu, Ana M Lopes, Shan Lu, Sheila Lukehart, Yukari C Manabe, Fabiana Neves, Grant McFadden, Ruimin Pan, Xuwen Peng, Patricia de Sousa-Pereira, Ana Pinheiro, Masmudur Rahman, Natalie Ruvoën-Clouet, Selvakumar Subbian, Maria Jesús Tuñón, Wessel van der Loo, Michael Vaine, Laura E Via, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage
Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases...
May 22, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789360/bat-caliciviruses-and-human-noroviruses-are-antigenically-similar-and-have-overlapping-histo-blood-group-antigen-binding-profiles
#3
Jacob F Kocher, Lisa C Lindesmith, Kari Debbink, Anne Beall, Michael L Mallory, Boyd L Yount, Rachel L Graham, Jeremy Huynh, J Edward Gates, Eric F Donaldson, Ralph S Baric
Emerging zoonotic viral diseases remain a challenge to global public health. Recent surveillance studies have implicated bats as potential reservoirs for a number of viral pathogens, including coronaviruses and Ebola viruses. Caliciviridae represent a major viral family contributing to emerging diseases in both human and animal populations and have been recently identified in bats. In this study, we blended metagenomics, phylogenetics, homology modeling, and in vitro assays to characterize two novel bat calicivirus (BtCalV) capsid sequences, corresponding to strain BtCalV/A10/USA/2009, identified in Perimyotis subflavus near Little Orleans, MD, and bat norovirus...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788403/evaluating-previous-antibiotic-use-as-a-risk-factor-for-acute-gastroenteritis-among-children-in-davidson-county-tennessee-2014-2015
#4
Jonathan M Kolsin, Benjamin A Lopman, Daniel C Payne, Mary E Wikswo, John R Dunn, Natasha B Halasa, Aron J Hall
Background: Epidemiologic studies that evaluate the relationship between previous antibiotic use and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the pediatric population are currently lacking. Methods: We analyzed inpatient and outpatient children with AGE and healthy controls from Vanderbilt University Medical Center between December 1, 2014, and November 30, 2015. The following 4 outcome groups were defined: overall AGE, norovirus-associated AGE, rotavirus-associated AGE, and nonnorovirus/nonrotavirus AGE...
May 19, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781755/more-robust-gut-immune-responses-induced-by-combining-intranasal-and-sublingual-routes-for-prime-boost-immunization
#5
Hye Suk Hwang, Sao Puth, Wenzhi Tan, Vivek Verma, Kwangjoon Jeong, Shee Eun Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee
Norovirus causes acute and debilitating gastroenteritis, characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. We recently reported a recombinant GII. 4 P domain particle (Pd) vaccine adjuvanted with a flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, effectively promoting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the previous study, we found that sublingual (SL) immunization induced higher fecal secretory IgA (SIgA) responses while intranasal (IN) route provided higher amplitude of humoral and cellular immune responses in the systemic compartment...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781418/waterborne-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-on-the-kwazulu-natal-coast-south-africa-december-2016-january-2017
#6
P G Sekwadi, K G Ravhuhali, A Mosam, V Essel, G M Ntshoe, A M Shonhiwa, K McCarthy, J Mans, M B Taylor, N A Page, N Govender
An unexpected increase in gastroenteritis cases was reported by healthcare workers on the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa, January 2017 with >600 cases seen over a 3-week period. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the outbreak so as to recommend control and prevention measures. Record review identified cases and controls and structured-telephonic interviews were conducted to obtain exposure history. Stool specimens were collected from 20 cases along with environmental samples and both screened for enteric pathogens...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779977/synthesis-and-antiviral-evaluation-of-novel-peptidomimetics-as-norovirus-protease-inhibitors
#7
Franck Amblard, Shaoman Zhou, Peng Liu, Jack Yoon, Bryan Cox, Kendall Muzzarelli, Benjamin D Kuiper, Ladislau C Kovari, Raymond F Schinazi
A series of tripeptidyl transition state inhibitors with new P1 and warhead moieties were synthesized and evaluated in a GI-1 norovirus replicon system and against GII-4 and GI-1 norovirus proteases. Compound 19, containing a 6-membered ring at the P1 position and a reactive aldehyde warhead exhibited sub-micromolar replicon inhibition. Retaining the same peptidyl scaffold, several reactive warheads were tested for protease inhibition and norovirus replicon inhibition. Of the six that were synthesized and tested, compounds 42, 43, and 45 potently inhibited the protease in biochemical assay and GI-1 norovirus replicon in the nanomolar range...
May 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779487/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-a-gii-4-norovirus-protease
#8
Benjamin D Kuiper, Bradley J Keusch, Joshua Holcomb, Kendall M Muzzarelli, Franck Amblard, Peng Liu, Shaoman Zhou, Iulia A Kovari, Zhe Yang, Raymond F Schinazi, Ladislau C Kovari
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus proteases, which are responsible for cleavage of the viral polyprotein, have become an attractive drug target to treat norovirus infections. Genogroup II (GII) noroviruses are responsible for a majority of outbreaks; however, limited data exist regarding GII norovirus proteases. METHOD: The Minerva virus protease (MVpro), a genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) norovirus protease was expressed in E...
May 20, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778437/state-level-adoption-of-national-guidelines-for-norovirus-outbreaks-in-health-care-settings
#9
Carl J Grafe, Catherine J Staes, Kensaku Kawamoto, Matthew H Samore, R Scott Evans
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can help investigators use best practices when responding to outbreaks, but variation in guidelines between jurisdictions can make such systems hard to develop and implement. This study aimed to identify (1) the extent to which state-level guidelines adhere to national recommendations for norovirus outbreak response in health care settings and (2) the impact of variation between states on outbreak outcomes. METHODS: State guidelines were obtained from Internet searches and direct contact with state public health officials in early 2016...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772486/quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-of-microbial-source-tracking-markers-in-recreational-water-contaminated-with-fresh-untreated-and-secondary-treated-sewage
#10
Warish Ahmed, Kerry A Hamilton, Aldo Lobos, Bridie Hughes, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Valerie J Harwood
Microbial source tracking (MST) methods have provided the means to identify sewage contamination in recreational waters, but the risk associated with elevated levels of MST targets such as sewage-associated Bacteroides HF183 and other markers is uncertain. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) modeling allows interpretation of MST data in the context of the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness caused by exposure to known reference pathogens. In this study, five sewage-associated, quantitative PCR (qPCR) MST markers [Bacteroides HF183 (HF183), Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH (nifH), human adenovirus (HAdV), human polyomavirus (HPyV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)] were evaluated to determine at what concentration these nucleic acid markers reflected a significant health risk from exposure to fresh untreated or secondary treated sewage in beach water...
May 14, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772466/research-on-the-contamination-levels-of-norovirus-in-food-facilities-using-groundwater-in-south-korea-2015-2016
#11
Jeong Su Lee, In Sun Joo, Si Yeon Ju, Min Hee Jeong, Yun-Hee Song, Hyo Sun Kwak
Norovirus (NoV) is a major pathogenic virus that is responsible for foodborne and waterborne gastroenteritis outbreaks. Groundwater is an important source of drinking water and is used in agriculture and food manufacturing processes. This study investigated norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems at 1360 sites in seven metropolitan areas and nine provinces in 2015-2016. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, and turbidity content were assessed to analyze the water quality. In 2015, six sites were positive for the presence of NoV (0...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761411/detection-of-pathogenic-viruses-in-the-ambient-air-in-seoul-korea
#12
Tae-Hee Han, Sang-Hun Park, Ju-Young Chung, Hyo-Won Jeong, Jihun Jung, Jae-In Lee, Young-Ok Hwang, Il-Young Kim, Jip-Ho Lee, Kweon Jung
The possible transport of pathogenic microorganisms during Asian dust events could be an important concern for health workers; however, this is still uncertain owing to a lack of supporting evidence. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in air samples collected during the Asian and non-Asian dust periods. Between March and September 2016, air samples were collected at three weather observation stations in Seoul using a high-volume air sampler. Multiplex PCR was performed using the Allplex™ respiratory and gastrointestinal panel assay kits to detect 46 microorganisms...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761329/bactericidal-and-virucidal-activity-of-povidone-iodine-and-chlorhexidine-gluconate-cleansers-in-an-in-vivo-hand-hygiene-clinical-simulation-study
#13
Maren Eggers, Torsten Koburger-Janssen, Lois S Ward, Craig Newby, Stefan Müller
INTRODUCTION: Standard in vitro and in vivo tests help demonstrate efficacy of hand hygiene products; however, there is no standard in vivo test method for viruses. We investigated the bactericidal and virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) 7.5% scalp and skin cleanser, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) 4% hand cleanser and the reference hand wash (soft soap) in 15 healthy volunteers following European Standard EN1499 (hygienic hand wash test method for bacteria), which was adapted for virucidal testing...
May 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758423/tracking-enteric-viruses-in-green-vegetables-from-central-argentina-potential-association-with-viral-contamination-of-irrigation-waters
#14
V E Prez, L C Martínez, M Victoria, M O Giordano, G Masachessi, V E Ré, J V Pavan, R Colina, P A Barril, S V Nates
Consumption of green vegetable products is commonly viewed as a potential risk factor for infection with enteric viruses. The link between vegetable crops and fecally contaminated irrigation water establishes an environmental scenario that can result in a risk to human health. The aim of this work was to analyze the enteric viral quality in leafy green vegetables from Córdoba (Argentina) and its potential association with viral contamination of irrigation waters. During July-December 2012, vegetables were collected from peri-urban green farms (n = 19) and its corresponding urban river irrigation waters (n = 12)...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755444/microfluidic-pcr-amplification-and-miseq-amplicon-sequencing-techniques-for-high-throughput-detection-and-genotyping-of-human-pathogenic-rna-viruses-in-human-feces-sewage-and-oysters
#15
Mamoru Oshiki, Takayuki Miura, Shinobu Kazama, Takahiro Segawa, Satoshi Ishii, Masashi Hatamoto, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kengo Kubota, Akinori Iguchi, Tadashi Tagawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Shigeki Uemura, Hideki Harada, Naohiro Kobayashi, Nobuo Araki, Daisuke Sano
Detection and genotyping of pathogenic RNA viruses in human and environmental samples are useful for monitoring the circulation and prevalence of these pathogens, whereas a conventional PCR assay followed by Sanger sequencing is time-consuming and laborious. The present study aimed to develop a high-throughput detection-and-genotyping tool for 11 human RNA viruses [Aichi virus; astrovirus; enterovirus; norovirus genogroup I (GI), GII, and GIV; hepatitis A virus; hepatitis E virus; rotavirus; sapovirus; and human parechovirus] using a microfluidic device and next-generation sequencer...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754860/norovirus-glycans-and-attachment
#16
REVIEW
Stefan Taube, Alvaro Mallagaray, Thomas Peters
Noroviruses engage glycans as essential attachment factors to promote infection of host cells. The past decade has witnessed significant progress in the field of norovirus research. Cell culture systems and animal models have become available, and structural biology and biophysics have significantly expanded our understanding of norovirus-glycan interactions. From crystallography, many high-resolution crystal structures are now available disclosing key elements of glycan recognition at atomic resolution. On this basis, NMR spectroscopy, native mass spectrometry, and biophysical techniques targeting membrane attached glycans have raised more intricate questions about the nature of norovirus-glycan attachment implying that a static picture of glycan recognition is insufficient...
May 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753903/detection-of-nineteen-enteric-viruses-in-raw-sewage-in-japan
#17
Aksara Thongprachum, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Sayaka Takanashi, Hiroyuki Saito, Shoko Okitsu, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Pattara Khamrin, Niwat Maneekarn, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
One-year surveillance for enteric viruses in raw sewage was conducted in Kansai area, central part of Japan from July 2015 to June 2016. The raw sewage was collected monthly from an inlet polluted pool and was concentrated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. Twelve sewage samples were screened for nineteen kinds of enteric viruses by using RT-PCR method and further analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. Twelve enteric viruses were found in the investigative sewage samples. Rotavirus A and norovirus GI and GII with several genotypes were detected all year round...
May 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753791/obstructive-lymphangitis-precedes-colitis-in-murine-norovirus-infected-stat1-deficient-mice
#18
Audrey Seamons, Piper M Treuting, Stacey Meeker, Charlie Hsu, Jisun Paik, Thea Brabb, Sabine S Escobar, Jonathan S Alexander, Aaron Ericsson, Jason G Smith, Lillian Maggio-Price
Murine norovirus (MNV) is an RNA virus that can prove lethal in mice with impaired innate immunity. We found that MNV-4 infection of Stat1-/- mice was not lethal, but produced a 100% penetrant, previously undescribed lymphatic phenotype characterized by chronic-active lymphangitis with hepatitis, splenitis, and chronic cecal and colonic inflammation. Lesion pathogenesis progressed from early ileal enteritis and regional dilated lymphatics to lymphangitis, granulomatous changes in the liver and spleen, and ultimately, typhlocolitis...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753657/irf-1-rig-i-and-mda5-display-potent-antiviral-activities-against-norovirus-coordinately-induced-by-different-types-of-interferons
#19
Wen Dang, Lei Xu, Yuebang Yin, Sunrui Chen, Wenshi Wang, Mohamad S Hakim, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Norovirus represents the main cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In immunocompromised patients, it bears high risk of causing chronic infection with significant morbidity and mortality. The lack of specific treatment prompts the development of anti-norovirus agents. In this study, we have investigated the role of interferon (IFN) response and evaluated antiviral activities of different IFNs against human norovirus (HuNoV) replication using a HuNoV replicon model. We found that HuNoV RNA replication was sensitive to all types of IFNs, including IFNα (type I), IFNγ (type II), IFNλ1 and 3 (type III)...
May 10, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751628/the-double-face-of-mucin-type-o-glycans-in-lectin-mediated-infection-and-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Vasily Morozov, Julia Borkowski, Franz-Georg Hanisch
Epithelial human blood group antigens (HBGAs) on O-glycans play roles in pathogen binding and the initiation of infection, while similar structures on secretory mucins exert protective functions. These double-faced features of O-glycans in infection and innate immunity are reviewed based on two instructive examples of bacterial and viral pathogens. Helicobacter pylori represents a class 1 carcinogen in the human stomach. By expressing blood group antigen-binding adhesin ( BabA ) and LabA adhesins that bind to Lewis-b and LacdiNAc, respectively, H...
May 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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