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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902379/genetic-characterization-of-emergent-gii-17-norovirus-variants-from-2013-to-2015-in-nanjing-china
#1
Xuan Wang, Xuefei Du, Wei Yong, Mengkai Qiao, Min He, Limin Shi, Baofu Guo, Lei Hong, Yun Jiang, Guoxiang Xie, Jie Ding
During the 2014/15 winter season, a newly emergent GII.P17-GII.17 variant overwhelmed currently dominant GII.4 viruses, causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in China and Japan. In Nanjing area, this novel GII.17 variant was first identified in a sporadic case of acute gastroenteritis in July 2013, 18 months ahead of reports from other parts of China. In this study, epidemiological features and genotyping of noroviruses from 2013 to 2015 were depicted. Twenty-eight local GII.17 sequences of capsid N-terminus originating from July 2013 to August 2015 were aligned, among which complete genome of seven strains obtained from two outbreaks and five sporadic cases was extensively characterized...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902331/the-plasma-virome-of-febrile-adult-kenyans-shows-frequent-parvovirus-b19-infections-and-a-novel-arbovirus-kadipiro-virus
#2
Carolyne Ngoi, Juliana Siqueira, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Peter Mugo, Susan Graham, Matt Price, Eduard Sanders, Eric Delwart
Viral nucleic acids present in the plasma of 498 Kenyan adults with unexplained fever were characterized by metagenomics analysis of 51 sample pools. The highest to lowest fraction of plasma pools was positive for parvovirus B19 (75%), pegivirus C (GBV-C) (67%), alpha anellovirus (59%), gamma anellovirus (55%), beta anellovirus (41%), Dengue virus genotype 2 (DENV-2) (16%), HIV-1 (6%), HHV-6 (6%), HBV (4%), rotavirus (4%), norovirus (4%), rhinovirus C (2%), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)(2%) and Kadipiro virus (2%)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894272/clinical-and-molecular-analyses-of-norovirus-associated-sporadic-acute-gastroenteritis-the-emergence-of-gii-17-over-gii-4-huzhou-china-2015
#3
Peng Zhang, Liping Chen, Yun Fu, Lei Ji, Xiaofang Wu, Deshun Xu, Jiankang Han
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in all age groups worldwide. The NoVs circulating in Huzhou over the past 7 years were predominantly GII.4 genotypes. In the winter of 2014-2015, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 emerged and became predominant. We report the epidemiological patterns and genetic characteristics of NoV after the appearance of GII.17 in Huzhou City, Zhejiang, China. METHODS: Between January and December 2015, 746 stool specimens collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis were screened for NoV...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#4
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888443/the-effect-of-heat-and-free-chlorine-treatments-on-the-surface-properties-of-murine-norovirus
#5
Adrien Brié, Ravo Razafimahefa, Julie Loutreul, Aurélie Robert, Christophe Gantzer, Nicolas Boudaud, Isabelle Bertrand
Heat and free chlorine are among the most efficient and commonly used treatments to inactivate enteric viruses, but their global inactivation mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. These treatments have been shown to affect at least the capsid proteins of viruses and thus may affect the surface properties (i.e. electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity) of such particles. Our aim was to study the effects of heat and free chlorine on surface properties for a murine norovirus chosen as surrogate for human norovirus...
November 25, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887808/norovirus-regulation-by-host-and-microbe
#6
REVIEW
Megan T Baldridge, Holly Turula, Christiane E Wobus
Norovirus (NoV) infection is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis globally, and can lead to detrimental chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Despite its prevalence as a cause of diarrheal illness, the study of human NoVs (HNoVs) has historically been limited by a paucity of models. The use of murine NoV (MNoV) to interrogate mechanisms of host control of viral infection has facilitated the exploration of different genetic mouse models, revealing roles for both innate and adaptive immunity in viral regulation...
October 28, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881814/chronic-norovirus-infections-in-cardiac-transplant-patients-considerations-for-evaluation-and-management
#7
Paul T Jurgens, Larry A Allen, Amrut V Ambardekar, Colleen K McIlvennan
Norovirus is a common self-limiting gastrointestinal infection, but in transplant recipients, symptoms can last for months and result in serious health complications. As there is currently no established treatment for chronic norovirus infection in transplant patients, management has been directed at symptom control, trial of various antivirals, and ultimately reductions in immunosuppression. We present 3 cases of chronic norovirus infection in cardiac transplant patients to illustrate various approaches to diagnosis, the prolonged nature of disease symptoms, and treatment options...
November 23, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881660/the-norovirus-ns3-protein-is-a-dynamic-lipid-and-microtubule-associated-protein-involved-in-viral-rna-replication
#8
Ben Cotton, Jennifer L Hyde, Soroush T Sarvestani, Stanislav V Sosnovtsev, Kim Y Green, Peter A White, Jason M Mackenzie
: Norovirus (NoV) infections are a significant health burden to society yet the lack of reliable tissue culture systems has hampered the development of appropriate antiviral therapies. Here we show that the NoV NS3 protein, derived from murine NoV (MNV), is intimately associated with the MNV replication complex and the viral replication intermediate dsRNA. We have observed that when expressed individually MNV NS3 and NS3 encoded by human Norwalk virus (NV) induced the formation of distinct vesicle-like structures that did not co-localise with any particular protein markers to cellular organelles, but localised to cellular membranes, in particular those high in cholesterol content...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881647/activation-of-cox-2-pge2-promotes-sapovirus-replication-via-the-inhibition-of-nitric-oxide-production
#9
Mia Madel Alfajaro, Jong-Soon Choi, Deok-Song Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Ji-Yun Kim, Jun-Gyu Park, Mahmoud Soliman, Yeong-Bin Baek, Eun-Hyo Cho, Joseph Kwon, Hyung-Jun Kwon, Su-Jin Park, Woo Song Lee, Mun-Il Kang, Myra Hosmillo, Ian Goodfellow, Kyoung-Oh Cho
: Enteric caliciviruses in the genera Norovirus and Sapovirus are important pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and their final product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are known to play important roles in the modulation of both the host response to the infection and replicative cycle of several viruses. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which the COXs/PGE2 pathway regulates sapoviruses replication remains largely unknown. In this study, the infection of porcine sapovirus (PSaV) Cowden strain, the only cultivable virus within the genus Sapovirus, markedly increased COX-2 mRNA and protein levels at 24 and 36 hours post-infection (hpi) with only a transient increase of COX-1 levels seen at 24 hpi...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876423/environmental-indicators-for-human-norovirus-outbreaks
#10
Shima Shamkhali Chenar, Zhiqiang Deng
Norovirus is the most common cause of outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in human. While the winter seasonality of norovirus outbreaks has been widely reported, the association between norovirus outbreak epidemics and environmental factors remains not fully understood. This literature review is intended to improve understanding of environmental factors governing norovirus outbreaks and how the factors affect norovirus transmission. To that end, a large number of studies (67) from countries around the world were critically reviewed and discussed...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869597/digital-pcr-for-quantifying-norovirus-in-oysters-implicated-in-outbreaks-france
#11
David Polo, Julien Schaeffer, Nelly Fournet, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Sylvain Parnaudeau, Catherine McLeod, Françoise S Le Guyader
Using samples from oysters clearly implicated in human disease, we quantified norovirus levels by using digital PCR. Concentrations varied from 43 to 1,170 RNA copies/oyster. The analysis of frozen samples from the production area showed the presence of norovirus 2 weeks before consumption.
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855952/decay-of-sewage-sourced-microbial-source-tracking-markers-and-fecal-indicator-bacteria-in-marine-waters
#12
Mia Catharine Mattioli, Lauren M Sassoubre, Todd L Russell, Alexandria B Boehm
The decay of sewage-sourced enterococci, Escherichia coli, three human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and norovirus GII was measured in situ in coastal, marine waters. Experiments examined the effects of sunlight intensity and season on decay. Seawater was seeded with untreated sewage, placed into permeable dialysis bags, and deployed in the coastal ocean near the water surface, and at 18 cm, and 99 cm depths, to vary solar intensity, during winter and summer seasons...
October 25, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853451/high-protective-efficacy-of-probiotics-and-rice-bran-against-human-norovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#13
Shaohua Lei, Ashwin Ramesh, Erica Twitchell, Ke Wen, Tammy Bui, Mariah Weiss, Xingdong Yang, Jacob Kocher, Guohua Li, Ernawati Giri-Rachman, Nguyen Van Trang, Xi Jiang, Elizabeth P Ryan, Lijuan Yuan
Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran (RB) reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major pathogens causing non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847499/abundance-and-distribution-of-enteric-bacteria-and-viruses-in-coastal-and-estuarine-sediments-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Francis Hassard, Ceri L Gwyther, Kata Farkas, Anthony Andrews, Vera Jones, Brian Cox, Howard Brett, Davey L Jones, James E McDonald, Shelagh K Malham
The long term survival of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846447/high-hydrostatic-pressure-inactivation-of-murine-norovirus-and-human-noroviruses-on-green-onions-and-in-salsa
#15
Robert F Sido, Runze Huang, Chuhan Liu, Haiqiang Chen
In this study, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was evaluated as an intervention for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) in green onions and salsa. To determine the effect of water during HHP treatment on virus inactivation, a HuNoV surrogate, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), was inoculated onto green onions and then HHP-treated at 350MPa with or without water at 4 or 20°C. The presence of water enhanced HHP inactivation of MNV-1 on green onions at 4°C but not at 20°C. To test the temperature effect on HHP inactivation of MNV-1, inoculated green onions were HHP-treated at 300MPa at 1, 4 and 10°C...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836843/waterborne-viruses-and-f-coliphage-in-mixed-use-watersheds-microbial-associations-host-specificity-and-affinities-with-environmental-land-use-factors
#16
Tineke H Jones, Julie Brassard, Edward Topp, Graham Wilkes, David R Lapen
: From years 2008 to 2014, a total of 1155 water samples were collected (spring-fall) from 24 surface water sampling sites located on mixed-used but predominantly agricultural (i.e., dairy livestock production) watersheds in eastern Ontario, Canada. Water was analyzed for viable F-DNA and F-RNA (GI-GIV) coliphage and a suite of molecularly detected viruses (norovirus (GI-GIV), TTV, rotavirus, kobuvirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, hepatitis A, and hepatitis E). F-DNA and FRNA coliphage were detected in 33 and 28% of the samples at maximum concentrations of 2000 and 16300 PFU 100 mL(-1), respectively...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833005/comparative-analysis-of-south-african-norovirus-gii-4-strains-identifies-minor-recombinant-variants
#17
J C Botha, M B Taylor, J Mans
Recombination within the norovirus (NoV) GII.4 genotype is well documented as a mechanism by which novel variants evolve. Norovirus GII.4 has been the predominant NoV genotype detected in South Africa (SA) in recent years and putative NoV recombinants were previously identified in SA based on partial regions of the viral genome. The objective of this study was to determine the complete genome sequence of representative NoV GII.4 variants that have circulated in SA between 2009 and 2013 and to compare major and minor GII...
November 8, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830193/human-norovirus-aptamer-exhibits-high-degree-of-target-conformation-dependent-binding-similar-to-that-of-receptors-and-discriminates-particle-functionality
#18
Matthew D Moore, Benjamin G Bobay, Brittany Mertens, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Although two in vitro cultivation methods have been reported, discrimination of infectious human norovirus particles for study of viral inactivation is still a challenge, as both rely on reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding assays serve as a proxy for estimation of infectious particles; however, they are costly and difficult to purify/modify. Some evidence suggests that certain nucleic acid aptamers only bind intact target proteins, thus displaying a high degree of conformation-dependent binding...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829005/gastroenteritis-outbreaks-associated-with-the-emergence-of-the-new-gii-4-sydney-norovirus-variant-during-the-epidemic-of-2012-13-in-shenzhen-city-china
#19
Yaqing He, Miao Jin, Kena Chen, Hailong Zhang, Hong Yang, Fei Zhuo, Dejian Zhao, Huatang Zeng, Xiangjie Yao, Zhen Zhang, Long Chen, Yuanping Zhou, Zhao-Jun Duan
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans worldwide. Since late 2012, a new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 has caused a significant increase in NoV epidemics in several countries. From November of 2012 to January of 2013, three gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in two social welfare homes (Outbreaks A and B) and a factory (Outbreak C) in Shenzhen city of China. Feces and swabs were collected for laboratory tests for causative agents. While no bacterial pathogen was identified, all three outbreaks were caused by NoVs with detection rates of 26...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825520/versatility-of-a-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-based-gold-nanoparticle-alloyed-quantum-dot-nanobiosensor-for-immunofluorescence-detection-of-viruses
#20
Kenshin Takemura, Oluwasesan Adegoke, Naoto Takahashi, Tatsuya Kato, Tian-Cheng Li, Noritoshi Kitamoto, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Tetsuro Suzuki, Enoch Y Park
Flu infection, caused by the influenza virus, constitutes a serious threat to human lives worldwide. A rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis is urgently needed for point-of-care treatment and to control the rapid spread of this disease. In this study, an ultrasensitive, rapid and specific localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-induced immunofluorescence nanobiosensor has been developed for the influenza virus based on a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-induced quantum dot (QD) fluorescence signal. Alloyed quaternary CdSeTeS QDs were synthesized via the hot-injection organometallic route and were subsequently capped with l-cysteine via a ligand exchange reaction...
October 20, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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