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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742004/evolutionary-changes-in-the-capsid-p2-region-of-australian-strains-of-the-norovirus-gii-pe_gii-4
#1
Leesa D Bruggink, Jean M Moselen, Jason A Roberts, John A Marshall
PURPOSE: The protruding (P) 2 region of the norovirus capsid is thought to include hypervariable sites involved in receptor binding. This study examines the changes that occurred in the P2 region of GII.Pe_GII.4 norovirus in the course of its evolution from a precursor phase (2008-2009), to an intermediate phase (2010) and finally to an epidemic phase (2012-2015). METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two P2 region amino acid (aa) sequences (166 aa long) from all phases of the evolution of the virus were compared and the changes analysed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738464/-analysis-on-risk-factors-for-norovirus-outbreaks-in-guangdong-province-2008-2015
#2
F Yang, L M Sun, H Li, L L Guo, L Fang, X H Tan, Y F Long, C W Ke, J F He
Objective: To analyze transmission factors of norovirus outbreaks in Guangdong province during 2008-2015 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of norovirus infection. Methods: Epidemiological analysis was performed on the data of norovirus outbreaks reported in Guangdong from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2015, which were obtained from the Public Health Emergency Management Information System of Guangdong province. The samples collected from the norovirus outbreaks were detected for norovirus by RT-PCR and the gene sequencing of the positive PCR products were performed...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736804/study-of-the-association-between-histo-blood-group-antigens-and-norovirus-infection-in-chinese-children
#3
Zhu-Lun Zhuang, Yu Jin, Kun-Long Yan, Wei-Xia Cheng
Human caliciviruses (HuCVs) have been recognized as a major cause of sporadic viral diarrhea in children, among which norovirus genotype GII.4 is the most prevalent genotype. Stool and saliva samples were collected from 295 children with acute diarrhea and 150 asymptomatic children at a hospital in China. The HuCV detection rate was 10.85% (32/295) among the children with acute diarrhea, and all of these 32 children were either HBGA secretors (12/32) or partial secretors (20/32). HuCV was detected in two (1...
July 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731729/surveillance-snapshot-norovirus-outbreaks-among-military-forces-2008-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731728/brief-report-laboratory-characterization-of-noroviruses-identified-in-specimens-from-military-health-system-beneficiaries-during-an-outbreak-in-germany-2016-2017
#5
Nellie D Darling, Daniela E Poss, Krista M Brooks, Jennifer A Steele, Koya C Allen, Paul Cf Graf, Rodney L Coldren, Daniel B Pederson, Alexander K Kayatani, Stic Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731727/incidence-of-gastrointestinal-infections-among-u-s-active-component-service-members-stationed-in-the-u-s-compared-to-u-s-civilians-2012-2014
#6
Sarah E Hill, Daniela E Poss, Stic Harris
Gastrointestinal (GI) infections in the U.S. Armed Forces have consistently been among the most frequent disease and non-battle injury diagnoses. A retrospective analysis of surveillance data categorized as GI infections among active component service members during 2012-2014 was performed. During the study period, 99% of inpatient and outpatient GI encounters were reported as nonspecific GI infection (13,331 cases per 100,000 people), leaving only a small percentage of cases attributed to specific causes. The five most common organisms associated with GI infections were Campylobacter (10...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730261/post-medication-stevens-johnson-syndrome-in-a-girl-hospitalized-for-a-norovirus-and-rotavirus-infection
#7
Simona Dumitra, LuminiŢa Pilat, Alina Iftode, Ozana Nicoleta Bălan, Carmen Ramona StănculeŢ, Elena Claudia Covaci, Alexandru Fica Mircea Onel, Carmen Nicoleta Crişan
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a cutaneous mucosal disorder characterized by extended necrosis and detachment of the epidermis affecting <10% of the body surface, caused by drugs or infections. The authors report a case of a girl with Depakine resistant epilepsy, who develops a SJS in the third week of introducing lamotrigine. The girl also presents an acute diarrheal disease with double viral etiology - rotavirus and norovirus. The clinical image comprises polymorphic erythematous maculopapular exanthema with vesicular and bullous elements, with ulcerations and desquamations at the level of the eyelids, mouth, anogenital area and tegument denuding at the level of the abdomen and limbs...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730158/a-rapid-epidemiological-tool-to-measure-the-burden-of-norovirus-infection-and-disease-in-resource-limited-settings
#8
Daniel Olson, Molly M Lamb, Maria Renee Lopez, M Alejandra Paniagua-Avila, Alma Zacarias, Gabriela Samayoa-Reyes, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Edwin J Asturias
BACKGROUND: Rapid, cost-effective tools are needed to estimate the disease burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and norovirus (NoV) in resource-limited settings. METHODS: Households with children (6 weeks-17 years) in rural Guatemala were randomly enrolled into 2 parallel AGE surveillance systems: (1) a prospective cohort, which included an enrollment visit followed by 1 year of prospective observation using a smartphone-based weekly symptom diary; and (2) 2 sequential cross-sectional rapid active sampling (RAS) surveys...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730138/ileal-perforation-with-norovirus-gastroenteritis-in-a-3-month-old-infant
#9
Seol Woo Wi, Su Jin Lee, Eun Kyeong Kang, Sung Min Cho
Noroviruses have been recognized as the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis since the advent of molecular diagnostic technique. They have been documented in 5-31% of pediatric patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis. Although norovirus gastroenteritis is typically mild and self-limited, it causes severe, but sometimes fatal, conditions in the vulnerable population such as immunocompromised patients, young children, and the elderly. Bowel perforation due to norovirus infection is rare. We report a case of small bowel perforation with norovirus gastroenteritis in the infant with Down syndrome during the hospitalization with pneumonia...
June 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729921/an-outbreak-of-foodborne-norovirus-gastroenteritis-linked-to-a-restaurant-in-melbourne-australia-2014
#10
Shaun P Coutts, Kaye Sturge, Karin Lalor, John A Marshall, Leesa D Bruggink, Nela Subasinghe, Marion Easton
INTRODUCTION: In May 2014 an outbreak of norovirus occurred among patrons of a restaurant in Melbourne, Australia. Investigations were conducted to identify the infectious agent, mode of transmission and source of illness, and to implement controls to prevent further transmission. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that food served at the restaurant between 9 and 15 May 2014 was the vehicle for infection. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic, illness and food exposure data from study participants...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727498/new-perspectives-regarding-the-antiviral-effect-of-vitamin-a-on-norovirus-using-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#11
Heetae Lee, GwangPyo Ko
Gut microbiota has been revealed to play an important role in various health conditions, and recent studies have suggested the modulation of gut microbiota as a therapeutic strategy. There is no effective treatment for norovirus infection, though vitamin A has been suggested to have an antiviral effect in an epidemiological study. We demonstrated that vitamin A significantly inhibited murine norovirus replication. Vitamin A supplementation significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus sp. during norovirus infection, which played a crucial role in antiviral efficacy, inhibiting murine norovirus...
July 20, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726618/global-spread-of-norovirus-gii-17-kawasaki-308-2014-2016
#12
Martin C W Chan, Yunwen Hu, Haili Chen, Alexander T Podkolzin, Ekaterina V Zaytseva, Jun Komano, Naomi Sakon, Yong Poovorawan, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Thanundorn Thanusuwannasak, Joanne Hewitt, Dawn Croucher, Nikail Collins, Jan Vinjé, Xiaoli L Pang, Bonita E Lee, Miranda de Graaf, Janko van Beek, Harry Vennema, Marion P G Koopmans, Sandra Niendorf, Mateja Poljsak-Prijatelj, Andrej Steyer, Peter A White, Jennifer H Lun, Janet Mans, Tin-Nok Hung, Kirsty Kwok, Kelton Cheung, Nelson Lee, Paul K S Chan
Analysis of complete capsid sequences of the emerging norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308 from 13 countries demonstrated that they originated from a single haplotype since the initial emergence in China in late 2014. Global spread of a sublineage SL2 was identified. A new sublineage SL3 emerged in China in 2016.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723228/thermal-processing-of-live-bivalve-molluscs-for-controlling-viruses-on-the-need-for-a-risk-based-design
#13
Winy Messens, Pablo S Fernandez-Escamez, David Lees, Roland Lindqvist, Michael O'Mahony, Elisabetta Suffredini, José Cortiñas Abrahantes, Emmanouil Chantzis, Kostas Koutsoumanis
Norovirus (NoV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the most important viral hazards associated with human illness following consumption of contaminated bivalve molluscs. The effectiveness of the current EU criteria for heat processing of bivalve molluscs (i.e. raising the temperature of the internal mollusc flesh to at least 90°C for a minimum of 90 seconds) was evaluated using predictive microbiology. A HAV thermal inactivation model was developed based on literature data in mollusc matrices during isothermal heat treatment...
July 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722580/rapid-active-sampling-surveys-as-a-tool-to-evaluate-factors-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-and-norovirus-infection-among-children-in-rural-guatemala
#14
Daniel Olson, Molly M Lamb, Maria R Lopez, Maria A Paniagua-Avila, Alma Zacarias, Gabriela Samayoa-Reyes, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Edwin J Asturias
We examined burden and factors associated with norovirus (NoV) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among children in rural Guatemala. Children age 6 weeks to 17 years were enrolled into three AGE surveillance groups, using two-stage cluster sampling: a prospective participatory syndromic surveillance (PSS) cohort and two cross-sectional rapid active sampling (RAS) surveys, conducted from April 2015 to February 2016. Epidemiologic and NoV testing data were used to identify factors associated with NoV infection, AGE, and NoV+ AGE...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722577/risk-factors-for-norovirus-gastroenteritis-among-nicaraguan-children
#15
Joann F Gruber, Natalie M Bowman, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Yaoska Reyes, Connor Belson, Kenan C Michaels, Filemon Bucardo
Norovirus is a leading cause of pediatric gastroenteritis. Understanding norovirus epidemiology is essential for reducing disease burden. We conducted a case-control study to describe the distribution, clinical features, and risk factors of norovirus gastroenteritis among children < 5 years of age in León, Nicaragua. Cases were children testing positive for norovirus and controls were children living in the cases' communities. Study staff interviewed mothers of enrolled cases and controls to obtain detailed exposure information including food, water, and sanitation sources; recent exposures; household characteristics; and handwashing practices...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719269/the-influence-of-household-and-community-level-sanitation-and-fecal-sludge-management-on-urban-fecal-contamination-in-households-and-drains-and-enteric-infection-in-children
#16
David Berendes, Amy Kirby, Julie A Clennon, Suraja Raj, Habib Yakubu, Juan Leon, Katharine Robb, Arun Kartikeyan, Priya Hemavathy, Annai Gunasekaran, Ben Ghale, J Senthil Kumar, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Gagandeep Kang, Christine Moe
AbstractUrban sanitation necessitates management of fecal sludge inside and outside the household. This study examined associations between household sanitation, fecal contamination, and enteric infection in two low-income neighborhoods in Vellore, India. Surveys and spatial analysis assessed the presence and clustering of toilets and fecal sludge management (FSM) practices in 200 households. Fecal contamination was measured in environmental samples from 50 households and household drains. Enteric infection was assessed from stool specimens from children under 5 years of age in these households...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719263/burden-of-disease-attributed-to-waterborne-transmission-of-selected-enteric-pathogens-australia-2010
#17
Katherine B Gibney, Joanne O'Toole, Martha Sinclair, Karin Leder
AbstractUniversal access to safe drinking water is a global priority. To estimate the annual disease burden of campylobacteriosis, nontyphoidal salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and norovirus attributable to waterborne transmission in Australia, we multiplied regional World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of the proportion of cases attributable to waterborne transmission by estimates of all-source disease burden for each study pathogen. Norovirus was attributed as causing the most waterborne disease cases (479,632; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 0-1,111,874) followed by giardiasis and campylobacteriosis...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716138/prevalence-of-enteric-infections-among-hospitalized-patients-in-two-referral-hospitals-in-ghana
#18
R Akuffo, G Armah, M Clemens, K C Kronmann, A H Jones, P Agbenohevi, K Sagoe, N Puplampu, N Talla Nzussouo, W Ampofo, K Koram, C Duplessis, E Dueger
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Africa and Ghana in particular, it is estimated to contribute directly to 19 and 25% of pediatric mortality among children under 5 years, respectively. METHODS: Surveillance for hospitalized acute diarrheal illness was initiated in November 2010 through October 2012 in a referral hospital in southern Ghana, and a teaching hospital in northern Ghana. Consenting hospitalized patients who met a standardized case definition for acute diarrheal illness provided demographic and epidemiologic data...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713375/interferon-lambda-a-potent-regulator-of-intestinal-viral-infections
#19
REVIEW
Sanghyun Lee, Megan T Baldridge
Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708249/the-impact-of-anthropogenic-pressure-on-the-virological-quality-of-water-from-the-tiber-river-italy
#20
G La Rosa, I Sanseverino, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, V E V Ferrero, A Barra Caracciolo, T Lettieri
The objective of the present study was to assess the occurrence of major waterborne enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A and E virus) along the Tiber River in Italy, in areas affected by different kinds of anthropogenic pressure (agricultural, urban, industrial, and pristine). Moreover, in light of the recent abundant detection of human bocavirus in urban wastewater samples in Italy, the occurrence of this virus was also assessed. Virus detection was based on nested PCR followed by sequencing, and on Real Time PCR...
July 14, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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