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Geun Woo Park, Keenan J Williamson, Emilio DeBess, Paul R Cieslak, Nicole Gregoricus, Elizabeth De Nardo, Christopher Fricker, Verónica Costantini, Jan Vinjé
We examined norovirus contamination on hands of ill patients during 12 norovirus outbreaks in 12 long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The higher frequency and norovirus titers on hands of residents compared to hands of heathcare workers highlights the importance of adhering to appropriate hand hygiene practices during norovirus outbreaks in LTCFs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
T M Fumian, M Victoria, C B Vieira, J M Fioretti, M S Rocha, T Prado, F R Guimarães, N P da Gama, J M de Oliveira, A C O Mendes, A M C Gaspar, J D O Santos, M Chame, J P G Leite, M P Miagostovich
This study aimed to assess anthropogenic impact of surrounding population in the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage at Pantanal, the world's largest freshwater wetland ecosystem located in the center of South America. Viral etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis as rotavirus A (RVA), noroviruses (NoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV), klassevirus (KV) and of hepatitis, as hepatitis A virus (HAV), were investigated in different aquatic matrices. Annual collection campaigns were carried out from 2009 to 2012, alternating dry and rainy seasons...
January 13, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Kattareeya Kumthip, Pattara Khamrin, Niwat Maneekarn
Norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) infections remain public health problems in Thailand, particularly, causing an acute gastroenteritis in people of all age groups. This review summarizes the epidemiology and genotype distribution of NoV and SaV in Thailand during the period of 2000 to 2016. The overall prevalence of NoV infection in patients with acute gastroenteritis of all age groups ranged from 0.09 to 44.7% while those of SaV were 0.0 to 15.0%. The majority of NoV genogroup detected was NoV GII with a small proportion of NoV GI...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
E Pagani, F Folli, S Tofani, F M Ruggeri, F Ostanello, I Di Bartolo
In this study, we describe the results of virological investigations carried out on cases of gastroenteritis reported in different communities within a 2-year pilot surveillance programme (January 2012 to December 2013) in the autonomous province of Bolzano (Northern Italy). Among the 162 norovirus (NoV)-positive cases out of 702 cases investigated, 76 were grouped in nine suspected outbreaks, 37 were hospital-acquired and 49 were community-acquired sporadic cases. NoV infections were found in all age groups in outbreak and community-acquired cases, while the highest peak of hospital-acquired infections occurred in the elderly...
January 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Ryuichi Kato, Tatsuya Asami, Etsuko Utagawa, Hiroaki Furumai, Hiroyuki Katayama
To assess the potential of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) as a viral process indicator, its reduction through coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) were compared with those of Escherichia coli, previously used viral indicators, and norovirus genotype II (NoV GII; enteric virus reference pathogen) in a bench-scale experiment. PMMoV log10 reductions in CS (1.96 ± 0.30) and RSF (0.26 ± 0.38) were similar to those of NoV GII (1.86 ± 0.61 and 0.28 ± 0.46). PMMoV, the most abundant viruses in the raw water, was also determined during CS, RSF, and advanced treatment processes at two full-scale drinking water treatment plants under strict turbidity management over a 13-month period...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
Jennifer Weidhaas, Angela Anderson, Rubayat Jamal
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are the basis for water quality regulations and are considered proxies for waterborne pathogens when conducting human health risk assessments. Direct detection of pathogens in water and simultaneous identification of the source of fecal contamination is possible with microarrays, circumventing drawbacks to FIB approaches. A multi-gene target microarray was used to assess the prevalence of waterborne pathogens in a fecally impaired, mixed use watershed. Results indicate that fecal coliforms have improved substantially in the watershed since its listing as a 303(d) impaired stream in 2002 and are now near United States recreational water criteria standards...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xiaoli Wang, Shuxia Wang, Chao Zhang, Yu Zhou, Pei Xiong, Qingwei Liu, Zhong Huang
Noroviruses (NoVs) are the main pathogens responsible for sporadic and epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis, causing an estimated 219,000 deaths annually worldwide. There is no commercially available vaccine for NoVs, due partly to the difficulty in establishing NoV cell culture models. The histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assay is used extensively to assess the protective potential of candidate vaccine-elicited antibodies, but there is still no widely used cellular evaluation model. In this study, we have established a cell line-based NoV vaccine evaluation model through the construction of human α1,2-fucosyltransferase 2-overexpressing 293T (293T-FUT2) cell lines...
January 5, 2018: Viruses
Hui Zhu, Fang Yuan, Zhaokang Yuan, Rong Liu, Fei Xie, Ling Huang, Xiaojun Liu, Xiaoqing Jiang, Jian Wang, Qunying Xu, Zhiqiang Shen, Donghan Liu, Ronghao Zhang, Yuanan Lu
BACKGROUND: Recreational water contaminated with fecal pollution poses a great public health concern, as fecal waste may cause serious waterborne illnesses. Current recreational water standards using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have their limitations for human protection especially in developing countries such as China. METHODS: To explore the potential use of enteric viruses as a potential indicator of fecal contamination, four viruses: norovirus geno-groups I and II, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses were tested in this study using molecular detection methods and sensitive RT-PC developed in the University of Hawaii...
January 5, 2018: Virology Journal
Angela K Berger, Bernardo A Mainou
Enteric viruses encounter a multitude of environments as they traverse the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction of enteric eukaryotic viruses with members of the host microbiota impacts the outcome of infection. Infection with several enteric viruses is impaired in the absence of the gut microbiota, specifically bacteria. The effects of bacteria on virus biology are diverse. Poliovirus capsid stability and receptor engagement are positively impacted by bacteria and bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Norovirus utilizes histo-blood group antigens produced by enteric bacteria to attach and productively infect B cells...
January 3, 2018: Viruses
SungJun Park, Young-Seon Ko, Haeyong Jung, Cheonghoon Lee, Kyoungja Woo, GwangPyo Ko
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported as an effective alternative for controlling a broad-spectrum of pathogenic viruses. We developed a micrometer-sized silica hybrid composite decorated with AgNPs (AgNP-SiO2) to prevent the inherent aggregation of AgNPs, and facilitated their recovery from environmental media after use. The production process had a high-yield, and fabrication was cost-effective. We evaluated the antiviral capabilities of Ag30-SiO2 particles against two model viruses, bacteriophage MS2 and murine norovirus (MNV), in four different types of water (deionized, tap, surface, and ground)...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
R Cohen, J Raymond, D Gendrel
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) are usually caused by viruses, especially Rotavirus and Norovirus. Among the bacterial causes, very few warrant antibiotic treatment, mainly Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter (only for severe cases, particularly in the initial phase) and severe cases of Salmonella infection. The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Dongqing Cheng, Songyan Zou, Ningbo Liao, Xiaofeng Shi, Jiang Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Liang Sun, Ronghua Zhang
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a major foodborne virus causing gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Salad products can be vectors of transmission for foodborne viruses such as HuNoV when these products are contaminated naturally or through unsanitary food handling. Therefore, development of simple, reliable and sensitive techniques for the detection of HuNoV in salad products is needed to ensure food safety. The purpose of our study was to optimize a method for the detection of HuNoV in artificially contaminated salad products...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Charlie C Hsu, Stacey M Meeker, Sabine Escobar, Thea L Brabb, Jisun Paik, Heon Park, Brian M Iritani, Lillian Maggio-Price
Noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans and it was recently revealed that noroviruses can infect B cells. We demonstrate that murine norovirus (MNV) infection can significantly impair B cell development in the bone marrow in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) dependent, but interferon signaling independent manner. We also show that MNV replication is more pronounced in the absence of STAT1 in ex vivo cultured B cells. Interestingly, using bone marrow transplantation studies, we found that impaired B cell development requires Stat1-/- hematopoietic cells and Stat1-/- stromal cells, and that the presence of wild-type hematopoietic or stromal cells was sufficient to restore normal development of Stat1-/- B cells...
December 26, 2017: Virology
Matthew D Moore, Brittany S Mertens, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus exacts considerable public health and economic losses worldwide. Emerging in vitro cultivation advances are not yet applicable for routine detection of the virus. The current detection and quantification techniques, which rely primarily on nucleic acid amplification, do not discriminate infectious from non-infectious viral particles. The purpose of this article is to present specific details on recent advances in techniques used together in order to acquire further information on the infectivity status of viral particles...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jian-Guang Fu, Chao Shi, Cheng Xu, Qin Lin, Jun Zhang, Qian-Hua Yi, Jun Zhang, Chang-Jun Bao, Xiang Huo, Ye-Fei Zhu, Jing Ai, Zheng Xing
A total of 64 acute gastroenteritis outbreaks with 2,953 patients starting in December of 2016 and occurring mostly in the late spring of 2017 were reported in Jiangsu, China. A recombinant GII.P16-GII.2 norovirus variant was associated with 47 outbreaks (73.4%) for the gastroenteritis epidemic, predominantly occurring in February and March of 2017. Sequence analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid protein of the viral isolates from these outbreaks confirmed that this GII.P16-GII.2 strain was the GII...
2017: PloS One
Ronja Pogan, Carola Schneider, Rudolph Reimer, Grant Hansman, Charlotte Uetrecht
Noroviruses are the main cause of viral gastroenteritis with new variants emerging frequently. There are three Norovirus genogroups infecting humans. These genogroups are divided based on the sequence of their major capsid protein, which is able to form virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed recombinantly. VLPs of the prototypical GI.1 Norwalk virus are known to disassemble into specific capsid protein oligomers upon alkaline treatment. Here, native mass spectrometry and electron microscopy on variants of GI...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Lisa C Lindesmith, Paul D Brewer-Jensen, Michael L Mallory, Kari Debbink, Excel W Swann, Jan Vinjé, Ralph S Baric
Background: Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Strains of the GII.4 genotype cause pandemic waves associated with viral evolution and subsequent antigenic drift and ligand binding modulation. In November 2015, a novel GII.4 Sydney recombinant variant (GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney) emerged and replaced GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney as the predominant cause of acute gastroenteritis in the 2016-2017 season in the United States. Methods: Virus-like particles of GII...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kaoru Hida, Efstathia Papafragkou, Michael Kulka
The development of rapid and sensitive detection methods for human noroviruses (HuNoV) in produce items is critical, especially with the recent rise in outbreaks associated with this food commodity. In this study, 50-g portions of various produce items linked to a norovirus outbreak (celery, cucumber, lettuce, grapes, and radish) were artificially inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV-1) and concentrated either by ultracentrifugation or polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation after elution with an alkaline Tris-glycine-beef extract buffer supplemented with pectinase...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
A Lizasoain, L F L Tort, M García, L Gillman, A Alberti, J P G Leite, M P Miagostovich, S A Pou, A Cagiao, A Razsap, J Huertas, M Berois, M Victoria, R Colina
This study assess the quality of wastewater through the detection and quantification of important causing gastroenteritis viruses at different stages of the wastewater treatment process in an activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant with ultraviolet disinfection. Ten sampling events were carried out in a campaign along a period of 18 months collecting wastewater samples from the influent, after the activated sludge treatment, and after the final disinfection with UV radiation. Samples were concentrated through ultracentrifugation and analyzed using retro-transcription, PCR and real time quantitative PCR protocols, for detection and quantification of Group A Rotavirus (RVA), Human Astrovirus (HAstV), Norovirus Genogroup II (NoV GII) and Human Adenovirus (HAdV)...
December 22, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
J Li, H Pan, W J Xiao, X H Gong, Y Zhuang, X Z Kuang, H Y Wu, Z A Yuan
Objective: To analyze the pathogen spectrum and epidemiological characters of infectious diarrhea cases in Shanghai from July 2013 to June 2015. Methods: From July 2013 to June 2015, using multi-stage sampling to select 22 hospitals as adult diarrhea surveillance sentinels, and 3 district central hospitals together with Shanghai municipal children's hospital as children diarrhea surveillance sentinels. A total of 6 267 diarrhea cases were sampled. The demographic characters, main clinical manifestations and signs of cases were investigated, and stool specimens were collected to conduct the bacteria culture and virus nucleic acid detection...
December 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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