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CD8 T helper

Anne S Dejean, Emeline Joulia, Thierry Walzer
Eomesodermin (Eomes) is a transcription factor (TF) of the T-box family closely related to T-bet known for its role in CD8 T cell and natural killer cell differentiation. However, the role of Eomes in CD4 T-cell differentiation is less well appreciated. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [Eur. J. Immunol. 2019. 49: XXXX-XXXX] Mazzoni et al. and Gruarin et al. studied the role of Eomes in human CD4 T-cell differentiation. Mazzoni et al. showed that Eomes plays a key role in helper T cell (Th) plasticity by favoring the phenotype shift of Th17 cells towards non-classic Th1 cells; while Gruarin et al...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Alexander M Saucedo, Jorge De La Cerda, Hiroo Suami, Rita E Serda
Beyond heterogeneous cancer cells, the tumor microenvironment includes stromal and immune cells, blood vessels, extracellular matrix and biologically active molecules. Abnormal signaling, uncontrolled proliferation and high interstitial pressure all contribute to a chaotic, non-hierarchical vascular organization. Using an immune competent 4T1 breast adenocarcinoma murine model, this study fully characterizes the architecture and immunocyte milieu of the tumor microenvironment. Heterogeneous vessel distribution, chaotic connectivity, limited perfusion, cancer cell density, immune phenotype, and biological responses to immune therapy are presented...
December 3, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Suzanne Furlong, Melanie R Power Coombs, Javad Ghassemi-Rad, David W Hoskin
Thy-1 (CD90) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) with signaling properties that is abundant on mouse T cells. Upon antibody-mediated crosslinking, Thy-1 provides a T cell receptor (TcR)-like signal that is sufficient to drive CD4+ T cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells when costimulatory signals are provided by syngeneic lipopolysaccharide-matured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. In this study, we investigated the impact of Thy-1 signaling on the production of the T helper (Th) cell subset-associated cytokines, interferon (IFN) γ, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17A, as well as the in vitro polarization of highly purified resting CD4+ T cells into Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Katherine A Riccione, Li-Zhen He, Peter E Fecci, Pamela K Norberg, Carter M Suryadevara, Adam Swartz, Patrick Healy, Elizabeth Reap, Tibor Keler, Qi-Jing Li, Kendra L Congdon, Luis Sanchez-Perez, John H Sampson
Despite their promise, tumor-specific peptide vaccines have limited efficacy. CD27 is a costimulatory molecule expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that is important in immune activation. Here we determine if a novel CD27 agonist antibody (αhCD27) can enhance the antitumor T cell response and efficacy of peptide vaccines. We evaluated the effects of αhCD27 on the immunogenicity and antitumor efficacy of whole protein, class I-restricted, and class II-restricted peptide vaccines using a transgenic mouse expressing human CD27...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Sijie Fang, Yazhuo Huang, Ningjian Wang, Shuo Zhang, Sisi Zhong, Yinwei Li, Jing Sun, Xingtong Liu, Yang Wang, Ping Gu, Bin Li, Huifang Zhou, Xianqun Fan
Context: Unique features of local immunity in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) may affect disease progression. Objective: To investigate the association between the orbital immune microenvironment and TAO development. Design/Setting/Participants: TAO and control orbital connective tissues were collected. Main Outcome Measures: Single-cell sequencing examined orbital lymphocytic infiltrates. Multi-color flow cytometry explored the phenotypes of different cell subsets and in vitro models for cell functional studies...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jonathan Yip, Eric Monteiro, Yvonne Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In contrast to the phenotypic classification of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), endotyping categorizes disease variants based on their underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. Defining CRS endotypes may provide information on the risk for disease progression, recurrence and comorbid conditions, as well as identify suitable therapeutic targets. With the emergence of biologics, endotyping may enable personalized pharmacotherapy for recalcitrant CRS. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the pathophysiology and endotypes of CRS, and highlight the biologics that target mediators of CRS...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Hua Qian, Liyan Jiao, Zhixia Fan, Litao Wang, Baoguo Liu, Guoying Miao
BACKGROUND Lichen planus (LP) is a common chronic superficial skin lesion that causes chronic or sub-acute inflammatory disorders. LP can affect the oral cavity, skin, mucous membrane, and other body parts, and features include repeat attacks and long duration, leading to lower quality of life. This study aimed to analyze the changes of immunologic function before and after treatment of LP. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty cutaneous LP patients were selected. Peripheral blood was collected in the morning before and after treatment...
December 2, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yoshito Yamada, Karina Brüstle, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr
BACKGROUND: Human lung transplantation has evolved to an established treatment for pulmonary diseases in their end stages; however, the long-term outcome is worse when compared to all other solid transplantable organs. The major reason for this unfavorable outcome is rejection, either in its acute or chronic form, the latter termed as chronic lung allograft dysfunction. METHODS: A systematic review search was performed. RESULTS: One of the most important immune cells responsible for rejection are T cells...
January 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Vladi Juric, Chris O'Sullivan, Erin Stefanutti, Maria Kovalenko, Andrew Greenstein, Vivian Barry-Hamilton, Igor Mikaelian, Jeremiah Degenhardt, Peng Yue, Victoria Smith, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), whose expression is frequently dysregulated in cancer, promotes tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by multiple mechanisms, including extracellular matrix remodeling and growth-factor and cytokine activation. We developed a monoclonal antibody against murine MMP-9, which we found decreased growth of established primary tumors in an orthotopic model of HER2-driven breast cancer (HC11-NeuT) in immunocompetent mice. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) profiling of NeuT tumors and additional mouse model tumors revealed that anti-MMP-9 treatment resulted in upregulation of immune signature pathways associated with cytotoxic T-cell response...
2018: PloS One
Carina Gröschel, André Sasse, Sebastian Monecke, Charlotte Röhrborn, Leslie Elsner, Michael Didié, Verena Reupke, Gertrude Bunt, Andrew H Lichtman, Karl Toischer, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Gerd Hasenfuß, Ralf Dressel
Heart failure due to pressure overload is frequently associated with inflammation. In addition to inflammatory responses of the innate immune system, autoimmune reactions of the adaptive immune system appear to be triggered in subgroups of patients with heart failure as demonstrated by the presence of autoantibodies against myocardial antigens. Moreover, T cell-deficient and T cell-depleted mice have been reported to be protected from heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and we have shown recently that CD4+ -helper T cells with specificity for an antigen in cardiomyocytes accelerate TAC-induced heart failure...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aditi Sinha, Mamta Puraswani, Mani Kalaivani, Pragya Goyal, Pankaj Hari, Arvind Bagga
Both levamisole and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) prevent relapses in patients with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome; however, their efficacy has not been compared prospectively. This single-center, randomized, open-label trial enrolled 149 children ages 6-18 years with frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive therapy with MMF (750-1000 mg/m2 daily) or levamisole (2-2.5 mg/kg on alternate days) for 1 year; prednisolone was discontinued by 2-3 months...
November 22, 2018: Kidney International
S R Sarkar, N C Ray, S Nahar, S Roy, M A Aziz, A M Al Amin, S K Paul
Resolution of leishmanial infection is dependent on the coordinated interactions between components of cell mediated immune response, central to which is the activation of targeted T-cell populations for appropriate cytokine production and activation of infected cells. There is a correlation between the clinical outcome of Leishmania infection and the cytokine response profile. While a protective immune response against Leishmania has been clearly identified to be related to the influence of a type-l response and IFN-γ production, the precise role of T helper (TH) 2 cytokines in non-healing infections requires further exploration...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Yingkai Li, Jeffrey T Guptill, Melissa A Russo, Janice M Massey, Vern C Juel, Lisa D Hobson-Webb, James F Howard, Manisha Chopra, Weibin Liu, John S Yi
Muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis (MuSK- MG) is characterized by autoantibodies against the MuSK protein of the neuromuscular junction resulting in weakness of bulbar and proximal muscles. We previously demonstrated that patients with MuSK-MG have increased pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 responses. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant used in AChR-MG and transplantation patients, inhibits T cell responses through interference with IL-2 transcription. The therapeutic efficacy and immunological effect of tacrolimus in MuSK-MG is unclear...
November 22, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Sergej Tomić, Nataša Ilić, Vanja Kokol, Alisa Gruden-Movsesijan, Dušan Mihajlović, Marina Bekić, Ljiljana Sofronić-Milosavljević, Miodrag Čolić, Dragana Vučević
Background: Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications due to their excellent biocompatibility and biomimetic properties. However, their immunoregulatory properties are insufficiently investigated, especially in relation to their functionalization, which could cause problems during their clinical application. Methods: Using a model of human dendritic cells (DC), which have a central role in the regulation of immune response, we investigated how differentially functionalized CNF, ie, native (n) CNF, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl radical-oxidized (c) CNF, and 3-aminopropylphosphoric acid-functionalized (APAc) CNF, affect DC properties, their viability, morphology, differentiation and maturation potential, and the capacity to regulate T cell-mediated immune response...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Chelsea L Edwards, Marcela Montes de Oca, Fabian de Labastida Rivera, Rajiv Kumar, Susanna S Ng, Yulin Wang, Fiona H Amante, Kohei Kometani, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Tom Sidwell, Axel Kallies, Christian R Engwerda
BTB and CNC Homology 1, Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor 2 (BACH2) is a transcription factor best known for its role in B cell development. More recently, it has been associated with T cell functions in inflammatory diseases, and has been proposed as a master transcriptional regulator within the T cell compartment. In this study, we employed T cell-specific Bach2 -deficient (B6. Bach2 Δ T ) mice to examine the role of this transcription factor in CD4+ T cell functions in vitro and in mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi AS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Masaaki Hotta, Hideaki Yoshimura, Atsushi Satake, Yukie Tsubokura, Tomoki Ito, Shosaku Nomura
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) attenuate excessive immune responses, making their expansion beneficial in immune-mediated diseases, including allogeneic bone marrow transplantation-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In addition to interleukin-2, Tregs require T cell receptor and costimulatory signals from antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), for their optimal proliferation. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases DC number and may promote DC-dependent Treg proliferation...
November 20, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Jacqueline H Y Siu, Veena Surendrakumar, James A Richards, Gavin J Pettigrew
Transplantation is unusual in that T cells can recognize alloantigen by at least two distinct pathways: as intact MHC alloantigen on the surface of donor cells via the direct pathway; and as self-restricted processed alloantigen via the indirect pathway. Direct pathway responses are viewed as strong but short-lived and hence responsible for acute rejection, whereas indirect pathway responses are typically thought to be much longer lasting and mediate the progression of chronic rejection. However, this is based on surprisingly scant experimental evidence, and the recent demonstration that MHC alloantigen can be re-presented intact on recipient dendritic cells-the semi-direct pathway-suggests that the conventional view may be an oversimplification...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
J Lippert, P Young, C Gross, S G Meuth, B Dräger, A Schirmacher, A Heidbreder
An autoimmune-mediated process in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is highly suspicious, if this pathomechanism is transferable to other types of central disorders of hypersomnolence (CDH), is still controversial. The association of NT1 with HLA-class-II system implicates a T-cell-mediated autoimmunity, in which helper CD4+ T-cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells may be pathogenic.This study aimed to identify specific immune profiles in peripheral blood (PB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in different types of CDH...
November 16, 2018: Sleep
Sujay Gaikwad, Yogita Pawar, Sharmila Banerjee, Savita Kulkarni
Juglone, a naphthoquinone is a known phytotoxic and cytotoxic allelochemical. Various anticancer studies suggest that pharmacological ROS insult and enzymes inhibited by juglone could be of therapeutic utility. In this study, we show that juglone induces immunomodulation in BCG-vaccinated mice. We have shown that juglone treatment leads to the generation of Th1 cytokines which develops an M1 phenotype in splenic macrophages. These findings were supported by a decrease in Treg population in BCG-vaccinated mice treated with juglone...
November 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Lauren Tennyson, Matthew Rytel, Stacy Palcsey, Leslie Meyn, Rui Liang, Pamela Moalli
BACKGROUND: Polypropylene mesh is widely used for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. While these surgeries demonstrate favorable functional and anatomical outcomes, their use has been limited by complications, the two most common being exposure and pain. Growing evidence suggests T lymphocytes play a critical role in regulating the host response to biomaterials. OBJECTIVES: To define and characterize the T cell response and correlate the response to collagen deposition in fibrotic capsules in mesh tissue complexes removed for the complications of pain versus exposure...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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