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CD8 T helper

Ping-Ping Cao, Zhi-Chao Wang, Robert P Schleimer, Zheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disorder with distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms. Based on the transcription factor expression and cytokine production patterns in different types of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), in parallel with those of adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T (Tc) cells, new perspectives on endotypes of patients are emerging around the immune response deviation into type 1 (orchestrated by ILC1s, Tc1 and Th1 cells), type 2 (characterized by ILC2s, Tc2 and Th2 cells), and type 3 (mediated by ILC3s, Tc17 and Th17 cells) responses...
October 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Ali Seidkhani-Nahal, Ali Noori-Zadeh, Salar Bakhtiyari, Afra Khosravi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuro-immunological demyelinating disease. From the immunological aspects, it is well accepted that T cells play a pivotal role in the etiology of the disease. T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells are thought to be the main pathogenic T cells in the pathogenesis of MS and are known as effector T cells. As the self-reactive T lymphocytes can escape clonal deletion in the thymus and subsequently are released into the periphery, there is an urgent need for peripheral tolerance, which is executed by the specialized regulatory T (Treg) cells...
October 15, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Anna Uri, Fred Lühder, Thomas Kerkau, Niklas Beyersdorf
Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) together with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are routinely used as second-line treatment for hematological malignancies. Mature T cells in the graft crucially mediate a Graft versus Leukemia (GvL) response, but also attack healthy tissues in the recipient leading to potentially life-threatening acute Graft versus Host Disease (aGvHD). Using inducible CD28 knock-out C57BL/6 mice as T cell donors we have now assessed whether CD28 costimulation of donor CD4+ and/ or CD8+ T cells is required for an efficient GvL effect after allogeneic T cell transplantation into BALB/c recipients...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Tala Shahin, Dominik Aschenbrenner, Deniz Cagdas, Sevgi Köstel Bal, Cecilia Domínguez Conde, Wojciech Garncarz, David Medgyesi, Tobias Schwerd, Betül Karaatmaca, Pınar Gur Cetinkaya, Saliha Esenboga, Stephen R F Twigg, Andrew Cant, Andrew O M Wilkie, Ilhan Tezcan, Holm H Uhlig, Kaan Boztug
Hyper-IgE Syndromes comprise a group of inborn errors of immunity. STAT3-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent infections and eczema, and characteristic skeletal anomalies. A loss-of-function biallelic mutation in IL6ST encoding the GP130 receptor subunit (p.N404Y) has very recently been identified in a singleton patient (herein referred to as PN404Y) as a novel etiology of hyper-IgE syndrome. Here, we studied a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome caused by a novel homozygous mutation in IL6ST (p...
October 11, 2018: Haematologica
Jorg van Loosdregt, Paul J Coffer
T cell factor, the effector transcription factor of the WNT signaling pathway, was so named because of the primary observation that it is indispensable for T cell development in the thymus. Since this discovery, the role of this signaling pathway has been extensively studied in T cell development, hematopoiesis, and stem cells; however, its functional role in mature T cells has remained relatively underinvestigated. Over the last few years, various studies have demonstrated that T cell factor can directly influence T cell function and the differentiation of Th1, Th2, Th17, regulatory T cell, follicular helper CD4+ T cell subsets, and CD8+ memory T cells...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Alessandra Peres, Gilson P Dorneles, Maria Carolina R Boeira, Lucas L Schipper, Ângela Beretta, Thais Vilela, Vanessa M Andrade, Pedro R T Romão
AIM: To evaluate the effects of acute fish oil supplementation (FOS) in DNA damage, lymphocyte phenotype and cytokines production after strenuous exercise in obese individuals. METHODS: Sixteen sedentary obese (BMI >30.0 to <35.0 kg/m²) men performed two sessions of exhaustive exercise and consumed 2000 mg of either placebo or fish oil one hour before the exercise session; trials were separated by 14 days. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected pre, immediately after and 1 h after both exercise sessions and stimulated in vitro with 2% phytohemagglutinin for cytokines secretion (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α)...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Feng Shi, Hong Chang, Quan Zhou, Yan-Jie Zhao, Guang-Jiang Wu, Qing-Kun Song
Purpose: Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer affecting Chinese women; however, the immune microenvironment between molecular subtypes is less reported. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) subpopulations, especially exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ TILs in Chinese BC patients. Patients and methods: A total of 133 patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma were recruited consecutively from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, and TILs were detected in H&E-stained sections...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Run Xiao, Stephen M Bergin, Wei Huang, Anthony G Mansour, Xianglan Liu, Ryan T Judd, Kyle J Widstrom, Nicholas J Queen, Ryan K Wilkins, Jason J Siu, Seemaab Ali, Michael A Caligiuri, Lei Cao
Environmental and social factors have profound impacts on immune homeostasis. Our work on environmental enrichment (EE) has revealed a novel anti-obesity and anticancer phenotype associated with enhanced activity of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we investigated how an EE modulated thymus and thymocyte development. EE decreased thymus mass and cellularity, decreased the double positive thymocyte population, increased the proportion of CD8+ T cells, reduced the CD4:CD8 ratio, and downregulated CD69 expression in T cells...
October 1, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Marie Baeck, Anne Herman, Laurence de Montjoye, Emilie Hendrickx, Paméla Chéou, Perrine M Cochez, Laure Dumoutier
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis has been described as a type IV reaction caused by antigen-specific T cells. Central roles for CD8+ cytotoxic T cells as effector cells and CD4+ T cells as regulatory cells have been suggested. T helper (Th) 2 and Th1 cytokines have been implicated; however, the nature of the allergen influences the Th response. OBJECTIVE: To determine the types of T cells and cytokines expressed in patients allergic to p-phenylenediamine (PPD)...
September 28, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Jolanda Brummelman, Karolina Pilipow, Enrico Lugli
On antigen encounter, naïve CD8+ and CD4+ T cells differentiate into a large number of effector cells that migrate to inflamed tissues to fight infections or tumors. Following elimination of the target, a few cells remain in the long-term, the so-called memory T cells that are capable to reexpand and respond more vigorously on a second encounter with the cognate antigen. While the naïve T cell compartment is fairly homogenous, effector and memory T cells are largely diverse, comprising dozens of subsets with diverse functions, molecular characteristics, and localization in the body...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Julia Roider, Takashi Maehara, Abigail Ngoepe, Duran Ramsuran, Maximilian Muenchhoff, Emily Adland, Toby Aicher, Samuel W Kazer, Pieter Jooste, Farina Karim, Warren Kuhn, Alex K Shalek, Thumbi Ndung'u, Lynn Morris, Penny L Moore, Shiv Pillai, Henrik Kløverpris, Philip Goulder, Alasdair Leslie
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1 are an effective means of preventing transmission. To better understand the mechanisms by which HIV-specific bnAbs naturally develop, we investigated blood and lymphoid tissue in pediatric infection, since potent bnAbs develop with greater frequency in children than adults. As in adults, the frequency of circulating effector T-follicular helper cells (TFH ) in HIV infected, treatment naïve children correlates with neutralization breadth. However, major differences between children and adults were also observed both in circulation, and in a small number of tonsil samples...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Noha B Hassan, Nagwa M Abo-ElMagd, Noha O Ahmed
Discriminating bacterial from nonbacterial acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) is difficult. In this study, we evaluated T/NK-cells' subsets in peripheral blood of both stable COPD and AE-COPD patients for identifying their rule in the pathogenesis of the disease and highlighting rule of laboratory biomarkers as total and differential leukocytic count, different T/NK lymphocytes' subsets, CD64 neutrophil expression and high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) in discriminating bacterial versus nonbacterial AE-COPD to limit overuse of antibiotics...
January 2018: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Eliska Javorkova, Nicole Matejckova, Alena Zajicova, Barbora Hermankova, Michaela Hajkova, Pavla Bohacova, Jan Kossl, Magdalena Krulova, Vladimir Holan
Pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves several mechanisms resulting in a shift from a neuroprotective to a neurotoxic immune reaction. A promising tool for ALS treatment is represented by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess both regenerative potential and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we aimed to compare the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of patients suffering from ALS and healthy donors. Moreover, the influence of proinflammatory cytokines on the immunoregulatory functions of MSCs was also evaluated...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Keiichi Koizumi, Minako Hoshiai, Takeshi Moriguchi, Nobuyuki Katsumata, Takako Toda, Hiroaki Kise, Yohei Hasebe, Yosuke Kono, Yuto Sunaga, Masashi Yoshizawa, Atsushi Watanabe, Norikazu Harii, Junko Goto, Keiko Kagami, Masako Abe, Kenichi Matsuda, Kanji Sugita
In Kawasaki disease (KD), the effect of plasma exchange (PE) on immune cells has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we examined the changes in the number of CD14+ CD16+ activated monocytes, regulatory T (Treg ), and T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells in KD patients treated with PE. The percentage of total monocytes and subclasses of lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells, showed no significant difference before and after PE. However, the percentage of CD14+ CD16+ monocytes in total leukocytes decreased significantly after PE (1...
September 21, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Kirk J Levins, S Prendeville, S Conlon, D J Buggy
BACKGROUND: Clinical histological studies demonstrate that the distribution of natural killer (NK) cells, other immune cells and μ-opioid receptors (MOR) within cancer tissue can predict cancer prognosis. No clinical study has evaluated whether anesthetic technique influences immune cell and MOR expression within human breast cancer. METHODS: Excised preoperative biopsies and intraoperative breast cancer specimens from 20 patients randomly chosen from patients previously enrolled in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial (NCT00418457) investigating the effect of anesthetic technique on long-term breast cancer outcome were immunohistochemically stained and microscopically examined by two independent investigators, masked to randomization, to quantify MOR and immune cell infiltration: CD56, CD57 (NK cells), CD4 (T helper cells), CD8 (cytotoxic T cells) and CD68 (macrophages)...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Hiroshi Arima, Momoko Nishikori, Yasuyuki Otsuka, Wataru Kishimoto, Kiyotaka Izumi, Koubun Yasuda, Tomohiro Yoshimoto, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo
The Notch-signaling pathway in a variety of mature B-cell neoplasms is often activated by gene alterations, but its role remains unclear. Here, we show that B cells harboring dysregulated activation of Notch1 signaling have an immunomodulatory effect on T cells by amplifying regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses in an interleukin-33 (IL-33)-dependent manner. A conditional mouse model, in which constitutive expression of an active form of Notch1 is induced in B cells by Aicda gene promoter-driven Cre recombinase, revealed no obvious phenotypic changes in B cells; however, mice demonstrated an expansion of Treg and Th2 cell subsets and a decrease in cytokine production by Th1 and CD8+ T cells...
September 25, 2018: Blood Advances
Franco Pissani, Bianca Schulte, Michael A Eller, Bruce T Schultz, Silvia Ratto-Kim, Mary Marovich, Prasert Thongcharoen, Somchai Sriplienchan, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Stefan Esser, Galit Alter, Merlin L Robb, Jerome H Kim, Nelson L Michael, Hendrik Streeck
To date, six vaccine strategies have been evaluated in clinical trials for their efficacy to induce protective immune responses against HIV infection. However, only ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX® B/E (RV144) has demonstrated protection, albeit modestly (31%, p=0.03). One potential correlate of protection was a low-frequency HIV-specific CD4 T cell population with diverse functionality. Although CD4 T cells, particularly T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are critical for effective antibody responses, most studies involving HIV vaccines focused on humoral immunity or CD8 T cell effector responses, while little is known about functionality and frequency of vaccine-induced CD4 T cells...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bret McCarty, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Matthew Generoso, Patricia Alvarez, Tiina Ilmet, Adam Kravietz, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz, Alka Khaitan
Background: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are crucial for B cell differentiation and antigen-specific antibody production. Dysregulation of Tfh-mediated B cell help weakens B cell responses in HIV infection. Moreover, Tfh cells in the lymph node and peripheral blood comprise a significant portion of the latent HIV reservoir. There is limited data on the effects of perinatal HIV infection on Tfh cells in children. We examined peripheral Tfh (pTfh) cell frequencies and phenotype in HIV-infected children and their associations with disease progression, immune activation, and B cell differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Christian Schmidl, Michael Delacher, Jochen Huehn, Markus Feuerer
During the last decade, advances in sequencing technologies allowed production of a wealth of information on epigenetic modifications in T cells. Epigenome maps, in combination with mechanistic studies, have demonstrated that T cells undergo extensive epigenome remodeling in response to signals, which has a strong effect on phenotypic stability and function of lymphocytes. In this review we focus on DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin structure as important epigenetic mechanisms involved in controlling T-cell responses...
September 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Amir Hossein Mohseni, Vadood Razavilar, Hossein Keyvani, Mohammad Reza Razavi, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad
The ORFs of both native and codon-optimized E7 genes were successfully fused to SPusp45 signal peptide and expressed by a nisin-controlled gene expression system (NICE) in NZ9000 strains of Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant strains were confirmed by Western blot analysis. To measure immune responses against the E7 antigen, specific-pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with L. lactis harboring pNZ8123-rE7 by oral gavage. Then, specific antibodies and cytokines were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, respectively...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
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