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Hair And Reconstruction

Haojian Lu, Yongbing Wen, Hao Zhang, Hui Xie, Yajing Shen
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been intensively used for imaging, characterization and manipulation at the micro- and nanoscale. Taking into account that the material is usually anisotropic, it needs to be characterized in various regions and orientations. Although recent advances of AFM techniques have allowed for large area scan of the sample on a two-dimensional plane, mapping a three-dimensional (3D) sample at a full orientation of 360° remains challenge. This paper reports a multiparametric imaging atomic force microscope via robot technique for 360° mapping and 3D reconstruction of the sample's topography and nanomechanical properties...
September 21, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Moein Mozaffarzadeh, Ali Hariri, Colman Moore, Jesse V Jokerst
Light-emitting diode-based photoacoustic imaging is more compact and affordable than laser-based systems, but it has low power and hence a high number of replicates. Here, we describe double-stage delay-multiply-and-sum (DS-DMAS) to improve image quality collected on a LED-based scanner. DS-DMAS was evaluated experimentally using point targets (in different laterals and depths) as well as a hair and a rabbit eye. This algorithm can compensate for the low SNR of LED-based systems and offer better lateral resolution of about 60%, 25%, higher contrast ratio of about 97%, 34%, and better full-width-half-maximum of about 60%, 25%, versus delay-and-sum) and delay-multiply-and-sum, respectively...
December 2018: Photoacoustics
Geoff Koehler, Keith A Hobson
We investigated the effect of tanning on the stable isotopic compositions (CNHOS) of hair keratin. Samples of hair from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hides were collected before and after the tanning process from a commercial tannery. With the exception of sulphur isotopes, tanning did not alter the stable isotopic compositions of hair. δ34 S values were slightly more positive (1 per mil) in hair that had gone through the tanning process, likely as a result of the tanning agent, alum (Al2 (SO4 )3 ) or exposure to sulphuric acid (H2 SO4 )...
September 24, 2018: Forensic Science International
Hyung Hwa Jeong, Dong Hoon Choi, Joon Pio Hong, Hyun Suk Suh
The highly contoured nature of the nose and the abundant free margin makes it especially difficult to reconstruct. In this report, we describe the use of a new helical rim free flap technique for the reconstruction of full-thickness nasal alar defects via supermicrosurgery. Briefly, after a wide excision with a margin of 0.7 cm, an alar defect with a size of 1×1×0.5cm was obtained, which included the full thickness of the skin, mucosa, and lower lateral cartilage. Vessel dissection was performed in a straightforward manner, starting from the incision margin for flap harvest, without any further dissection for reach the greater trunk of the superficial temporal artery...
September 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Hanseul Park, Jee-Hyun Hwang, Ji-Seok Han, Byoung-Seok Lee, Yong-Bum Kim, Kyung-Mi Joo, Min-Seok Choi, Sun-A Cho, Bae-Hwan Kim, Kyung-Min Lim
Permanent oxidative hair dyes are widely used but their toxicity is not well-established. Here we aimed to evaluate the skin sensitization and irritation of nine hair dye substances (MAP, MRP-N, RS, PAOX, 2,4-DAPE, 2,6-PYR, PPD, Grey HED and PM) permitted for use in EU and Korea, using in vitro and in chemico and in silico test methods. Skin sensitization was evaluated by the KeratinoSens™ assay, Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) and DEREK. Six of nine dyes tested were determined as sensitizers in common...
September 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Tanja Wagner, Maria Gschwandtner, Agata Strajeriu, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Johannes Grillari, Regina Grillari-Voglauer, Georg Greiner, Bahar Golabi, Erwin Tschachler, Michael Mildner
The advent of organotypic skin models advanced the understanding of complex mechanisms of keratinocyte differentiation. However, these models are limited by both availability of primary keratinocytes and donor variability. Keratinocytes derived from cultured hair follicles and interfollicular epidermis were immortalized by ectopic expression of SV40 and hTERT. The generated keratinocyte cell lines differentiated into stratified epidermis with well-defined stratum granulosum and stratum corneum in organotypic human skin models...
September 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lemlem Brook, Patricia Palade, Anas Maatough, Graham Kerr Whitfield, Lis San Emeterio, David Hsieh, Jui-Cheng Hsieh
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor and is associated with a poor prognosis, with most patients living less than a year after diagnosis. Given that GBM nearly always recurs after conventional treatments, there is an urgent need to identify novel molecular targets. Hairless (HR) is a nuclear factor enriched in the skin and has been previously implicated in hair cycling. HR is also highly expressed in the brain, but its significance is unknown. We found that human hairless gene (HR) expression is significantly decreased in all GBM subtypes compared with normal brain tissue and is predictive of prognosis, which suggests that loss of HR expression can contribute to GBM pathogenesis...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Omer J Ungar, Joseph B Nadol, Felipe Santos
Objective: To describe the histopathologic findings within the human cochlea in X-linked Alport syndrome. Study Design: Histopathologic analysis of cellular elements within the human cochlea by light microscopy. Materials and Methods: A right and a left cochleae of a man with genetically confirmed X-linked Alport syndrome was studied post-mortem. The temporal bones underwent standard processing for histologic examination. The slides were examined by light microscopy...
August 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Jingjing Jiang, Linda Ahnen, Scott Lindner, Aldo Di Costanzo Mata, Alexander Kalyanov, Felix Scholkmann, Martin Wolf, Salvador Sánchez Majos
Near-infrared optical tomography (NIROT) has great promise for many clinical problems. Here we focus on the study of brain function. During NIROT image reconstruction of brain activity, an inverse problem has to be solved that is sensitive to small superficial perturbations on the head such as e.g. birthmarks on the skin and hair. To consider these perturbations, standard physical modeling is unpractical, since it requires the implementation of detailed information that is generally unavailable. The aim here was to test whether artificial neural networks (ANN) are able to handle such perturbations and thus detect brain activity correctly...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Christy J Mancuso, James R Ehleringer
RATIONALE: Strontium isotope ratios (87 Sr/86 Sr) in human fingernail keratin tissues have been underexplored for region of origin and travel history reconstruction studies. Here we investigated 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios in fingernail keratin to establish baseline measurements in a resident group and to examine how 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios changed with relocation. METHODS: Fingernail clippings were collected from resident (n=10) and non-resident/traveler groups (n=4 and n=4) that were part of a larger study in Salt Lake City (UT, USA) from 2015 to 2016...
August 23, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Ozge Kose, Pinar Erkekoglu, Suna Sabuncuoglu, Belma Kocer-Gumusel
Human skin is a protective barrier against the toxic effects of cosmetics. Marketing of cosmetic products with ingredients tested on animals was prohibited in 2013. Since then, safety evaluation of cosmetic products is performed by using alternative in vitro toxicity tests. In vitro 3-D reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue models are now used to define skin irritation/corrosion potentials of cosmetic ingredients and end-products. The main aim of this study was to evaluate skin irritation potentials of topically used cosmetic end-products which were marketed in Turkey during 2015-2017, by using the EpiDerm in vitro 3D-human skin model...
August 20, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Atsushi Maruyama, Jun'ichiro Takemura, Hayato Sawada, Takaaki Kaneko, Yukihiro Kohmatsu, Atsushi Iriguchi
To complement literature-based historical knowledge of the eating habits of 17th- and 18th-century Japan, we analysed carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13 C and δ15 N, respectively) of human hairs embedded in cover paper of Japanese books printed during 1690s-1890s, taking regional and temporal variations into consideration. We purchased 24 book sets from second-hand book markets. Twenty-three sets contained enough human hairs, which were non-destructively extracted from the thick, recycled paper of the book covers and used to measure the δ13 C and δ15 N values, found to be identical within each book set...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kathryn Hamnett, Mahalakshmi Nagarajan, Azhar Iqbal
AIM: To assess the efficacy of the lotus petal flap in difficult pilonidal sinus management. BACKGROUND: Pilonidal sinuses may be difficult to treat. Five year recurrence rates range from 18% to 50% Recurrence rates fall with primary closure rather than healing by secondary intention. Techniques such as z-plasty however, distort natal architecture. The lotus petal flap taken from the superior buttock fills dead space whilst conforming to the natural concave appearance of the natal cleft...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Priscila R Oliveira, Marcos C Leonhardt, Vladimir C Carvalho, Kodi E Kojima, Jorge S Silva, Flavia Rossi, Ana Lucia L Lima
BACKGROUND: Diaphyseal fractures of femur and tibia are prominent due to its high incidence and high economic and social impact. Intramedullary nailing (IN) is the surgical procedure of choice. Surgical site infection (SSI) related to this procedure is considered a difficult to treat complication. AIMS: Determine the incidence of SSI after IN of femoral and tibial diaphyseal fractures and evaluate possible risk factors. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study...
October 2018: Injury
Anthony Bared
Hair restoration can be an integral addition to the facial plastic surgery practice. As surgeons dedicated to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery of the head and neck, hair restoration is a natural complement to a facial plastic surgeon's practice. This article presents the keys to adding and starting hair restoration to one's facial plastic surgery practice.
August 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
Vincent L'Hérault, Nicolas Lecomte, Marie-Hélène Truchon, Dominique Berteaux
RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis is widely used to reconstruct diet, delineate trophic interactions, and determine energy pathways. Such ecological inferences are based on the idea that animals are, isotopically, what they eat but with a predictable difference between the isotopic ratio of a consumer and that of its diet, coined as the discrimination factor. Providing correct estimates of diet-consumer isotopic discrimination in controlled conditions is key for a robust application of the stable isotopes technique in the wild...
July 21, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
A Viero, M Montisci, G Pelletti, S Vanin
The activity of arthropods on corpses has been largely investigated, since they can produce information to reconstruct the peri-mortem events. However, the feeding/movement activity of insects around the crime scene, among the clothes and on the body, can also cause some alterations that can lead to wrong reconstruction and misinterpretations. This article summarises all the post-mortem arthropods artefacts related to the scene (i.e. fly artefacts and floor stripes) and the body (i.e. skin and other soft tissue alterations, bone alterations and hair alterations) that can mislead the forensic pathologist, discussing macroscopic and microscopic findings derived from forensic casework and from experimental laboratory studies, in order to provide a useful instrument to avoid misinterpretations and evaluation errors...
June 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Paola Pilo, Joachim Frey
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, procures its particular virulence by a capsule and two AB type toxins: the lethal factor LF and the edema factor EF. These toxins primarily disable immune cells. Both toxins are translocated to the host cell by the adhesin-internalin subunit called protective antigen PA. PA enables LF to reach intra-luminal vesicles, where it remains active for long periods. Subsequently, LF translocates to non-infected cells, leading to inefficient late therapy of anthrax...
October 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Charlotte Rodrigues Neves, Susan Gibbs
Contact with the skin is inevitable or desirable for daily life products such as cosmetics, hair dyes, perfumes, drugs, household products, and industrial and agricultural products. Whereas the majority of these products are harmless, a number can become metabolized and/or activate the immunological defense via innate and adaptive mechanisms resulting in sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis upon following exposures to the same substance. Therefore, strict safety (hazard) assessment of actives and ingredients in products and drugs applied to the skin is essential to determine I) whether the chemical is a potential sensitizer and if so II) what is the safe concentration for human exposure to prevent sensitization from occurring...
June 23, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
George Janes, Daniel von Wangenheim, Sophie Cowling, Ian Kerr, Leah Band, Andrew P French, Anthony Bishopp
Phosphorus is a crucial macronutrient for plants playing a critical role in many cellular signaling and energy cycling processes. In light of this, phosphorus acquisition efficiency is an important target trait for crop improvement, but it also provides an ecological adaptation for growth of plants in low nutrient environments. Increased root hair density has been shown to improve phosphorus uptake and plant health in a number of species. In several plant families, including Brassicaceae, root hair bearing cells are positioned on the epidermis according to their position in relation to cortex cells, with hair cells positioned in the cleft between two underlying cortex cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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