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Hair And Reconstruction

Atsushi Maruyama, Jun'ichiro Takemura, Hayato Sawada, Takaaki Kaneko, Yukihiro Kohmatsu, Atsushi Iriguchi
To complement literature-based historical knowledge of the eating habits of 17th- and 18th-century Japan, we analysed carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13 C and δ15 N, respectively) of human hairs embedded in cover paper of Japanese books printed during 1690s-1890s, taking regional and temporal variations into consideration. We purchased 24 book sets from second-hand book markets. Twenty-three sets contained enough human hairs, which were non-destructively extracted from the thick, recycled paper of the book covers and used to measure the δ13 C and δ15 N values, found to be identical within each book set...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kathryn Hamnett, Mahalakshmi Nagarajan, Azhar Iqbal
AIM: To assess the efficacy of the lotus petal flap in difficult pilonidal sinus management. BACKGROUND: Pilonidal sinuses may be difficult to treat. Five year recurrence rates range from 18% to 50% Recurrence rates fall with primary closure rather than healing by secondary intention. Techniques such as z-plasty however, distort natal architecture. The lotus petal flap taken from the superior buttock fills dead space whilst conforming to the natural concave appearance of the natal cleft...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Priscila R Oliveira, Marcos C Leonhardt, Vladimir C Carvalho, Kodi E Kojima, Jorge S Silva, Flavia Rossi, Ana Lucia L Lima
BACKGROUND: Diaphyseal fractures of femur and tibia are prominent due to its high incidence and high economic and social impact. Intramedullary nailing (IN) is the surgical procedure of choice. Surgical site infection (SSI) related to this procedure is considered a difficult to treat complication. AIMS: Determine the incidence of SSI after IN of femoral and tibial diaphyseal fractures and evaluate possible risk factors. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study...
July 27, 2018: Injury
Anthony Bared
Hair restoration can be an integral addition to the facial plastic surgery practice. As surgeons dedicated to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery of the head and neck, hair restoration is a natural complement to a facial plastic surgeon's practice. This article presents the keys to adding and starting hair restoration to one's facial plastic surgery practice.
August 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
Vincent L'Hérault, Nicolas Lecomte, Marie-Hélène Truchon, Dominique Berteaux
RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis is widely used to reconstruct diet, delineate trophic interactions, and determine energy pathways. Such ecological inferences are based on the idea that animals are, isotopically, what they eat but with a predictable difference between the isotopic ratio of a consumer and that of its diet, coined as the discrimination factor. Providing correct estimates of diet-consumer isotopic discrimination in controlled conditions is key for a robust application of the stable isotopes technique in the wild...
July 21, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
A Viero, M Montisci, G Pelletti, S Vanin
The activity of arthropods on corpses has been largely investigated, since they can produce information to reconstruct the peri-mortem events. However, the feeding/movement activity of insects around the crime scene, among the clothes and on the body, can also cause some alterations that can lead to wrong reconstruction and misinterpretations. This article summarises all the post-mortem arthropods artefacts related to the scene (i.e. fly artefacts and floor stripes) and the body (i.e. skin and other soft tissue alterations, bone alterations and hair alterations) that can mislead the forensic pathologist, discussing macroscopic and microscopic findings derived from forensic casework and from experimental laboratory studies, in order to provide a useful instrument to avoid misinterpretations and evaluation errors...
June 24, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Paola Pilo, Joachim Frey
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, procures its particular virulence by a capsule and two AB type toxins: the lethal factor LF and the edema factor EF. These toxins primarily disable immune cells. Both toxins are translocated to the host cell by the adhesin-internalin subunit called protective antigen PA. PA enables LF to reach intra-luminal vesicles, where it remains active for long periods. Subsequently, LF translocates to non-infected cells, leading to inefficient late therapy of anthrax...
June 20, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Charlotte Rodrigues Neves, Susan Gibbs
Contact with the skin is inevitable or desirable for daily life products such as cosmetics, hair dyes, perfumes, drugs, household products, and industrial and agricultural products. Whereas the majority of these products are harmless, a number can become metabolized and/or activate the immunological defense via innate and adaptive mechanisms resulting in sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis upon following exposures to the same substance. Therefore, strict safety (hazard) assessment of actives and ingredients in products and drugs applied to the skin is essential to determine I) whether the chemical is a potential sensitizer and if so II) what is the safe concentration for human exposure to prevent sensitization from occurring...
June 23, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
George Janes, Daniel von Wangenheim, Sophie Cowling, Ian Kerr, Leah Band, Andrew P French, Anthony Bishopp
Phosphorus is a crucial macronutrient for plants playing a critical role in many cellular signaling and energy cycling processes. In light of this, phosphorus acquisition efficiency is an important target trait for crop improvement, but it also provides an ecological adaptation for growth of plants in low nutrient environments. Increased root hair density has been shown to improve phosphorus uptake and plant health in a number of species. In several plant families, including Brassicaceae, root hair bearing cells are positioned on the epidermis according to their position in relation to cortex cells, with hair cells positioned in the cleft between two underlying cortex cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
D A Weiss, C J Long, J R Frazier, A R Shukla, A K Srinivasan, T F Kolon, H DiCarlo, J P Gearhart, D A Canning
INTRODUCTION: Re-operative penile reconstruction is challenging and requires tension-free skin closure. The repair popularized by Cecil and Culp in the 1940s, using the scrotum to provide a temporary vascularized bed for complex hypospadias repairs, fell out of favor due to temporal trends towards single-stage repairs and concern for utilizing hair-bearing skin on the penile shaft. OBJECTIVE: It was hypothesized that a modified Cecil-Culp (CC) concept of penile scrotalization, leaving the penis attached to the scrotum for 1 year rather than 6 weeks as originally described, improves outcomes with this reconstruction for ventral skin deficiency or poor vascular support...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Xuyin Zhang, Yan Ding, Keqin Hua, Songping Liu, Nan Jia
OBJECTIVE: To introduce a creation that combines laparoscopic and Wharton-Sheares-George cervicovaginal reconstruction using SIS graft in a patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome who had a rudimentary cavity (U5aC4V4). DESIGN: Video article introducing a new surgical technique. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): A 24-year-old patient had primary amenorrhea and irregular lower abdominal pain for 9 years...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Daniel C Ellwanger, Mirko Scheibinger, Rachel A Dumont, Peter G Barr-Gillespie, Stefan Heller
Protruding from the apical surface of inner ear sensory cells, hair bundles carry out mechanotransduction. Bundle growth involves sequential and overlapping cellular processes, which are concealed within gene expression profiles of individual cells. To dissect such processes, we developed CellTrails, a tool for uncovering, analyzing, and visualizing single-cell gene-expression dynamics. Utilizing quantitative gene-expression data for key bundle proteins from single cells of the developing chick utricle, we reconstructed de novo a bifurcating trajectory that spanned from progenitor cells to mature striolar and extrastriolar hair cells...
June 5, 2018: Cell Reports
Alejandra Tomás-Velázquez, Pedro Redondo
Importance: Forehead reconstruction after Mohs surgery has become a challenge for dermatology surgeons, and achieving an excellent cosmetic and functional result is imperative in this location. Objective: To highlight the utility of a frontalis myocutaneous transposition flap (FMTF) for forehead reconstruction after Mohs surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Surgical technique case series including 12 patients with large forehead defects recruited between January 2010 and June 2017 at the Dermatology Department of the University Clinic of Navarra, Spain...
June 1, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Longcan Liu, Yuanbo Liu, Mengqing Zang, Shan Zhu, Bo Chen, Shanshan Li
Objective: To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of sideburn reconstruction using the expanded island scalp flap based on the parietal branch of the superficial temporal vessel. Methods: Between February 2012 and April 2015, 7 patients underwent sideburn reconstruction. There were 3 males and 4 females with an average age of 15 years (range, 4-44 years). The etiologies included burn injury in 3 cases, trauma in 1 case, radiation therapy in 1 case, and congenital melanocytic nevus in 2 cases...
November 1, 2017: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Brian J Mickey, Yarden Ginsburg, Adam F Sitzmann, Clara Grayhack, Srijan Sen, Clemens Kirschbaum, Daniel F Maixner, James L Abelson
While biomarkers have been used to define pathophysiological types and to optimize treatment in many areas of medicine, in psychiatry such biomarkers remain elusive. Based on previously described abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in severe forms of depression, we hypothesized that the temporal trajectory of basal cortisol levels would vary among individuals with depression due to heterogeneity in pathophysiology, and that cortisol trajectories that reflect elevated or increasing HPA activity would predict better response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)...
August 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Mofiyinfolu Sokoya, Jared Inman, Yadranko Ducic
Reconstructing the scalp and forehead is a challenging endeavor frequently undertaken by facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons. There are many anatomical factors to be considered in this area, including multiple neurovascular structure present that should be identified and preserved. Hair morphology and physiology should be considered, and trichophytic techniques should be incorporated into incision planning and closure. The reconstructive ladder must be used when considering options in reconstructing scalps and forehead defects...
May 2018: Seminars in Plastic Surgery
Yang Li, Weiyang Li, Chaohua Liu, Qing Yang, Ping Xue, Hengxin Liu, Jiangbo Cui, Jianke Ding, Yingjun Su, Xianjie Ma
Skin grafting is often the first choice for closing forehead defects. However, the aesthetics of skin grafting-reconstructed forehead defects are still not accepted by a large number of patients. With the technological advancement of laser hair removal, scalp flaps have been considered as donors for reconstruction of forehead defects. We evaluated 10 cases of forehead defect reconstructions with expanded scalp flaps followed by hair removal by an 800 nm diode laser. All flaps survived uneventfully and underwent 4-6 laser treatments for hair removal...
August 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Israt Jahan, Karen L Elliott, Bernd Fritzsch
The mammalian hearing organ is a stereotyped cellular assembly with orderly innervation: two types of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) innervate two types of differentially distributed hair cells (HCs). HCs and SGNs evolved from single neurosensory cells through gene multiplication and diversification. Independent regulation of HCs and neuronal differentiation through expression of basic Helix-loop-Helix transcription factors (bHLH TFs: Atoh1, Neurog1, Neurod1) led to the evolution of vestibular HC assembly and their unique type of innervation...
April 26, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Xianghong Lou, Hang Xue, Gongchi Li, Kun Wang, Pan Zhou, Binghui Li, Jianghai Chen
Dermal regeneration template, such as Integra and Pelnac, was originally designed for treating large area burn injury by inducing regeneration of dermis. To date, it has been widely applied in various acute and chronic wound sites. The present study demonstrated that application of artificial dermis alone induced 1-stage wound healing for wounds with bone or tendon exposure that should usually be repaired by flap surgery. Eight patients who presented with skin defects with bone and/or tendon exposure were treated by 1-stage Pelnac approach...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Abdullah E Kattan, Mohammad M Al-Qattan
INTRODUCTION: The face is unique because functional and aesthetic considerations are equally important. Extensive deep chemical burns of the face are usually reconstructed with flaps. In males, the use of the hair - bearing superficial temporal artery flap has the advantage of achieving a satisfactory outcome with regards to both function and aesthetics. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 49-year-old man sustained a deep chemical burn to the right side of the face and neck...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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