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Review nano

Muhammad Nawaz, Neelam Shah, Bruna Riedo Zanetti, Marco Maugeri, Renata Nacasaki Silvestre, Farah Fatima, Luciano Neder, Hadi Valadi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane enclosed micro- and nano-sized vesicles that are secreted from almost every species, ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, and from almost every cell type studied so far. EVs contain repertoire of bioactive molecules such as proteins (including enzymes and transcriptional factors), lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids including DNA, coding and non-coding RNAs. The secreted EVs are taken up by neighboring cells where they release their content in recipient cells, or can sail through body fluids to reach distant organs...
October 13, 2018: Cells
Zhe Wang, Yaou Duan, Yanwen Duan
Inspired by the bionics of marine mussels, polydopamine (PDA), a new polymer with unique physicochemical properties was discovered. Due to its simple preparation, good biocompatibility, unique drug-loading methods, PDA has attracted tremendous attentions in field of drug delivery and imaging, and the combination of chemotherapy and other therapies or diagnostic methods, such as photothermotherapy (PTT), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), etc. As an excellent drug carrier in tumor targeted drug delivery system, the drug release behavior of drug-loaded PDA-based nanoparticles is also an important factor to be considered in the establishment of drug delivery systems...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Joana Cardigos, Quirina Ferreira, Sara Crisóstomo, Nuno Coelho, João Paulo Cunha, Luís Abegão Pinto, Joana Tavares Ferreira
Nanotechnology enabled the development of materials and devices with great utility in different fields of medicine. By using engineered-based nano-devices and structures, human biological systems may be controlled and repaired at a molecular scale, ultimately leading to a biological benefit. In particular, in the field of glaucoma treatment, nanotechnology may, for example, enhance drug residence time on the ocular surface and ocular bioavailability, as well as improve surgical success by both optimizing post-operative scarring and providing a wider safety window...
October 12, 2018: Current Eye Research
Afsar Khan, Rabia Hameed
One of the major goals of computational chemists is to determine and develop the pathways for anticancer drug discovery and development. In recent past, high performance computing systems threw the light to elicit our desired results, with little or no side effects. Different approaches to facilitate anticancer drug discovery include determination of actual targets, multi-targeted drug discovery, ligand-protein inverse docking, virtual screening of drug like compounds, formation of di-nuclear analogs of drugs, drug specific nano-carrier design, kinetic and trapping studies in drug design, multi-target QSAR model, targeted co-delivery of anticancer drug and siRNA, formation of stable inclusion complex, determination of mechanism of drug resistance, and designing drug like libraries for the prediction of drug-like compounds...
October 9, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Kerstin Rabel, Benedikt Christopher Spies, Stefano Pieralli, Kirstin Vach, Ralf-Joachim Kohal
OBJECTIVE: This review aimed at evaluating the survival and technical complication rates of all-ceramic implant-supported single crowns (SC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched for clinical studies conducted at ≥ 15 patients examining implant-supported all-ceramic SCs over ≥ 12 months. Survival rates of implants and restorations plus technical complication rates of SCs were calculated and tested for statistical correlation with confounding variables...
October 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Nga Phung, Antonio Abate
Halide perovskites have emerged recently as a promising candidate for the next generation of photovoltaics. Power conversion efficiencies for laboratory-scale devices surpass those of established technologies, such as multicrystalline silicon. However, perovskite solar cells lose their initial efficiency rapidly due to the convolution of several degradation factors, which hinder the process of industrialization. In this review, the important role of the nano- and microstructure of the perovskite layer in the performance and stability of the device are discussed...
October 7, 2018: Small
Luca Andriolo, Giulia Merli, Carlos Tobar, Sante Alessandro Altamura, Elizaveta Kon, Giuseppe Filardo
There is an error in the original publication. Affiliation of corresponding author (Giulia Merli) was incorrectly published. Correct presentation is Nano-Biotechnology Laboratory-NaBi IRCCS- Istituto Ortopedico, Rizzoli, Italy.
October 8, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Linbo Liu, Ke Chen, Nan Xiang, Zhonghua Ni
Nanomaterials manipulation using dielectrophoresis (DEP) is one of the major research areas that could potentially benefit the micro/nano science for diverse applications, such as microfluidics, nanomachine, and biosensor. The innovation and development of basic theories, methods or applications will have a huge impact on the entire related field. Specifically, for DEP manipulation of nanomaterials, improvements in comprehensive performance of accuracy, flexibility and scale could promote broader applications in micro/nano science...
October 5, 2018: Electrophoresis
Ana J Šetrajčić-Tomić, Jovan K Popović, Matilda Vojnović, Ljubiša D Džambas, Jovan P Šetrajčić
The main advantage of a theoretical approach is essential knowledge of the mechanisms that allow us to comprehend the experimental conditions that we have to fulfill to be able to get the desired results. Based on our research in ultrathin crystal structures performed so far, superlattices, Q-wires and Q-dots, we will consider the materials that can act as carriers for medicines and tagged substances. For this purpose we established a shell-model of ultrathin crystals and investigated their fundamental characteristics...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Gangfeng Xiao, Qinxiang Xia, Xiuquan Cheng, Weiping Chen
Two different methods, power spinning and annealing (PSA), quenching and power spinning followed by annealing (QPSA), for manufacturing the cylindrical parts with ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure were reviewed, the dislocation density and microstructural evolution during the two different processes of PSA and QPSA were further studied. The results show that the required strains for obtaining the UFG structure by power spinning is only 0.92 when the initial microstructure of the material is in the phase of lath martensite...
October 2, 2018: Materials
Swati Sharma
When certain polymers are heat-treated beyond their degradation temperature in the absence of oxygen, they pass through a semi-solid phase, followed by the loss of heteroatoms and the formation of a solid carbon material composed of a three-dimensional graphenic network, known as glassy (or glass-like) carbon. The thermochemical decomposition of polymers, or generally of any organic material, is defined as pyrolysis. Glassy carbon is used in various large-scale industrial applications and has proven its versatility in miniaturized devices...
September 28, 2018: Materials
Margarida S Miranda, Márcia T Rodrigues, Rui M A Domingues, Egídio Torrado, Rui L Reis, Jorge Pedrosa, Manuela E Gomes
The growing interest on polymeric delivery systems for pulmonary administration of drugs anticipates a more direct and efficient treatment of diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) that uses the pulmonary route as the natural route of infection. Polymeric microparticles or nano-in-microparticles offer target delivery of drugs to the lungs and the potential to control and sustain drug release within TB infected macrophages improving the efficiency of the anti-TB treatment and reducing side effects. In a dry powder form these inhalable delivery systems have increased stability and prolonged storage time without requiring refrigeration, besides being cost-effective and patient convenient...
December 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Sahana Ramanathan, Govindaraju Archunan, Muthusamy Sivakumar, Subramanian Tamil Selvan, A Lenin Fred, Sundramurthy Kumar, Balázs Gulyás, Parasuraman Padmanabhan
The preeminent treatments for neurodegenerative disease are often unavailable due to the poor accessibility of therapeutic drugs. Moreover, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) effectively blocks the transfer of cells, particles and large molecules, ie, drugs, across the brain. The most important challenge in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is the development of targeted drug delivery system. Theranostic strategies are known to combine therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities together. The aim of this review was to record the response to treatment and thereby improve drug safety...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Jia Du, Junhong Tang, Shaodan Xu, Jingyuan Ge, Yuwei Dong, Huanxuan Li, Meiqing Jin
The widespread application of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) has received increasing attention because of their potential risks to human health and the environment. This review summarizes the relationship between the toxic effects and physicochemical properties of nano-ZnO and the underlying toxicity mechanisms of nano-ZnO. This study presents the possible human health hazards posed by nano-ZnO exposure and the biotoxicity to bacteria, algae, higher plants, aquatic animals, terrestrial invertebrates and vertebrates in vitro and in vivo...
September 28, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Łukasz Lamch, Agata Pucek, Julita Kulbacka, Michał Chudy, Elżbieta Jastrzębska, Katarzyna Tokarska, Magdalena Bułka, Zbigniew Brzózka, Kazimiera A Wilk
This up-to-date review summarizes the design and current fabrication strategies that have been employed in the area of mono- and multifunctional colloidal nanoparticles - nanocarriers well suited for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and diagnostic purposes. Rationally engineered photosensitizer (PS)-loaded nanoparticles may be achieved via either noncovalent (i.e., self-aggregation, interfacial deposition, interfacial polymerization, or core-shell entrapment along with physical adsorption) or covalent (chemical immobilization or conjugation) processes...
September 18, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Muhammad Adeel, Muhammad Bilal, Tahir Rasheed, Ashutosh Sharma, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Graphene-based nanomaterials have gained high research interest in different fields related to proteins and thus are rapidly becoming the most widely investigated carbon-based materials. Their exceptional physiochemical properties such as electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical strength enable graphene to render graphene-based nanostructured materials suitable for applications in different fields such as electroanalytical chemistry, electrochemical sensors and immobilization of biomolecules and enzymes...
September 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Alice Pinheiro, Andreia M Silva, José H Teixeira, Raquel M Gonçalves, Maria I Almeida, Mário A Barbosa, Susana G Santos
Extracellular vesicles (EV), in particular exosomes, have been the object of intense research, due to their potential to mediate intercellular communication, modulating the phenotype of target cells. The natural properties and functions of EV are being exploited as biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis, and as nano-bio-carriers for the development of new therapeutic strategies. EV have been particularly examined in the field of cancer, but are also increasingly investigated in other areas, like immune-related diseases and regenerative medicine...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Alexander Stolz, Kevin Jooß, Oliver Höcker, Jennifer Römer, Johannes Schlecht, Christian Neusüß
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers fast and high-resolution separation of charged analytes from small injection volumes. Coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), it represents a powerful analytical technique providing (exact) mass information and enables molecular characterization based on fragmentation. Although hyphenation of CE and MS is not straightforward, much emphasis has been placed on enabling efficient ionization and user-friendly coupling. Though several interfaces are now commercially available, research on more efficient and robust interfacing with nano-electrospray ionization (ESI), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP) continues with considerable results...
September 27, 2018: Electrophoresis
Yijing Liu, Pravin Bhattarai, Zhifei Dai, Xiaoyuan Chen
The nonradiative conversion of light energy into heat (photothermal therapy, PTT) or sound energy (photoacoustic imaging, PAI) has been intensively investigated for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer, respectively. By taking advantage of nanocarriers, both imaging and therapeutic functions together with enhanced tumour accumulation have been thoroughly studied to improve the pre-clinical efficiency of PAI and PTT. In this review, we first summarize the development of inorganic and organic nano photothermal transduction agents (PTAs) and strategies for improving the PTT outcomes, including applying appropriate laser dosage, guiding the treatment via imaging techniques, developing PTAs with absorption in the second NIR window, increasing photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE), and also increasing the accumulation of PTAs in tumours...
September 27, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Ali H El-Far, Soad K Al Jaouni, Weikun Li, Shaker A Mousa
The focus on nanotechnology for improved bioavailability and drug delivery is of increasing importance for control of different human diseases. Therefore, numerous nanoformulations have been developed for the oral bioavailability of different drugs. This review introduces applications of nanomedicine to enhance the biological activities of thymoquinone (TQ) to control different diseases in several in vivo studies as a preliminary investigation for human disease treatment with nano-TQ. Nano-TQ effectively augments the anticancer roles of doxorubicin by upregulation of P53 and downregulation of Bcl2 and potentiates paclitaxel's apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
September 25, 2018: Nutrients
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