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Bernabé L Rivas, Bruno F Urbano, Julio Sánchez
The polymeric materials have presented a great development in adsorption processes for the treatment of polluted waters. The aim of the current review is to present the recent developments in this field of study by examining research of systems like functional water-soluble polymers and water-soluble polymer-metal complexes coupled to ultrafiltration membranes for decontamination processes in liquid-liquid phase. Noticing that a water-soluble polymer can be turned into insoluble compounds by setting a crosslinking point, connecting the polymer chains leading to polymer resins suitable for solid-liquid extraction processes...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Bhagyashri S Thorat Gadgil, Naresh Killi, Gundloori V N Rathna
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers synthesized by bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. These biopolymers are considered as potential biomaterials for future applications because they are biocompatible, biodegradable, and easy to produce and functionalize with strong mechanical strength. Currently, PHAs are being extensively innovated for biomedical applications due to their prerequisite properties. The wide range of biomedical applications includes drug delivery systems, implants, tissue engineering, scaffolds, artificial organ constructs, etc...
September 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Vimala Devi Subramaniam, Suhanya Veronica Prasad, Antara Banerjee, Madhumala Gopinath, Ramachandran Murugesan, Francesco Marotta, Xiao-Feng Sun, Surajit Pathak
In recent years, nanoparticles are being used extensively in personal healthcare products such as cosmetics, sunscreens, soaps, and shampoos. Particularly, metal oxide nanoparticles are gaining competence as key industrial constituents, progressing toward a remarkable rise in their applications. Zinc oxide and titanium oxide nanoparticles are the most commonly employed metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens, ointments, foot care, and over the counter topical products. Dermal exposure to these metal oxides predominantly occurs through explicit use of cosmetic products and airway exposure to nanoparticle dusts is primarily mediated via occupational exposure...
August 13, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Sweet Naskar, Ketousetuo Koutsu, Suraj Sharma
Chitosan (CS) is one of the most functional natural biopolymer widely used in the pharmaceutical field due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. These privileges lead to its application in the synthesis of NPs for the drug during the last two decades. This article gives rise to a general review of the different chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) preparation techniques: Ionic gelation, emulsion cross-linking, spray-drying, emulsion-droplet coalescence method, nanoprecipitation, reverse micellar method, desolvation method, modified ionic gelation with radial polymerization and emulsion solvent diffusion, from the point of view of the methodological and mechanistic aspects involved...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Madhulika Pradhan, Amit Alexander, Manju Rawat Singh, Deependra Singh, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Ajazuddin
Psoriasis is a consistently recurring, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of the skin, affecting about 2-5% of the world population. Abundant therapeutic agents are accessible for the treatment of psoriasis. Nevertheless, none of them are entirely secure and effective to treat the disease without compromising patient compliance. Furthermore, already existing drugs are supposed to restrain the ailment and alleviate the sign and symptoms with no complete cure. However, they focus on restraining the disease and alleviating the symptoms without providing an absolute cure...
August 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Bo Sun, Weijun Wang, Zhibin He, Min Zhang, Fangong Kong, Mohini Sain, Yonghao Ni
Tea polyphenols have received much attention from the pharmaceutical and food industries owing to their extraordinary antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics. However, tea polyphenols are very unstable to processing and storage, since they are sensitive to the environmental factors like temperature, light and pH. Therefore, the effective application of tea polyphenols requires a protective mechanism to maintain its activity. The utilization of compounded tea polyphenols, instead of raw materials, can potentially help to improve their stability...
August 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Erfaneh Ghassami, Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri
BACKGROUND: Among the numerous bio-responsive polymeric drug delivery systems developed recently, redox-triggered release of molecular payloads have gained great deal of attention, especially in the field of anticancer drug delivery. In most cases, these systems rely on disulfide bonds located either in the matrix cross-link, or in auxiliary chains to achieve stimuli-responsive drug release. These bonds keep their stability in extracellular environments, yet, rapidly break by thiol-disulfide exchange reactions in the cytosol, due to the presence of greater levels of glutathione...
August 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Mani Balamurugan, Natarajan Saravanan, Heonjin Ha, Yoon Ho Lee, Ki Tae Nam
Manganese plays multiple role in many biological redox reactions in which it exists in different oxidation states from Mn(II) to Mn(IV). Among them the high-valent manganese-oxo intermediate plays important role in the activity of certain enzymes and lessons from the natural system provide inspiration for new developments of artificial systems for a sustainable energy supply and various organic conversions. This review describes recent advances and key lessons learned from the nature on high-valent Mn-oxo intermediates...
2018: Nano Convergence
Channay Naidoo, Cherie Ann Kruger, Heidi Abrahamse
This review article is based on specifically targeted nanoparticles that have been used in the treatment of melanoma. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, within 2017 an estimated 9730 people will die due to invasive melanoma. Conventional treatments for nonmalignant melanoma include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. For the treatment of metastatic melanoma, 3 therapeutic agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration: dacarbazine, recombinant interferon α-2b, and high-dose interleukin 2...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Pierre Champigneux, Marie-Line Delia, Alain Bergel
From a fundamental standpoint, microbial electrochemistry is unravelling a thrilling link between life and materials. Technically, it may be the source of a large number of new processes such as microbial fuel cells for powering remote sensors, autonomous sensors, microbial electrolysers and equipment for effluent treatment. Microbial electron transfers are also involved in many natural processes such as biocorrosion. In this context, a huge number of studies have dealt with the impact of electrode materials, coatings and surface functionalizations but very few have focused on the effect of the surface topography, although it has often been pointed out as a key parameter impacting the performance of electroactive biofilms...
July 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Feng Li, Xiaosong Jiang, Zhenyi Shao, Degui Zhu, Zhiping Luo
Titanium alloy/Hydroxyapatite (HA) composites have become a hot research topic in biomedical materials, while there are some challenges concerning bioactivity and mechanical properties such as low interface adhesion at the interface between metal and ceramic, complex interfacial reactions, and so on. Nevertheless, composites with reinforced phases can reach special properties that meet the requirements of biomedical materials due to the strong interfacial interactions between reinforcing phases (nano-carbon, partial oxides, and so on) and Titanium alloys or HA...
August 9, 2018: Materials
Noe Escareno, Antonio Topete, Pablo Taboada, Adrian Daneri-Navarro
The use of colloidal particles as drug delivery carriers holds a great promise in terms of improvement of traditional treatment and diagnosis of human diseases. Nano- and microsized particles of different composition including organic and inorganic materials can be fabricated with a great control over size, shape and surface properties. Nevertheless, only some few formulations have surpassed the benchtop and reached the bedside. The principal obstacle of colloidal drug delivery systems is their poor accumulation in target tissues, organs and cells, mainly by the efficient sequestration and elimination by the mononuclear phagocytic system...
August 10, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Frank S Bierkandt, Lars Leibrock, Sandra Wagener, Peter Laux, Andreas Luch
During the last few decades, nanotechnology has evolved into a success story, apparent from a steadily increasing number of scientific publications as well as a large number of applications based on engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Its widespread uses suggest a high relevance for consumers, workers and the environment, hence justifying intensive investigations into ENM-related adverse effects as a prerequisite for nano-specific regulations. In particular, the inhalation of airborne ENMs, being assumed to represent the most hazardous type of human exposure to these kinds of particles, needs to be scrutinized...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology Research
Henry Lujan, Christie M Sayes
Nanotechnology is advancing rapidly; many industries are utilizing nanomaterials because of their remarkable properties. As of 2017, over 1800 "nano-enabled products" ( i.e. products that incorporate a nanomaterial feature and alter the product's performance) have been used to revolutionize pharmaceutical, transportation, and agriculture industries, just to name a few. As the number of nano-enabled products continues to increase, the risk of nanoparticle exposure to humans and the surrounding environment also increases...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology Research
V Gopinath, S Saravanan, A R Al-Maleki, M Ramesh, Jamuna Vadivelu
Natural polysaccharides are renewable with a high degree of biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ability to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. Comprehensive investigations of polysaccharides are essential for our fundamental understanding of exploiting its potential as bio-composite, nano-conjugate and in pharmaceutical sectors. Polysaccharides are considered to be superior to other polymers, for its ease in tailoring, bio-compatibility, bio-activity, homogeneity and bio-adhesive properties...
August 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Henk Goede, Yvette Christopher-de Vries, Eelco Kuijpers, Wouter Fransman
This review describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of Risk Management Measures (RMM) for nanomaterials in the workplace. Our aim was to review the effectiveness of workplace RMM for nanomaterials and to determine whether established effectiveness values of conventional chemical substances applied for modelling purposes should be adopted or revised based on available evidence. A literature review was conducted to collate nano-specific data on workplace RMM. Besides the quantitative efficacy values, the library was populated with important covariables such as the study design, measurement type, size of particles or agglomerates/aggregates, and metrics applied...
August 4, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Akshant Kumavat, Prachi Dapse, Narendra Kumar, Dinesh Mishra, Rahul Maheshwari, Pallab Bhattacharya, Rakesh Kumar Tekade
RNA interference (RNAi), as a novel technique in which RNA molecules limit or silence the gene expression, is currently a hot research topic for producing novel therapeutic materials for challenging diseases. In the development of RNAi-based therapies, nanoscale particles, with a varying diameter along with facile modification methods and can mediate effective RNAi with targeting potential, are gaining wide interest. The nanotechnology itself has tremendous potential in the field of healthcare, especially for the development of better pharmaceuticals...
August 6, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Walter M Goldberg
Tropical scleractinian corals are dependent to varying degrees on their photosymbiotic partners. Under normal levels of temperature and irradiance, they can provide most, but not all, of the host's nutritional requirements. Heterotrophy is required to adequately supply critical nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Scleractinian corals are known as mesozooplankton predators, and most employ tentacle capture. The ability to trap nano- and picoplankton has been demonstrated by several coral species and appears to fulfill a substantial proportion of their daily metabolic requirements...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Manu M Joseph, Nisha Narayanan, Jyothi B Nair, Varsha Karunakaran, Adukkadan N Ramya, Palasseri T Sujai, Giridharan Saranya, Jayadev S Arya, Vineeth M Vijayan, Kaustabh Kumar Maiti
Excellent multiplexing capability, molecular specificity, high sensitivity and the potential of resolving complex molecular level biological compositions augmented the diagnostic modality of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in biology and medicine. While maintaining all the merits of classical Raman spectroscopy, SERS provides a more sensitive and selective detection and quantification platform. Non-invasive, chemically specific and spatially resolved analysis facilitates the exploration of SERS-based nano probes in diagnostic and theranostic applications with improved clinical outcomes compared to the currently available so called state-of-art technologies...
July 26, 2018: Biomaterials
Jhones Luiz de Oliveira, Estefania Vangelie Ramos Campos, Leonardo F Fraceto
In recent years, the use of substances of natural origin, such as botanical pesticides, has emerged as a preferred alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides, the excessive use of which has raised a lot of concern over safety to human/animal health and the environment. Recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up a new avenue for the development of more efficient formulations that can overcome many of the obstacles generally faced in their use in the field, such as loss of activity because of degradation, instability, volatilization, etc...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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