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M P Taraka Prabhu, Nandini Sarkar
Amyloids are highly ordered beta sheet rich stable protein aggregates, which have been found to play a significant role in the onset of several degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Type II diabetes mellitus and so on. Aggregation of proteins leading to amyloid fibril formation via intermediate(s), is thought to be a nucleated condensation polymerization process associated with many pathological conditions. There has been extensive research to identify inhibitors of these disease oriented aggregation processes...
December 11, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Najmeh Ahangari, Saeid Kargozar, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Francesco Baino, Alireza Pasdar, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Gordon A A Ferns, Hae-Won Kim, Masoud Mozafari
Curcumin is the principal polyphenolic compound present in turmeric with broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It has some important inherent properties with the potential to facilitate tissue healing, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antibacterial activities. Therefore, curcumin has been used for the treatment of various damaged tissues, especially wound injuries. There are different forms of curcumin, among which nano-formulations are of a great importance in regenerative medicine...
December 8, 2018: BioFactors
Alexander Alabugin
Photoactive molecules enable much of modern biology and biochemistry - a vast library of fluorescent chromophores is used to track and label cellular structures and macromolecules. However, photochemistry is better-known to the synthetic or physical organic chemist as a "light switch" that turns on unusual excited-state reactivity, isomerization, or dynamic adjustment of structure. This review details a rapidly growing approach to bio-photochemistry that uses low-energy near-IR wavelengths not only for imaging, but for close spatial control over chemical switching events in biosystems...
December 7, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Massimo Marrelli, Bruna Codispoti, Richard M Shelton, Ben A Scheven, Paul R Cooper, Marco Tatullo, Francesco Paduano
Dental pulp is known to be an accessible and important source of multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells termed dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and maintain pulp homeostasis by the formation of new dentin which protects the underlying pulp. DPSCs similar to other mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in a niche, a complex microenvironment consisting of an extracellular matrix, other local cell types and biochemical stimuli that influence the decision between stem cell (SC) self-renewal and differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Baozhang Guan, Ruiling Yan, Ruiman Li, Xingwang Zhang
Selenium as a biologically active element lends much support to health maintenance and disease prevention. It is now presenting pleiotropic effects on therapy and drug delivery. In this study, a profiling on the physiological functions, therapeutic significances, clinical/preclinical performances, and biomedical and drug delivery applications of selenium in different modalities was carried out. Major interests focused on selenium-based nanomedicines in confronting various diseases pertaining to selenium or not, especially in antitumor and antidiabetes...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Derrick S Dlamini, Bhekie B Mamba, Jianxin Li
This review looks into the efforts made towards commercializing nano-enable flat sheet membranes as well as the challenges that need to be overcome. There is a question mark on the argument that the nano-pores of the fillers play a significant role in the performance of the membrane. Non porous nanomaterials have been reported to cause in increase in water flux, yet there are still articles that credit the nano-pores of the nanomaterials for improved membrane performance. There are two points that are important to highlight: (1) the nanoparticles, e...
November 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Payal Gupta, Meenakshi Sharma, Neha Arora, Vikas Pruthi, Krishna Mohan Poluri
BACKGROUND: Farnesol is an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, endogenously synthesized via the ergosterol pathway. It is a quorum sensing molecule (QSM) that was first discovered in C. albicans, and is involved in the inhibition of hyphae formation. METHODS: This review focuses on the comprehensive details of occurrence, chemical/biological synthesis of farnesol and its derivatives, and the factors involved in regulation of its production. Further, the review also presents their cellular functions and diversified biomedical applications...
December 10, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Mayooran Shanmuganathan, Jeff Vughs, Michela Noseda, Costanza Emanueli
Exosomes are small nano-sized vesicles that deliver biologically active RNA molecules and proteins to recipient cells through binding, fusion or endocytosis. There is emerging evidence that endogenous exosomes released by cardiovascular cells and progenitor cells impact cell survival and proliferation, thus regulating angiogenesis, cardiac protection and repair. These cardioprotective and regenerative traits have the potential to translate in to novel therapeutic options for post-ischaemic cardiac regeneration, thus potentially delaying the progression to ischaemic heart failure...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Muhammad Tayyab Noman, Muhammad Azeem Ashraf, Azam Ali
TiO2 -based nanomaterials have attracted prodigious attention as a photocatalysts in numerous fields of applications. In this thematic issue, the mechanism behind the photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2 as well as the critical properties have been reviewed in details. The synthesis routes and the variables that affect the size and crystallinity of nano-TiO2 have also been discussed in detail. Moreover, a newly emerged class of color TiO2 , TiO2 in aerogel form, nanotubes form, doped and undoped form, and other forms of TiO2 have been discussed in details...
December 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Feng Liu, Mao Wang, Xue Wang, Pengfei Wang, Wenhao Shen, Siyuan Ding, Yugang Wang
With the development of the nano-fabrication and nanofluidics, nanoporous membranes have shown great potential in applications such as molecular separation, energy conversion, and molecular sensing. However, their performance has often been limited by the trade-off between selectivity and permeability and the lack of scalability. The prospect of overcoming these problems with nanoporous polymer ion-track membranes is promising. Focusing on these membranes, this review provides a comprehensive overview of fabrication methods, including the traditional track-etching technique and the recently developed track-UV technique; characterization methods; transport mechanisms; and major properties and applications...
December 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
Fran├žois Huaux
Fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmunity developing upon particle exposure have been exclusively linked with uncontrolled inflammatory processes. The critical role of inflammation is now challenged by several contradictory observations indicating that the emergence of these chronic disorders may result from non-inflammatory events. A growing number of studies reveals that micro- and nano-particles can cause exaggerated and persistent immunosuppression characterized by the release of potent anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-╬▓), and the recruitment of major regulatory immune cells (M2 macrophages, T and B regs, and MDSC)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Saeid Kargozar, Francesco Baino, Seyed Javad Hoseini, Sepideh Hamzehlou, Majid Darroudi, Javad Verdi, Leila Hasanzadeh, Hae-Won Kim, Masoud Mozafari
The use of different biomaterials with the ability to accelerate the repair and regeneration processes is of great importance in tissue engineering strategies. On this point, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs or nanoceria) have recently attracted much attention due to their excellent biological properties including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and antibacterial activities as well as high angiogenic potential. The results of incorporation of these nano-sized particles into various constructs and scaffolds designed for tissue engineering applications have proven the success of this strategy in terms of improving healing process of different tissues...
December 3, 2018: Nanomedicine
Takashi Nakamura
The appearance of immune checkpoint inhibitors has been a major turning point in cancer therapy. The success of immune checkpoint therapy has revolutionized the field of cancer therapy, and immunotherapy has joined the cancer treatment ranks as a pillar. To induce effective anti-tumor immune responses, it is necessary both to enhance the activity of immune cells and to block immune suppression by tumor cells. Carrier type drug delivery systems based on nanobiotechnology (nano DDS) represent a potentially useful technology for efficiently achieving both: enhancement of the activity of immune cells and blocking immune suppression...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Minela Aslan, Reza Shahbazi, Kezban Ulubayram, Bulent Ozpolat
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers with a median survival of 6 months after diagnosis. Intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutics and lack of effective targeted therapies are the major factors contributing to dismal prognosis. Several important genetic alterations (i.e., mutations, deletions) have been identified to be involved in the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, including KRAS and inactivation of tumor suppressors, such as TP53, SMAD4 and CDKN2A...
December 2018: Anticancer Research
Hirohisa Ohno, Sae Akamine, Hirohide Saito
RNA plays important roles in the regulation of gene expressions and other cellular functions. It functions as both as an informational carrier and a nanomachine due to its complementary base-pairing ability and complexed three-dimensional structure. Several nanostructures have been designed and constructed by exploiting these natural RNA properties. In this review, we will introduce the design principles of RNA nanostructures and their biotechnology applications as molecular scaffolds. RNA-based molecular scaffolds can control the accumulation and interaction of target proteins at nanometer-scale to regulate the function of bacterial and mammalian cells...
November 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Tanu Kaushal, Gaurava Srivastava, Ashok Sharma, Arvind Singh Negi
Quinoxalines are benzopyrazines containing benzene and pyrazine rings fused together. In the recent past, quinoxalines have attracted Medicinal Chemists considerably for their syntheses and chemistry due to their distinct pharmacological activities. Diverse synthetic protocols have been developed via multicomponent reactions, single pot synthesis and combinatorial approach using efficient catalysts, reagents, and nano-composites etc. Further, the versatility of the quinoxaline core and its reasonable chemical simplicity devise it extremely promising source of bioactive compounds...
November 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Williams Kweku Darkwah, Yanhui Ao
Graphite carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) is well known as one of the most promising materials for photocatalytic activities, such as CO2 reduction and water splitting, and environmental remediation through the removal of organic pollutants. On the other hand, carbon nitride also pose outstanding properties and extensive application forecasts in the aspect of field emission properties. In this mini review, the novel structure, synthesis and preparation techniques of full-bodied g-C3 N4 -based composite and films were revealed...
November 29, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Kathryn Nixdorff, Tatiana Borisova, Serhiy Komisarenko, Malcolm Dando
The chemical and biological nonproliferation regime stands at a watershed moment, when failure seems a real possibility. After the unsuccessful outcome of the 2016 Eighth Review Conference, the future of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention is uncertain. As the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) approaches its Fourth Review Conference in 2018, it has almost completed removing the huge stocks of chemical weapons, but it now faces the difficult organizational task of moving its focus to preventing the reemergence of chemical weapons at a time when the international security situation appears to be increasingly more difficult and dangerous...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Nathan R Wall, Amber Gonda, Janviere Kabagwira, Girish N Senthil
The tumor microenvironment is replete with factors secreted and internalized by surrounding cells. Exosomes are nano-sized, protein-embedded, membrane-bound vesicles that are released in greater quantities from cancer than normal cells and taken up by a variety of cell types. These vesicles contain proteins and genetic material from the cell of origin and in the case of tumor-derived exosomes, oncoproteins and oncogenes. With increasing understanding of the role exosomes play in basic biology, a more clear view of the potential exosomes are seen to have in cancer therapeutics emerges...
November 28, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Suradeep Basak, Proshanta Guha
An escalated demand of minimally processed food and increased negative perception for synthetic preservative has led to a lookout for a natural preservative. Essential oils (EOs) are volatile and aromatic secondary metabolites of plants that have been tapped mainly for its flavour and fragrances and various biological properties such as antimicrobial and antioxidant. The constituents and antifungal potential of EOs have been reported widely in the present scientific literature. Moreover, the current scientific research dealing with the mode of action of EOs on fungal spores and mycelial cells are very scarce, unlike bacteria...
December 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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