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Clinical embryology

Susan P Knowler, Gabriel L Galea, Clare Rusbridge
Chiari-like Malformation (CM) and secondary syringomyelia (SM), as well as their analogous human conditions, is a complex developmental condition associated with pain and accompanying welfare concerns. CM/SM is diagnosed ever more frequently, thanks in part to the increased availability of magnetic resonance imaging in veterinary medicine. Research over the last two decades has focused primarily on its pathophysiology relating to overcrowding of the cranial caudal fossa. More recent characterizations of CM/SM include brachycephaly with osseous reduction and neural parenchymal displacement involving the entire brain and craniocervical junction to include rostral flattening, olfactory bulb rotation, increased height of the cranium, reduced cranial base with spheno-occipital synchondrosis angulation, reduced supraoccipital and interparietal crest and rostral displacement of the axis and atlas with increased odontoid angulation...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Mohamed Fawzy, Mai Emad, Ali Mahran, Mohamed Sabry, Ahmed N Fetih, Hazem Abdelghafar, Salah Rasheed
STUDY QUESTION: Are pregnancy and birth rates affected by artificial oocyte activation (AOA) with SrCl2 or calcimycin after ICSI for couples with male-factor infertility linked to abnormal sperm morphology or for couples with previous ICSI cycles of unexplained low fertilization or inadequate fertilization associated with impaired oocyte morphology? SUMMARY ANSWER: AOA with either SrCl2 or calcimycin can improve the rates of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and live birth compared with ICSI alone, and the two agents have diverse effects for different subgroups of patients...
August 7, 2018: Human Reproduction
Mara Simopoulou, Konstantinos Sfakianoudis, Nikolaos Antoniou, Evangelos Maziotis, Anna Rapani, Panagiotis Bakas, George Anifandis, Theodoros Kalampokas, Stamatis Bolaris, Agni Pantou, Konstantinos Pantos, Michael Koutsilieris
Assisted reproductive technology has evolved tremendously since the emergence of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the course of the recent decade, there have been significant efforts in order to minimize multiple gestations, while improving percentages of singleton pregnancies and offering individualized services in IVF, in line with the trend of personalized medicine. Patients as well as clinicians and the entire IVF team benefit majorly from 'knowing what to expect' from an IVF cycle. Hereby, the question that has emerged is to what extent prognosis could facilitate toward the achievement of the above goal...
August 8, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Willem Verpoest, Catherine Staessen, Patrick M Bossuyt, Veerle Goossens, Gheona Altarescu, Maryse Bonduelle, Martha Devesa, Talia Eldar-Geva, Luca Gianaroli, Georg Griesinger, Georgia Kakourou, Georgia Kokkali, Jana Liebenthron, Maria-Cristina Magli, Monica Parriego, Andreas G Schmutzler, Monica Tobler, Katrin van der Ven, Joep Geraedts, Karen Sermon
STUDY QUESTION: Does preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) by comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) of the first and second polar body to select embryos for transfer increase the likelihood of a live birth within 1 year in advanced maternal age women aged 36-40 years planning an ICSI cycle, compared to ICSI without chromosome analysis? SUMMARY ANSWER: PGT-A by CCS in the first and second polar body to select euploid embryos for transfer does not substantially increase the live birth rate in women aged 36-40 years...
August 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
Quang V Le, Duy Q Ngo, Quy X Ngo
INTRODUCTION: The non-recurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN), which is found in 0.25-0.99 of the patients who undergo thyroid surgery, is a rare embryologically-derived variant of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Identification and prevention of injury to the laryngeal nerve is one of the main issues in thyroid surgery; thus, thyroid surgeons should have adequate knowledge of all anatomical variations of the RLN. PRESENTATION OF CASES: All four patients with the non-recurrent laryngeal nerve on the right side were performed thyroidectomy and discharged without any complications...
July 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Shaimaa Abdelsattar Mohammad, Tougan Taha Abdelaziz, Mohamed I Gadelhak, Hanan H Afifi, Ghada M H Abdel-Salam
PURPOSE: Despite its clinical implications, the MRI features of developmental facial paresis (DFP) were described in a few case reports. This study aims to describe MRI features of DFP in relation to the embryological development with a proposed radiological new grading system. METHODS: The clinical records and MRI of the brain and internal auditory canal of 11 children with DFP were retrospectively reviewed. The following sequences were analyzed: axial, oblique sagittal SPACE of the internal auditory canal and brainstem; axial T2, T1WI and coronal T2WI of the brain...
August 3, 2018: Neuroradiology
Yutaka Yamaguchi, Shigehito Yamada
The Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos and Fetuses, the largest collection of human embryos worldwide, was initiated in the 1960s, and the Congenital Anomaly Research Center of Kyoto University was established in 1975 for long-term storage of the collection and for the promotion of research into human embryonic and fetal development. Currently, the Kyoto Collection comprises approximately 45,000 specimens of human embryonic or fetal development and is renowned for the following unique characteristics: (1) the collection is considered to represent the total population of fetal specimens nationwide in Japan, (2) it comprises a large number of specimens with a variety of external malformations, and (3) for most specimens there are clinical and epidemiological data from the mothers and the pregnancies concerned...
July 31, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Vladimir Musil, Alzbeta Blankova, Vlasta Dvorakova, Radovan Turyna, Vaclav Baca
This article is the third part of a series aimed at correcting and extending the anatomical nomenclature. Communication in clinical medicine as well as in medical education is extensively composed of anatomical, histological, and embryological terms. Thus, to avoid any confusion, it is essential to have a concise, exact, perfect and correct anatomical nomenclature. The Terminologia Anatomica (TA) was published 20 years ago and during this period several revisions have been made. Nevertheless, some important anatomical structures are still not included in the terminology...
July 23, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Apostolos Kaponis, Elpiniki Chronopoulou, George Decavalas
PURPOSE: Premature luteinization (PL) affects 12.3-46.7% of fresh in vitro fertilization cycles, and there is accumulating evidence confirming its negative effect on success rates. However, despite its clinical significance, PL is poorly understood and defined. This narrative review aims to provide a fresh look at the phenomenon of PL by summarizing the existing evidence and re-evaluating fundamental issues. METHODS: A thorough electronic search was conducted covering the period from 1978 until January 2018 in PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases, and references of relevant studies were cross-checked...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Akram Belmehdi, Soukayna Bahbah, Karima El Harti, Wafaa El Wady
Supernumerary teeth are extra teeth or tooth-like structures. Single, double, or multiple teeth that occur in one or both jaws may be erupted or unerupted and unilateral or bilateral. Supernumeraries are less common in primary dentition than in permanent dentition. The etiology of ST is still unknown. A number of theories have been postulated to try to explain their presence, including atavism (evolutionary throwback), tooth germ dichotomy, genetic and environmental factors, and hyperactivity of the dental lamina...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Jean-Michel Salagnac
INTRODUCTION: Orthodontists have long tried to predict future growth. It is one of the most difficult goals to achieve precisely despite the different methods of growth forecasting. A simple technique based on clinical and radiological analyses of the nose and premaxilla makes it possible, using no measurements, to accurately predict future maxillary growth and to deduce the therapeutic indications. A morphologic study of the nose is also an important item in the diagnosis of cranio-facial syndromes...
June 2018: L' Orthodontie Française
Ch De Geyter, C Calhaz-Jorge, M S Kupka, C Wyns, E Mocanu, T Motrenko, G Scaravelli, J Smeenk, S Vidakovic, V Goossens
STUDY QUESTION: What are the European trends and developments in ART and IUI in 2014 as compared to previous years? SUMMARY ANSWER: The 18th ESHRE report on ART shows a continuing expansion of both treatment numbers in Europe and more variability in treatment modalities resulting in a rising contribution to the birth rates in most participating countries. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Since 1997, ART data generated by national registries have been collected, analysed by the European IVF-monitoring (EIM) Consortium and reported in 17 manuscripts published in Human Reproduction...
July 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
Jay Ahn, Melissa Duran, Samantha Syldort, Asad Rizvi, Anthony V D'Antoni, Jaspreet Johal, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: The arcuate foramen is an anatomic variant that is thought to arise from the ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane. Due to potential entrapment of the vertebral artery segment that traverses the foramen, vertebrobasilar ischemia might occur and the person may experience vertigo, headache, and/or neck pain. METHODS: Herein, we review the literature regarding the anatomy, both human and comparative, embryology, nomenclature, pathology, and surgery of the arcuate foramen...
July 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Joël Ferri, Julien Potier, Jean-Michel Maes, Hervey Rakotomalala, Ludovic Lauwers, Mickael Cotelle, Romain Nicot
Rheumatic diseases (RD) of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) are increasingly frequent affections and unfortunately often confused with "classic" manducatory dysfunctions (disk dislocation, myofascial pain syndroms). Their diagnosis is mandatory, given the major subsequent craniofacial disorders, which may occur (mandibular condylar hypoplasia, facial hyperdivergence, remodelling of the condylar unit, ankylosis), although the clinical implementation remains unspecific. The delayed diagnosis may be explained by the embryologic, anatomical and physiological characteristics of this joint...
July 13, 2018: International Orthodontics
Pedro L Mercado, Daniel H Liberto, Julia Udaquiola, Patricio Cieri, Roberto L Vagni, Pablo Lobos, Juan M Moldes Larribasa
Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) is composed of three segments from different embryological origin. Its lack of fusion originates a wide spectrum of anomalies of the IVC. These malformations are present in 0.07-8.7% of the population. It is generally diagnosed as an incidental finding in adult life. It represents between 5 and 9.5% of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis in patients younger than 30 years old without associated risk factors. We present a case of a term newborn with prenatal diagnosis of ascites during the 20th week of gestation...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Maimoona Siddique
Ectopic thyroid is a rare/incidental imaging finding. When discovered, 90% of ectopic thyroid is found typically along the pathway of embryologic migration of thyroid tissue, whereas around 10% have been discovered in other anatomical locations including the mediastinum and the heart. Thyroid scintigraphy with Tc sodium pertechnetate (TcO4) is peculiar for thyroid tissue uptake. The current case, clinically euthyroid, had heterogeneous uptake in multinodular goiter with uptake in the ectopic thyroid tissue in right paratracheal location on functional imaging with TcO4...
September 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Miroslav Radunovic, Batric Vukcevic, Marija Abramovic, Nemanja Vukcevic, Nemanja Radojevic, Aleksandra Vuksanovic-Bozaric
The brachial plexus represents a field of many anatomical variations with important clinical implications, especially in the diagnosis and treatment of the thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). The case described in this paper presented a novel bilateral variation in the relation of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus to the anterior scalene muscle. The ventral rami of the C5 and C6 spinal nerves perforated the anterior scalene muscle simultaneously through a common opening, and joined to form the upper trunk...
July 16, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Marjeta Tanka, Fjorda Tuka, Erjona Abazaj
Circumaortic right renal vein is an extremely rare finding and to our knowledge only 1 case has been reported in the literature so far. Its rareness, in contrast to left renal vein anomalies, is thought to be due to a relatively simple embryologic development of right renal vein compared with left renal vein. On the other hand, association of Circumaortic right renal vein with inferior vena cava agenesis and aortic coarctation is an extremely rare occurrence. Our aim is to introduce a case of Circumaortic right renal vein in a 3-month-old child with inferior vena cava agenesis and aortic coarctation...
August 2018: Radiology case reports
O C Famurewa, C M Asaleye, B O Ibitoye, O O Ayoola, A S Aderibigbe, T A Badmus
Background: A broad spectrum of renal vascular variations has been reported by anatomists and radiologists. The prevalence of these variations is extremely divergent in different populations. Therefore, radiologists and surgeons in different climes must be knowledgeable about the type and prevalence of the variants in their area of practice to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and for optimization of surgical techniques. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the types and prevalence of renal vascular variations among patients undergoing contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) of the abdomen in a Nigerian population, as well as provide a concise review of literature on the embryological basis and clinical significance of the identified variations...
July 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Sudikshya Kc, Pragya Shrestha, Aashish Kumar Shah, Arvind Kumar Jha
The fissures of lungs are embryologically separating the bronchopulmonary segments, which later on persist in interlobar planes of fully developed lung. Fifty lungs (23 right side and 27 left side), obtained during routine dissection and preserved in formalin constituted the material for present study. In them, variations in fissures and lobes of lung were observed and compared with the previous studies. Seven right sided and 14 left sided lungs showed incomplete oblique fissure. Incomplete horizontal fissure of right lung was observed in eight lungs while it was completely missing in three specimens...
June 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
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