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Clinical embryology

O Laccourreye, R K Orosco, F Rubin, F C Holsinger
GOAL: To document the role of the styloglossus muscle (SG) in the oncologic staging and mandibular preservation surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral oropharynx (SCCLO). METHOD: Based on a search conducted within the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases, using the key words SG muscle, parapharyngeal space and oropharynx, the authors discuss the embryology, physiology, anatomy and radiology of this muscle as well as its role in the oncologic staging and mandibular preservation surgery of SCCLO...
October 16, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Rabjot Rai, Lilian C Azih, Joe Iwanaga, Marios Loukas, Martin Mortazavi, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The rectus abdominis muscles are interrupted by tendinous inscriptions, which typically appear as fibrous bands crossing the muscle. The current literature on tendinous inscriptions is scarce; hence, this review will provide a detailed overview of their anatomical description, including their variation, embryology, comparative anatomy, and clinical application. Understanding the anatomy and function of the tendinous inscription assists in providing clinical relevance and in guiding reconstructive surgeons in their surgical planning and design...
August 4, 2018: Curēus
Ioannis Karakis
This article highlights the major reflections of ancient Greek mythology in modern neuroscience. An analysis of ancient Greek texts and medical literature using the MeSH term mythology was performed to identify mythological references pertaining to neuroscience. The findings are discussed in relation to etymology, early conceptualization of the nervous system structure and function, incipient characterization of neuropsychiatric disease, and philosophical stance to the practice of medicine in ancient Greece...
October 17, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Omar Sefrioui, Aicha Madkour, Smahane Aboulmaouahib, Ismail Kaarouch, Noureddine Louanjli
Circulating anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) are the best predictors of IVF outcomes. However, in extreme low AMH range especially for young patients, AMH prediction power loose its specificity to give real idea of pregnancy chance with IVF treatments and good prognosis of an extremely reduced ovarian reserve and expected poor response. Indeed, this retrospective study was conducted to evaluate IVF outcomes in patients following IVF-ICSI program with extremely low AMH levels (≤0...
October 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Ugur Horoz, Tomoaki Kuroki, Mami Shimoyama, Shinya Yoshimoto
Half-nose or heminasal aplasia is an extremely rare congenital malformation, which has a withering effect both on the patient and the family. Proboscis lateralis is a rare facial anomaly resulting in the incomplete development of one side of the nose, which was first defined in 1861 by Forster in his monograph. Proboscis lateralis, cleft nose, and nasal agenesis are rare anomalies; however, half-nose is also an extremely rare condition. In the formation of half-nose deformities, either a facial cleft or nasal dysplasia is the assumed theories of embryological origin...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Liana Pleş, Cătălina Alexandrescu, Cringu Antoniu Ionescu, Cristian Andrei Arvătescu, Simona Vladareanu, Marius Alexandru Moga
The primary objective was to assess the utility of routine 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in the evaluation of infertile women and to estimate the prevalence of uterine anomalies before the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), using the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy classification system. A second objective was to assess the effect of uterine anomalies on the pregnancy rate in patients who underwent assisted reproductive techniques...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yuki Naruke, Hiroshi Horie, Yuichiro Nagai, Ryo Ando
Filar lipomas are a subtype of spinal lipomas wherein adipose tissue accumulation is restricted to the filum terminale. Embryologically, filar lipomas are considered to occur because of the failure of secondary neurulation, although the precise mechanism is not yet completely understood. Involvement of ectopic mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal tissues in spinal lipomas has been occasionally reported, and the origin of these ectopic tissues has been supposed to be migration of pluripotent tissues, which exist during secondary neurulation...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
Rabjot Rai, Joe Iwanaga, Gaffar Shokouhi, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The tentorium cerebelli functions as a partition, dispelling the burden of weight from supratentorial structures upon inferior brain matter. Clinicians and neurosurgeons, when assessing pathological findings, should have knowledge regarding the tentorium cerebelli anatomy. This work of literature is a comprehensive review of the tentorium cerebelli, including its anatomy, embryology, and clinical and surgical implications. The evolutionary pattern demonstrates sequential stages to higher mammalian lineage...
July 31, 2018: Curēus
Brandon Michael Henry, Bendik Skinningsrud, Karolina Saganiak, Przemysław A Pękala, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinically relevant anatomical and histological aspects of the development of the human pancreas, with emphasis on the vascularization of the gland. METHODS: A comprehensive search on the relevant aspects of pancreatic biology was performed through the main electronic databases up to August 2017. Data from all relevant articles was gathered, analyzed and included in this narrative review...
October 6, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Wafaa M Rashed
Althoughpediatric tumors represent less than 1% of all new cancer diagnoses, they still rank the second in the list of disease-related morbidity and mortality in children in the US. Combining biomarker-driven targeted therapy with individualized genomic analysis is the principle of precision medicine trials. The cellular-mesenchymal-epithelial transition (c-MET) factor receptor signaling pathway plays an important role in many physiological functions including embryological development. It, tightly, regulates changes in cell growth and survival, it also defines the general pattern of invasive growth during normal development...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Sophie Elena McGrath, Nicola Annels, Thumuluru K Madhuri, Anil Tailor, Simon A Butler-Manuel, Richard Morgan, Hardev Pandha, Agnieszka Michael
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer is a common malignancy, with no clinically approved diagnostic biomarker. Engrailed-2 (EN2) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, essential during embryological neural development, which is dysregulated in several cancer types. We evaluated the expression of EN2 in Epithelial ovarian cancer, and reviewed its role as a biomarker. METHODS: We evaluated 8 Epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, along with > 100 surgical specimens from the Royal Surrey County Hospital (2009-2014)...
October 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
Sasha Lake, Joe Iwanaga, Shogo Kikuta, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
The incisive canal, also known as the nasopalatine canal, is an interosseous conduit through the anterior maxilla connecting the oral and nasal cavities. Within this canal lies the nasopalatine nerve and the vascular anastomosis between the greater palatine and sphenopalatine arteries. The embryology of the canal has led to interesting theories explaining its function. Efforts have been made to describe the morphometrics of the incisive canal by radiologic evaluation across sex and ethnicities. This paper aims to review the current literature on the embryology, anatomy, and clinical relevance of the incisive canal...
July 30, 2018: Curēus
Sharon S Stanley, Seth R Thaller
Congenital cleft earlobe is a rare clinical entity that results from failure of fusion during embryologic development. In contrast to acquired earlobe clefts, congenital defects are usually associated with tissue loss, thereby complicating surgical repair. The authors present the case of a 22-year-old female with a triple-lobe type of congenital cleft earlobe and discuss their technique for repair.
October 1, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Sofia Florim, Vitor Oliveira, Diogo Rocha
Congenital malformations of the seminal vesicle are uncommon, and most of them are cystic malformations. If an insult occurs during the first trimester of gestation, the embryogenesis of the kidney, ureter, seminal vesicle, and vas deferens could be altered. The mutual embryological origins of the seminal vesicle and ureteral bud from the mesonephric (Wolffian) duct result in association between ipsilateral renal agenesis and seminal vesical cysts. Zinner syndrome is a rare condition comprising a triad of unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle obstruction and ipsilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction...
December 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Arnoud W Kastelein, Laura M C Vos, Kees H de Jong, Juliette O A M van Baal, Rienk Nieuwland, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Jan-Paul W R Roovers, Christianne A R Lok
The peritoneum is a large serous membrane with both epithelial and mesenchymal features, and is essential for maintaining an intra-abdominal homeostatic equilibrium. The peritoneum plays a central role in the pathogenesis of a number of disorders. Pathological processes affecting the peritoneum such as inflammation and carcinomatosis can have serious clinical consequences, but the pathophysiology of these conditions is poorly understood. Understanding peritoneal embryology, anatomy and physiology is crucial to comprehend pathophysiological mechanisms and to devise a new focus for research...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
O M Abuzeid, J Deanna, A Abdelaziz, S K Joseph, Y M Abuzeid, W H Salem, M Ashraf, M I Abuzeid
Objective: To determine if elective single blastocyst transfer (e-SBT) compromises pregnancy outcomes compared to double blastocyst transfer (DBT) in patients with favorable reproductive potential. Methods: This Randomized Control Trial included 50 patients with SBT (Group 1) and 50 patients with DBT (Group 2). All women were <35 years and had favorable reproductive potential. Randomization criterion was two good quality blastocysts on day 5. Patients who did not get pregnant or who miscarried underwent subsequent frozen cycles with transfer of two blastocysts (if available) in both groups...
December 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Judith P Berger, Johann Rhemrev, Maddy Smeets, Onno Henneman, James English, Frank W Jansen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the added value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after dynamic transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) in the diagnostic pathway for preoperative staging of pelvic endometriosis. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted between April 22, 2014, and May 1, 2015. During that period, 363 patients with a clinical suspicion of endometriosis were included. All patients underwent a history, clinical examination, and dynamic TVUS examination...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
A S Ma, J R Grigg, R V Jamieson
Disorders of the anterior segment of the eye encompass a variety of clinical presentations including aniridia, Axenfeld and Rieger anomalies, primary congenital glaucoma, Peters anomaly, as well as syndromal associations. These conditions have a significant impact on vision due to disruption of the visual axis, and also secondary glaucoma which occurs in over 50% of patients. Ocular anterior segment disorders occur due to a complex interplay of developmental, embryological and genetic factors, and often have phenotypic overlaps and genetic heterogeneity...
September 21, 2018: Human Genetics
Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Ge Liu, Adriane Sinclair, Laurence Baskin
The urinary bladder collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until the appropriate moment for voiding. The trigone and ureterovesical junctions are key to bladder function, by allowing one-way passage of urine into the bladder without obstruction. Embryological development of these structures has been studied in multiple animal models as well as humans. In this report we review the existing literature on bladder development and cellular signalling with particular focus on bladder development in humans...
August 28, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Sakib Moghul, Sidath Liyanage, Suresh Vijayananda, Matthew Tam, Ioannis Kapralos
Anatomic variants of the urinary tract are relatively common; however, a bifid ureter with a blind-ending branch is a rare congenital anomaly. This variant often goes unnoticed because patients are either asymptomatic or complain of vague abdominal symptoms. Diagnosis is often incidental, and may be missed on conventional imaging. Although bifid ureters usually do not require any specific investigations or treatment; it is important to have an appreciation for these anomalies particularly if radiological intervention or surgical procedures are planned...
December 2018: Radiology Case Reports
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