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Synthesis of nanoparticles

Shengyan Pu, Daili Deng, Kexin Wang, Miaoting Wang, Ying Zhang, Lixiang Shangguan, Wei Chu
Graphene has been considered an ideal absorbent and excellent carrier for nanoparticles. Reduced graphite oxide (rGO)-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI@rGO) is an effective material for removing nitrate from water. nZVI@rGO nanocomposites were prepared by a liquid-phase reduction method and then applied for nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) removal in aqueous solution under anaerobic conditions. The experimental results showed that the stability and activity of the nZVI@rGO nanocomposites were enhanced compared with those of nZVI...
December 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiuyun Wang, Lingling Li, Tianhua Zhang, Bingyu Lin, Jun Ni, Chak-Tong Au, Lilong Jiang
We report a new strategy for strengthening metal-support interaction and stabilizing Co nanoparticles at high temperature. Through the use of dopamine and removal of carbon layers by thermal N2 treatment, ceria-based Co catalysts that are efficient and highly stable for ammonia synthesis can be obtained. The ammonia synthesis rate at 425 °C and 1 MPa is enhanced from 3.81 mmolNH3 gcat-1 h-1 over Co/CeO2 to 19.12 mmolNH3 gcat-1 h-1 over a dopamine-mediated catalyst. The superior catalytic performances of the dopamine-mediated Co/CeO2 catalyst are associated with smaller crystalline size, stronger metal-support interaction and lower N2 activation energy...
December 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Suk Ho Hong, Yongdoo Choi
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established method for the treatment of cancer which utilizes light, a photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen. Unfavourable characteristics of most PSs, such as low solubility and tumour specificity have led many researchers to adopt nanoscale drug delivery platforms for use in PDT. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) form a significant part of that effort, due to their ease and controllability of synthesis, ease of loading, availability of diverse surface functionalization, and biocompatibility...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Rodney J Hicks, Shankar Siva, Michael S Hofman
Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) is now possible by substituting Technetium-99m (99m Tc) with Gallium-68 (68 Ga), using the same carrier molecules as conventional V/Q imaging. Ventilation imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-carbon nanoparticles using the same synthesis device as Technegas. Perfusion imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-macroaggregated albumin. Similar physiological processes can therefore be evaluated by either V/Q SPECT/CT or PET/CT. However, V/Q PET/CT is inherently a superior technology for image acquisition, with higher sensitivity, higher spatial and temporal resolution, and superior quantitative capability, allowing more accurate delineation and quantification of regional lung function...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Susana Carregal-Romero, Sandra Plaza-García, Rafael Piñol, José L Murillo, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Daniel Padro, Angel Millán, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer
Medical imaging is an active field of research that fosters the necessity for novel multimodal imaging probes. In this line, nanoparticle-based contrast agents are of special interest, since those can host functional entities either within their interior, reducing potential toxic effects of the imaging tracers, or on their surface, providing high payloads of probes, due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. The long-term stability of the particles in solution is an aspect usually under-tackled during probe design in research laboratories, since their performance is generally tested briefly after synthesis...
December 12, 2018: Biosensors
Yufan Zhang, Fan Fu, Yuzhou Li, Desuo Zhang, Yuyue Chen
Polyamide network polymers (PNP) modified TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated with Ag NPs in hydrothermal gel method, forming one-step synthesized photocatalysts, Ag@TiO₂ NPs. The effect of PNP and the amount of Ag NPs added were investigated in this work. PNP acted as a nanocage to prevent TiO₂ aggregation and capture Ag accurately, which could effectively control product sizes and improve dispersibility in solvents. Simultaneously, TiO₂ NPs modified with Ag NPs exhibited remarkable photocatalytic effects...
December 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Enrica Chiesa, Rossella Dorati, Silvia Pisani, Bice Conti, Gloria Bergamini, Tiziana Modena, Ida Genta
The microfluidic technique has emerged as a promising tool to accelerate the clinical translation of nanoparticles, and its application affects several aspects, such as the production of nanoparticles and the in vitro characterization in the microenvironment, mimicking in vivo conditions. This review covers the general aspects of the microfluidic technique and its application in several fields, such as the synthesis, recovering, and samples analysis of nanoparticles, and in vitro characterization and their in vivo application...
December 9, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Anni Feng, Jiankang Cao, Junying Wei, Feng Chang, Yang Yang, Zongyuan Xiao
We report on a reverse microemulsion method for the synthesis of silver nanocrystals and examine their antibacterial activities. As the molar ratio of water to sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) increases to 25, a morphology transition from a sphere-like nanocrystal to a wire-like one was observed. For both the gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, the wire-like silver nanocrystal showed higher antibacterial activities. We conclude that the morphology of silver nanocrystals dominates their antibacterial activity...
December 8, 2018: Materials
Shuo Wang, Zhaofu Zhang, Linfeng Dong, Geoffrey I N Waterhouse, Qihai Zhang, Lifang Li
Herein, we report the successful synthesis of a series of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA)/layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) hydrogels via in-situ radical polymerization. The internal morphology, thermo sensitivity, rheological properties, swelling behavior and hemocompatibility of the PNIPA/LDHs/HA composite hydrogels were systematically investigated. Results show that the hydrogels had a reversible sol-gel transformation around 33 °C. Interactions between the positively charged LDHs and negatively charged nano-HA particles created a highly porous hydrogel network...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Gabriel Antonio Cerrón-Calle, Alejandro Junior Aranda-Aguirre, Clemente Luyo, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Hugo Alarcón
Photoelectrocatalysis provides an excellent frame for the application of photocatalytic nanostructured materials on easy recoverable supports. This study reports the two-step synthesis of hierarchically nanostructured ZnO/Ag composite photoelectrodes. Wurtzite ZnO was selectively electronucleated as spheroidal seeds on fluor doped tin oxide substrates and nanodecorated with Ag nanoclusters under electrochemical control. Hierarchically organized nanorods were selectively chemically grown on the plane (002) perpendicular to the substrate from ZnO/Ag seeds...
December 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Shumaila Ibraheem, Siguo Chen, Jia Li, Wei Li, XiaoYan Gao, Qingmei Wang, Zidong Wei
The electro-catalyzed oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER) are the key elements of many energy conversion systems, such as fuel cells, water electrolyzers and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Structural design of durable non-noble nanomaterials as bifunctional OER/ORR catalysts is a major drawback to commercial application. Herein, we exposed a strongly coupled hybrid material comprising of NiFeP-cubes nanoparticles supported on three-dimensional interconnected Fe,N-decorated carbon (3D-FeNC) as a robust bifunctional ORR/OER catalyst...
December 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joshua D Smith, Connor M Bunch, Yuda Li, Kallum M Koczkur, Sara E Skrabalak
Nanostructures with well-defined crystallite sizes, shapes, and compositions are finding use in areas such as energy, security, and even medicine. Seeded growth is a promising strategy to achieve shape-controlled nanostructures, where specific structural features are often directed by the underlying symmetry of the seeds. Here, thiophenol derivatives capable of different metal-thiolate interactions were introduced into the synthesis of Au/Pd nanostructures by seed-mediated co-reduction. Our systematic analysis reveals that the symmetry and composition of the bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) can be tuned as a function of additive binding strength and concentration, with symmetry reduction observed in some cases...
December 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Keila Isaac-Olivé, Blanca E Ocampo-García, Liliana Aranda-Lara, Clara L Santos-Cuevas, Nallely P Jiménez-Mancilla, Myrna A Luna-Gutiérrez, Luis A Medina, Bhavani Nagarajan, Nirupama Sabnis, Sangram Raut, Laszlo Prokai, Andras G Lacko
Despite the widespread use of nanotechnology in radio-imaging applications, lipoprotein based delivery systems have received only limited attention so far. These studies involve the synthesis of a novel hydrophobic radio-imaging tracer consisting of a hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC)-N-dodecylamide and 99mTc conjugate that can be encapsulated into rHDL nanoparticles (NPs). These rHDL NPs can selectively target the Scavenger Receptor type B1 (SR-B1) that is overexpressed on most cancer cells due to excess demand for cholesterol for membrane biogenesis and thus can target tumors in vivo...
December 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Chongyang Tang, Nan Zhang, Qi Shao, Xiaoqing Huang, Xiangheng Xiao
The selective oxidation of alcohols is an important chemical process with many potential applications in fine-chemical synthesis, however, the catalysts reported so far generally suffer from low activity and poor selectivity. We present here a class of ordered Pd3Pb nanocubes (NCs) with an intermetallic phase and well-defined surface as unique catalysts for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The optimized Pd3Pb NCs exhibit both enhanced activity with the turnover frequency of 191 000 h-1 and excellent selectivity up to 91...
December 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Jie Liu, Xia Sheng, Fengying Guan, Ke Li, Dandan Wang, Liping Chen, Xinjian Feng
Long, well-separated single crystal TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays with rapid charge transport properties hold great promise in photoelectrochemical and energy storage devices. Synthesis variations to increase the NWs length generally result in the widening of the NWs and fusion at their roots which, in turn, increases the structural disorder and slows charge transport. As such, well-separated single-crystal TiO2 NW arrays with rapid charge transport properties have been limited to lengths of about 3-4 μm. In this work, by adjusting the HCl/DI-water ratio and adding specific organic ligands to the reaction solution that slow the lateral growth rate we achieve well-separated single-crystal rutile TiO2 NW arrays with a length of ∼10 μm and an aspect ratio of approximately 100...
October 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Georgios Giannakakis, Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, E Charles H Sykes
Heterogeneous catalysts are workhorses in the industrial production of most commodity and specialty chemicals, and have widespread energy and environmental applications, with the annual market value of the catalysts themselves reaching almost $20 billion in 2018. These catalysts are complex, comprising multicomponent materials and multiple structures, making their rational design challenging, if not impossible. Furthermore, typical active metals like Pt, Pd, and Rh are expensive and can be susceptible to poisoning by CO, coking, and they are not always 100% selective...
December 12, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Artur Feld, Agnes Weimer, Andreas Kornowski, Naomi Winckelmans, Jan-Philip Merkl, Hauke Kloust, Robert Zierold, Christian Schmidtke, Theo Schotten, Maria Riedner, Sara Bals, Horst Weller Prof Dr
Herein we demonstrate that meticulous and in-depth analysis of the reaction mechanisms of nanoparticle formation is rewarded by full control of size, shape and crystal structure of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals during synthesis. Starting from two iron sources - iron(II)- and iron(III) carbonate -a strict separation of oleate formation from the generation of reactive pyrolysis products and concomitant nucleation of iron oxide nanoparticles was achieved. This protocol enabled us to analyze each step of nanoparticle formation independently in depth...
December 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Yiling Zhong, Bin Song, Xiaobin Shen, Daoxia Guo, Yao He
Water-dispersed silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) are facilely prepared in an aqueous phase via microwave-assisted synthesis. The whole synthetic procedure is accomplished in a one-pot microwave reaction, without the requirement of additional surface modification. Remarkably, the resultant SiNPs feature ultrahigh fluorescence (photoluminescent quantum yield (PLQY): ∼90%), robust pH- and photo-stability, and favourable biocompatibility.
December 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Salman Khan, Khurshid Ahmad, Ajaz Ahmad, Mohammad Raish, Basit L Jan, Altaf Khan, Mohd Sajid Khan
Background: Biological synthesis of nanomaterials possesses unprecedented potential in the production of nanomaterials due to their ability to produce nanomaterials with improved biocompatibility in addition to eco-friendly synthetic procedures. Methods: This article reports the isolation of an air-borne fungus from the campus of Integral University, Lucknow, with an exceptional ability to withstand very high concentrations of silver salt. The fungus was found to produce pentagonal silver nanoparticles (AgPgNps) when silver ions were reduced from silver nitrate...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Tian-Yi Ding, Zhi-Gang Zhao, Mao-Fei Ran, Yao-Yue Yang
Designing highly efficient and low-cost catalysts is essential toward realizing the practical application of hydrogen generation by formic acid decomposition (FAD) under ambient conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis of a hybrid material of Pd nanoparticles encapsulated within carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (Pd-CNTs-in). Transmission electron microscopy images show that most Pd nanoparticles (mean diameter 4.2 ± 0.8 nm) are located inside the nanotubes. Temperature-programmed reduction studies of H2 reveal that the average reduction temperature of the Pd(II) species adsorbed on the interior wall of the CNTs is 12 °C lower than those adsorbed on the outer walls of the CNT...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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