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inflammation virus

Ann-Marie Lobo, Alex M Agelidis, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) keratitis is a leading cause of infectious blindness. Clinical disease occurs variably throughout the cornea from epithelium to endothelium and recurrent HSV stromal keratitis is associated with corneal scarring and neovascularization. HSV keratitis can be associated with ocular pain and subsequent neutrophic keratopathy. Host cell interactions with HSV trigger an inflammatory cascade responsible not only for clearance of virus but also for progressive corneal opacification due to inflammatory cell infiltrate, angiogenesis, and corneal nerve loss...
October 11, 2018: Ocular Surface
Lara Ravanetti, Annemiek Dijkhuis, Tamara Dekker, Yanaika S Sabogal Pineros, Abilash Ravi, Barbara S Dierdorp, Jonas S Erjefält, Michiko Mori, Stelios Pavlidis, Ian M Adcock, Navin L Rao, René Lutter
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus triggers severe exacerbations of asthma for which no adequate treatment is available. It is known that IL-33 levels correlate with exacerbation severity, but its role in the immune-pathogenesis of exacerbations has remained elusive. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that IL-33 is necessary to drive asthma exacerbations. We intervened with the IL-33 cascade and sought to dissect its role, also in synergy with TSLP, in airway inflammation, anti-viral activity and lung function...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
M Shrestha, D Singh, M R Sigdel, M P Kafle
BACKGROUND: Increasing graft survival is the prime focus of every transplantation program. Detection of subclinical abnormalities with the help of protocol renal graft biopsies performed at predetermined intervals after transplantation has been one of the approaches. The objective was to study the abnormalities in protocol renal graft biopsy specimens at 6 months posttransplantation. METHODS: This was a hospital-based observational descriptive study. It included the recipients who underwent kidney transplantation between October 2014 and September 2015...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Sandeep Kumar, Monisha Dhiman
Helicobacter pylori is a leading cause of gastric cancer worldwide, its type four secretary toxin CagA is cited to be primarily responsible for it. Other virulence factors such as urease, VacA, HopQ, BabA and SabA are responsible for bacterial survival in acidic environment, adherence and cellular damage but its molecular mechanism is not completely understood. A number of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and virus are involved in the regulation of cellular machinery of inflammasome. Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes formed after external stimuli such as PAMPs/DAMPs or salt crystals and activates cellular caspases causes inflammation via pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xuelian Ma, Xiaomin Zhao, Zhichao Zhang, Jianxiong Guo, Lijuan Guan, Juejun Li, Mi Mi, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
BACKGROUND: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection can activate NF-κB pathway in porcine intestinal epithelial cells and result in severe inflammation. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are not translated into proteins and play an important role in many biological and pathological processes such as inflammation, viral infection, and mitochondrial damage. However, whether ncRNAs participate in TGEV-induced inflammation in porcine intestinal epithelial cells is largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was used to analyze the profiles of mRNAs, miRNAs, and circRNAs in Mock- and TGEV-infected intestinal porcine epithelial cell-jejunum 2 (IPEC-J2) cell line...
October 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
Maria I Poole, Inmaculada Sorribes, Harsh Vardhan Jain
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Individuals with chronic HCV infection and without access to treatment are at high risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a liver cancer that is rapidly fatal after diagnosis. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to HCV-driven carcinogenesis such as scarring of the liver, and chronic inflammation. Recent evidence indicates a direct role for HCV-encoded proteins themselves in oncogenesis of infected hepatocytes...
October 9, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Shina Wei, Shaowen Wang, Min Yang, Youhua Huang, Jingguang Wei, Xiaohong Huang, Qiwei Qin
The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin C plays a pivotal role in regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. However, the function of fish cathepsin C in virus replication remains largely unknown. In this study, cathepsin C gene (Ec-CC) was cloned and characterized from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-CC cDNA was composed of 2077 bp. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1374 bp and encoded a 458-amino acid protein which shared 89% identity to cathepsin C from bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus)...
October 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Roman Othmar Braun, Livia Brunner, Kurt Wyler, Gaël Auray, Obdulio García-Nicolás, Sylvie Python, Beatrice Zumkehr, Véronique Gaschen, Michael Hubert Stoffel, Nicolas Collin, Christophe Barnier-Quer, Rémy Bruggmann, Artur Summerfield
Inactivated vaccines lack immunogenicity and therefore require potent adjuvants. To understand the in vivo effects of adjuvants, we used a system immunology-based analysis of ovine blood transcriptional modules (BTMs) to dissect innate immune responses relating to either antibody or haptoglobin levels. Using inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus as an antigen, we compared non-adjuvanted to liposomal-formulated vaccines complemented or not with TLR4 and TLR7 ligands. Early after vaccination, BTM relating to myeloid cells, innate immune responses, dendritic cells, and antigen presentation correlated positively, whereas BTM relating to T and natural killer cells, as well as cell cycle correlated negatively with antibody responses...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Lisa E Gralinski, Timothy P Sheahan, Thomas E Morrison, Vineet D Menachery, Kara Jensen, Sarah R Leist, Alan Whitmore, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is immune-driven pathologies that are observed in severe cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. SARS-CoV emerged in 2002 to 2003 and led to a global outbreak of SARS. As with the outcome of human infection, intranasal infection of C57BL/6J mice with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV results in high-titer virus replication within the lung, induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and immune cell infiltration within the lung. Using this model, we investigated the role of the complement system during SARS-CoV infection...
October 9, 2018: MBio
Ravichandra Vemuri, Kristyn E Sylvia, Sabra L Klein, Samuel C Forster, Magdalena Plebanski, Raj Eri, Katie L Flanagan
Sex differences in immunity are well described in the literature and thought to be mainly driven by sex hormones and sex-linked immune response genes. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest immune organs in the body and contains multiple immune cells in the GIT-associated lymphoid tissue, Peyer's patches and elsewhere, which together have profound effects on local and systemic inflammation. The GIT is colonised with microbial communities composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses, collectively known as the GIT microbiota...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Rongbei Liu, Mengyu Wang, Lizhi Zhang, Weixun Zhou, Ying Huang, Hong Guo, Yubei Gu, Yan Chen, Yuqin Li, Chunxiao Chen, Yufang Wang, Lan Rong, Ji Li, Jiaqi Xu, Qian Cao, Zhinong Jiang
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infective enteritis (CAEBV enteritis) is rare and has not been well described yet. Therefore, we reported the clinicopathologic features of 11 patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infective enteritis and their differences from inflammatory bowel disease. The major clinical presentations of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infective enteritis were intermittent fever over 39 °C (100%), diarrhea (73%), abdominal pain (64%), lymphadenopathy (64%), splenomegaly (64%), and hepatomegaly (27%)...
October 8, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Abilash Ravi, Jan Koster, Annemiek Dijkhuis, Suzanne M Bal, Yanaika S Sabogal Piñeros, Peter I Bonta, Christof J Majoor, Peter J Sterk, René Lutter
Bronchial epithelial cells from mild asthma patients in response to in vivo rhinovirus-16 challenge, display a marked interferon-induced response 6 days post-infection, which correlates with eosinophilic inflammation and virus-induced decline of lung function.
October 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Emile Camille Noubissi, Jean-Claude Katte, Eugene Sobngwi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to address the epidemiology and pathophysiological basis of the interaction between HIV infection and diabetes and the implication for treatment. Its importance stems from the current context of the growing burden of both conditions and the possible mechanisms of interactions that may exist but not yet sufficiently examined. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, and ART is associated with metabolic derangement and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes...
October 8, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Brian Salmons, Pei-Yin Lim, René Djurup, Jane Cardosa
A candidate hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine comprising of human enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) virus-like particles (VLPs) was tested in rabbits to evaluate the potential local and systemic effects of this vaccine. The rabbits received more than double the full human dose and one additional dose according to the n + 1 recommended scheme. The three doses were given mixed with Alhydrogel adjuvant as intramuscular (IM) injections. Vaccinations were well-tolerated, with no indication of overt toxicity in any parameter observed...
October 4, 2018: Vaccine
Mengya Zang, Yuan Li, Huan He, Huiguo Ding, Kun Chen, Jun Du, Taoyang Chen, Zhiyuan Wu, Hui Liu, Dongmei Wang, Jianqiang Cai, Chunfeng Qu
Liver inflammation after chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is essential for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. We did a nested case-control study based on QBC chronic HBV infection cohort to identify HCC-related inflammatory cytokines. Serum levels of distinct Th-cell representative cytokines at varied periods before HCC diagnosis were determined in 50 HCC cases and 150 age- and gender-matched controls who did not develop HCC in 8-10 years. The individuals with HCC outcome had statistically higher serum levels of IL-23 than controls (P < 0...
October 4, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Kristi J Warren, Jill A Poole, Jenea M Sweeter, Jane M DeVasure, Todd A Wyatt
Matrix metalloproteinases are important for proper airway matrix structure and wound healing. These enzymes are also implicated in many airway diseases. Previously, chronic ethanol consumption was shown to prolong inflammation and delay viral clearance in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-infected mice. We hypothesize that alcohol alters anti-viral immunity by disrupting immune cell chemotaxis in the lung. BALB/c mice were randomly selected to consume 18% alcohol ad libitum for 8 weeks prior to infection with RSV-2A...
October 3, 2018: Alcohol
Robert S Hagan, Jose Torres-Castillo, Claire M Doerschuk
Macrophages provide key elements of the host response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection, including expression of type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) contributes to IFN expression and anti-viral responses in some cell types, but its role in the innate response to IAV in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that macrophage TBK1 contributes to both IFN and non-IFN components of host defense and IAV pathology. We generated myeloid-conditional TBK1 knockout mice and assessed the in vitro and in vivo consequences of IAV infection...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Veronika Pietsch, Katja Deterding, Dina Attia, Kristina Imeen Ringe, Benjamin Heidrich, Markus Cornberg, Michael Gebel, Michael Peter Manns, Heiner Wedemeyer, Andrej Potthoff
Background: The use of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) is associated with a rapid short-term decrease in liver stiffness in chronic hepatitis C-infected patients with sustained virologic response (SVR). Objective: The objective of this article is to evaluate long-term changes in liver elasticity in hepatitis C patients with SVR using transient elastography (TE), FIB-4 and APRI. Methods: A total of 143 patients were treated with DAAs and reached SVR...
October 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Elise Tabet, Moana Gelu-Simeon, Valentine Genet, Lucie Lamontagne, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Michel Samson
Chlordecone is an organochlorine used in the 1970's as a pesticide in banana plantations. It has a long half-life in the soil and can potentially contaminate humans and animals through food. Chlordecone targets, and mainly accumulates in, the liver, leading to hepatomegaly and neurological signs in mammals. Chlordecone does not cause liver injuries or any inflammation by itself at low doses, but it can potentiate the hepatotoxic effects of other chemicals and drugs. We studied the impact of chlordecone on the progression of acute hepatitis in mouse models of co-exposure to chlordecone with Concanavalin A or murine hepatitis virus type 3...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Kavin Vanikieti, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Panitha Jindahra, Piyaphon Cheecharoen, Patchalin Patputtipong, Tanyatuth Padungkiatsagul
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is an inflammation related to reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV), involving the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Optic neuritis (ON), a rare ocular complication following HZO, has been reported in 1.9% of HZO-affected eyes. Most previous cases occurred simultaneously with other ocular complications, especially orbital apex syndrome. Moreover, detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion weighted imaging of the optic nerve and trigeminal nucleus in HZO-related ON has been rarely reported...
October 4, 2018: BMC Neurology
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