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inflammation virus

Maryam Kherad Pezhouh, James Adam Miller, Rajni Sharma, David Borzik, Ogechukwu Eze, Kevin Waters, Maria A Westerhoff, Alyssa M Parian, Mark G Lazarev, Lysandra Voltaggio
A potential role for viral infections has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unresponsive to medical treatment. It is well known that Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection can elicit a brisk mononuclear response in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of EBV in patients with refractory IBD and compare them to non-refractory IBD cases. Surgically resected colonic specimens from 67 patients with refractory IBD (62 with ulcerative colitis, 3 patients with Crohn's disease and 2 patients with indeterminate colitis) were retrieved...
August 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Zhengtu Li, Li Li, Shuai Zhao, Jing Li, Hongxia Zhou, Yunhui Zhang, Zifeng Yang, Bing Yuan
The direct replication of influenza virus is not the only cause of harm to human health; influenza infection leading to a hyper-inflammatory immune response can also result in serious conditions. So, the treatment strategy for influenza needs to keep balance between antivirus and anti-inflammation. Herein, we review the treatment strategies of anti-influenza drugs and traditional Chinese medicines.
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kiran Iqbal Masood, Bushra Jamil, Maryam Rahim, Muniba Islam, Muhammad Farhan, Zahra Hasan
Background and Objectives: Dengue virus infections (Dengue) have become increasingly common in Pakistan and can result in case fatalities if not managed appropriately. Patients with Dengue virus infection may be asymptomatic or present with Dengue fever (DF), Dengue with warning signs (DWS) or severe Dengue (SD). Severity in Dengue is coincident with an exacerbated production of lymphocyte-induced cytokines and chemokines which are associated with plasma leakage. We investigated the association of circulating levels of cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and CXCL-10 in Dengue patients with differing severity of disease...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Zhihao Zhang, Ping He, Yan Zhou, Xuhua Xie, Shuying Feng, Changyu Sun
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of interferon (IFN)-thymosin α1 (TA1) in a transgenic Dunaliella salina (TDS) system in vitro and in vivo . The toxicity of TDS in the HepG2.2.15 cell line was assessed using an MTT assay. The effect of TDS on the secretion of HBV early antigen (HBeAg) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) in culture supernatants was measured using ELISA. In addition, HBV-DNA was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Drug treatment experiments were performed in vivo on ducks congenitally infected with duck HBV (DHBV)...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Alan Dempsey, Sinead E Keating, Michael Carty, Andrew G Bowie
Host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect viruses and other pathogens, inducing production of cytokines that cause inflammation and mobilize cells to control infection. Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes proteins that antagonize these host innate immune responses, and elucidating the mechanisms of action of these viral proteins helped shed light on PRR signalling mechanisms. The VACV virulence factor E3 is one of the most intensely studied VACV proteins and has multiple effects on host cells, many of which cannot be explained by the currently known cellular targets of E3...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
C Lwowski, T Kohnen
In a patient with sub-acute loss of vision a panuveitis with papillitis and chorioretinitis was diagnosed within an initial diagnosis of lues and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epidemiological data show an increasing incidence of HIV and lues infections in recent years. Therefore, ophthalmologists need to bear an infectious etiology of inflammation of the eye in mind.
August 14, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Wai Yeow Lee, Maulana Bachtiar, Cheryl C S Choo, Caroline G Lee
PubMed was text mined to glean insights into the role of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from the massive number of publications (9249) available to date. Reports from ∼70 countries identified >1300 human genes associated with either the Core, Surface or X gene in HBV-associated HCC. One hundred and forty-three of these host genes, which can potentially yield 1180 biomolecular interactions, each were reported in at least three different publications to be associated with the same HBV...
August 13, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Elena Bruzzesi, Irini Sereti
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Xiao-Long Wu, Zhi-Yu Li, Xin-Yu Bi, Hong Zhao, Jian-Jun Zhao, Jian-Guo Zhou, Yue Han, Zhen Huang, Ye-Fan Zhang, Jian-Qiang Cai
Background: Systemic inflammation (SI) is associated with tumor progression and overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The presence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region can influence the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC, although the mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the correlations between HLA gene polymorphisms and SI. Patients and methods: This study included 330 patients with HCC...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
João M Furtado, Tiago E Arantes, Heloisa Nascimento, Daniel V Vasconcelos-Santos, Natalia Nogueira, Rafael de Pinho Queiroz, Luana P Brandão, Thaís Bastos, Ricardo Martinelli, Rodrigo C Santana, Cristina Muccioli, Rubens Belfort, Justine R Smith
Recent reports from different world regions suggest ocular syphilis is re-emerging, in parallel with an increasing incidence of the systemic infection globally. We conducted a large observational study of 127 persons consecutively treated for ocular syphilis at public medical centers in Brazil over a 2.5-year period ending July 2015. Of 104 individuals serologically tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 34.6% were positive. Ophthalmological evaluations included measurement of Snellen visual acuity and intraocular pressure, and assessment of inflammation by slit lamp examination and dilated posterior eye examination...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Barbara Ruder, Vinay Murtadak, Michael Stürzl, Stefan Wirtz, Ute Distler, Stefan Tenzer, Mousumi Mahapatro, Florian R Greten, Yinling Hu, Markus F Neurath, Ethel Cesarman, Gianna Ballon, Claudia Günther, Christoph Becker
Viruses are present in the intestinal microflora and are currently discussed as a potential causative mechanism for the development of inflammatory bowel disease. A number of viruses, such as Human Herpesvirus-8, express homologs to cellular FLIPs, which are major contributors for the regulation of epithelial cell death. In this study we analyzed the consequences of constitutive expression of HHV8-viral FLIP in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in mice. Surprisingly, expression of vFlip disrupts tissue homeostasis and induces severe intestinal inflammation...
August 13, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Ratna B Ray, Ranjit Ray
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection associated liver disease is a global health problem. HCV often causes silent disease, and eventually progresses to end stage liver disease. HCV infects hepatocytes, however initial manifestation of liver disease is mostly displayed in hepatic stellate cells causing fibrosis/cirrhosis, and believed to be occurring from inflammation in the liver. It is still unclear why HCV is not spontaneously cleared from infected liver in the majority of individuals and develops chronic infection with progressive liver disease...
August 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ba Vuong Lê, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Christian Couture, Liva Checkmahomed, Marie-Christine Venable, Marie-Ève Hamelin, Guy Boivin
Thrombin has been demonstrated to be involved in several viral diseases including human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections. We previously showed that immediate administration of thrombin inhibitor argatroban post-infection protected mice against hMPV disease. This current work aims at determining whether warfarin and heparin, two other anticoagulants inhibiting thrombin formation and activities, may also be used for treatment against hMPV in vivo. We found that immediate injections of argatroban, warfarin or heparin after virus challenge protected mice against hMPV infection, as evidenced by decreased or no mortality, less weight loss, reduced viral load and attenuated inflammation...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Forrest Keck, Stephanie Kortchak, Allison Bakovic, Brian Roberts, Nitin Agrawal, Aarthi Narayanan
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a neurotropic arbovirus that is highly infectious as an aerosol and can result in an encephalitic phenotype in infected individuals. VEEV infections are known to be associated with robust inflammation that eventually contributes to neurodegenerative phenotypes. In this study, we utilize the TC-83 strain of VEEV, which is known to induce the expression of IL-6, IL-8, and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. We had previously demonstrated that TC-83 infection resulted in changes in mitochondrial function, eventually resulting in mitophagy...
August 13, 2018: Virulence
Mercedes Márquez-Coello, Montserrat Montes-de-Oca Arjona, Clotilde Fernández-Gutiérrez Del Álamo, Cristina Ruiz-Sánchez, José Antonio Girón-González
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of peripheral blood Th17 cells with the ability to home to gut mucosa (CD4+Th17+β7+) during recent or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The relationship between HIV load and systemic inflammation markers was studied. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with recent (n=10) or chronic (n=15) untreated HIV infections, 30 treated HIV-infected patients with undetectable HIV load at the time of inclusion and 30 healthy controls were included...
August 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Rafael E Marques, Anne-Gaëlle Besnard, Isabelle Maillet, Caio T Fagundes, Danielle G Souza, Bernhard Ryffel, Mauro M Teixeira, Foo Y Liew, Rodrigo Guabiraba
The excessive inflammation often present in patients with severe dengue infection is considered both a hallmark of disease and a target for potential treatments. IL-33 is a pleiotropic cytokine with pro-inflammatory effects whose role in dengue has not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IL-33 plays a disease-exacerbating role during experimental dengue infection in immunocompetent mice. Mice infected with Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) produced high levels of IL-33. DENV2-infected mice treated with recombinant IL-33 developed markedly more severe disease compared to untreated mice as assessed by mortality, granulocytosis, liver damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine production...
August 11, 2018: Immunology
Daniela F Passos, Viviane M Bernardes, Jean L G da Silva, Maria R C Schetinger, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has devastating effects on the host immune system. HIV entry into host cells and subsequent viral replication induce a proinflammatory response, hyperactivating immune cells and leading them to death, disfunction, and exhaustion. Adenosine is an immunomodulatory molecule that suppresses immune cell function to protect tissue integrity. The anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine modulate the chronic inflammation and immune activation caused by HIV...
August 10, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Le Tao, Dongying Xue, Dongxiao Shen, Wenting Ma, Jie Zhang, Xuefei Wang, Wei Zhang, Liu Wu, Kai Pan, Yanqin Yang, Zeribe C Nwosu, Steven Dooley, Ekihiro Seki, Cheng Liu
MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation contributes to liver pathophysiology, including hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and fibrosis progression. Here, we investigated the role of miR-942 in human liver fibrosis. The expression of miR-942, HSC activation markers, transforming growth factor-beta pseudoreceptor BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), as well as collagen deposition, were investigated in 100 liver specimens from patients with varying degree of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related fibrosis...
August 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Hong-Su Park, Guanqun Liu, Qiang Liu, Yan Zhou
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a pivotal role in modulating lung inflammation in response to the influenza A virus infection. We previously showed that the swine influenza virus (SIV) infection induced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), and we were interested in examining the upstream signaling events that are involved in this process. Here, we report that the SIV-infection led to dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) phosphorylation at serine 579 and mitochondrial fission in PAMs...
August 9, 2018: Viruses
Vijay K Chattu, Raman Kumar, Soosanna Kumary, Fnu Kajal, Joseph K David
Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis first reported in "Sungai Nipah" in Malaysia in 1999 has emerged as a global public health threat in the Southeast Asia region. From 1998 to 2018, more than 630 cases of NiV human infections were reported. NiV is transmitted by zoonotic (from bats to humans, or from bats to pigs, and then to humans) as well as human-to-human routes. Deforestation and urbanization of some areas have contributed to greater overlap between human and bat habitats resulting in NiV outbreaks...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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