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inflammation virus

Antje Beling, Meike Kespohl
Viral myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle triggered by direct virus-induced cytolysis and immune response mechanisms with most severe consequences during early childhood. Acute and long-term manifestation of damaged heart tissue and disturbances of cardiac performance involve virus-triggered adverse activation of the immune response and both immunopathology, as well as, autoimmunity account for such immune-destructive processes. It is a matter of ongoing debate to what extent subclinical virus infection contributes to the debilitating sequela of the acute disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tianliang Li, Xinghui Li, Kuldeep S Attri, Changhong Liu, Lupeng Li, Laura E Herring, John M Asara, Yu L Lei, Pankaj K Singh, Chengjiang Gao, Haitao Wen
Increased glucose metabolism in immune cells not only serves as a hallmark feature of acute inflammation but also profoundly affects disease outcome following bacterial infection and tissue damage. However, the role of individual glucose metabolic pathways during viral infection remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate an essential function of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP)-associated O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) signaling in promoting antiviral innate immunity. Challenge of macrophages with vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) enhances HBP activity and downstream protein O-GlcNAcylation...
December 12, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Michele de Souza Bastos, Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins, Natália Lessa da Silva, Samya Jezine, Sérgio Pinto, Valderjane Aprigio, Rossicleia Lins Monte, Silvio Fragoso, Marzia Puccioni-Sohler
BACKGROUND Amazon, the largest tropical forest of the world, has suffered from dengue outbreaks since 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, from Amazonas state, suspected of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection was studied using molecular and immunological methods. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of CSF investigation in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection of CNS. METHODS CSF samples of 700 patients were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect presence of DENV specific IgM...
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Yi Guan, Dejan Jakimovski, Murali Ramanathan, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal damage. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with the risk of developing MS, but the exact cause still remains unidentified. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), vitamin D, and smoking are among the most well-established environmental risk factors in MS. Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by delayed primary EBV infection, increases the risk of developing MS. EBV may also contribute to MS pathogenesis indirectly by activating silent human endogenous retrovirus-W...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
David E Castillo, Sonali Nanda, Jonette E Keri
Acne vulgaris is the most common dermatological disorder worldwide. It is a multifactorial disease that involves increased sebum production, hyperkeratinization of the pilosebaceous unit, Propionibacterium acnes (Cutibacterium acnes) colonization, and inflammation. The human skin microbiome hosts a wide variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. A delicate balance of these microorganisms is essential for the barrier function of the skin. Propionibacterium acnes represents nearly 90% of the human skin microbiome of healthy adults...
December 11, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
Yuan Liao, Jiao Gong, Wenying Zhou, Huimin Dong, Jiayin Liang, Minqi Luo, Bo Hu
Chronic liver inflammation caused by chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, the role of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as a predictor of liver inflammation has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of noninvasive fibrosis markers including hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen type IV (CIV), N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and laminin (LN) in identifying significant liver inflammation in patients with CHB, especially in patients with normal or near-normal ALT...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Kathleen E Stevens, Chloe L Thio, William O Osburn
Human genetic studies demonstrate a link between the 32-bp deletion that produces a nonfunctional CCR5 receptor (CCR5∆32) and enhanced recovery from acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To investigate the role of CCR5 in immune responses to acute HBV, we intravenously infected Ccr5+/+ (WT) and Ccr5-/- (KO) mice with a replication-incompetent adenovirus containing the overlapping HBV1.3 construct (AdHBV), or vector control. At day 3 following AdHBV infection, analysis of intrahepatic leukocytes (IHL) showed KO mice had increased CD11b+ NK cells compared to WT (18...
December 8, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Tasleem Arif, Konchok Dorjay
Nicolau syndrome (NS) is a type of adverse skin reaction occurring after parenteral drug injection. In certain conditions, it can cause ischemic necrosis of the skin and the underlying adipose tissue. The actual cause of NS is not clear though inflammation, vasospasm, and thromboembolic occlusion of blood vessels have been proposed. In this case presentation, we report an interesting case of a 30-year-old man who turned out be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive on investigations, developed extensive purpuric lesions of his skin on left buttock and then spread to the trunk and shoulders after receiving intramuscular injection of paracetamol...
July 2018: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Shotaro Masuoka, Natsuko Kusunoki, Ryo Takamatsu, Hiroshi Takahashi, Kazuaki Tsuchiya, Shinichi Kawai, Toshihiro Nanki
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection as an environmental factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Synovial tissues were collected during surgery from 128 RA and 98 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. DNA was extracted from synovial tissues. The EBV gene was assessed by nested PCR for the amplification of EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1). The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product was elucidated...
2018: PloS One
Wenxin Wu, Xiaoqiu Wang, Wei Zhang, Lili Tian, J Leland Booth, Elizabeth S Duggan, Sunil More, Lin Liu, Mikhail Dozmorov, Jordan P Metcalf
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. It requires interaction with an adaptor molecule, mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), to activate downstream signaling pathways. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which RIG-I-dependent recognition of IAV infection in vivo triggers innate immune responses, we infected mutant mice lacking RIG-I or MAVS with influenza A virus (IAV) and measured their innate immune responses...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Tingting Cheng, Jianwen Bai, Chun-Shiang Chung, Yaping Chen, Eleanor A Fallon, Alfred Ayala
Therapeutic interventions to treat acute lung injury (ALI) remain largely limited to lung-protective strategies, as a real molecular pathophysiologically driven therapeutic intervention has yet to become available. While we have previously documented the expression of HVEM on leukocytes of septic mice and critically ill patients, its functional role in shock/sepsis-induced ALI has not yet been studied. Inasmuch; a murine model of indirect ALI (iALI) was induced by hemorrhagic shock (HEM) followed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), septic challenge and HVEM-siRNA or PBS was administrated by intra-tracheal instillation 2 hours after hemorrhage to determine the role of HVEM in the development of experimental iALI...
May 4, 2018: Shock
Yung-Feng Yen, Ming-Chung Ko, Muh-Yong Yen, Bor-Shen Hu, Teng-Ho Wang, Pei-Hung Chuang, Hsin-Hao Lai, Chu-Chieh Chen, Chung-Yeh Deng
Background-Although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can cause myocardial inflammation, the association of HIV infection with subsequent development of heart failure (HF) has not been extensively studied. This nationwide cohort study aimed to determine the risk of incident HF in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).Methods-We identified PLWHA using the Taiwan CDC HIV Surveillance System. An age- and sex-matched control group without HIV infection was selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for comparison...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Maneesha Palipane, John D Snyder, Kim S LeMessurier, Anna K Schofield, Stacie N Woolard, Amali E Samarasinghe
Asthma and influenza are leading causes of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Although these two conditions can co-exist in the same patient, the immune parameters that impact disease outcomes are not fully elucidated. The importance of macrophages to both conditions suggested a role for CD14, a co-receptor for endotoxin, as a regulatory mechanism for innate immune responses during asthma and influenza co-morbidity. Herein, we hypothesized that parameters of influenza morbidity will be reduced in the absence of CD14...
December 5, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jian-Wen Jiang, Xin-Hua Chen, Zhi-Gang Ren, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Gut microbiota has been demonstrated to play a critical role in liver inflammation, chronic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and HCC development through the gut-liver axis. DATA SOURCES: Recently there have been several innovative studies investigating gut microbial dysbiosis-mediated enhancement of HCC through the gut-liver axis. Literatures from January 1998 to January 2018 were searched in the PubMed database using the keywords "gut microbiota" and "hepatocellular carcinoma" or "liver cancer", and the results of experimental and clinical studies were analyzed...
November 22, 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Qiqi Song, Cuiqin Fan, Peng Wang, Ye Li, Mu Yang, Shu Yan Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation has recently emerged as a critical risk factor in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutic strategies as means to target these inflammatory pathways for use in the treatment of depression remain unresolved. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular events of neuroinflammation as related to its induction of depression-like behaviors. METHODS: Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce depression-like behaviors in rats...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Daniel A Giles, Sonja Zahner, Petra Krause, Esmé Van Der Gracht, Thomas Riffelmacher, Venetia Morris, Alexei Tumanov, Mitchell Kronenberg
Over 1.5 million individuals in the United States are afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While the progression of IBD is multifactorial, chronic, unresolved inflammation certainly plays a key role. Additionally, while multiple immune mediators have been shown to affect pathogenesis, a comprehensive understanding of disease progression is lacking. Previous work has demonstrated that a member of the TNF superfamily, TNFSF14 (LIGHT), which is pro-inflammatory in several contexts, surprisingly plays an important role in protection from inflammation in mouse models of colitis, with LIGHT deficient mice having more severe disease pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Maria Kalafateli, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood...
December 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Lingpeng Shan, Abdus Sattar, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
Background: This study was conducted to explore the associations between serum albumin and markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. Methods: We conducted a nested study within in the SATURN-HIV trial in which 147 HIV+ adults on stable antiretroviral therapy were (1) virally suppressed, (2) had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level <130 mg/dL, and (3) were randomized to 10 mg daily rosuvastatin or placebo...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Corona Solana, Raquel Tarazona, Rafael Solana
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Although the aetiology of AD is not clear, both environmental factors and heritable predisposition may contribute to disease occurrence. In addition, inflammation and immune system alterations have been linked to AD. The prevailing hypothesis as cause of AD is the deposition in the brain of amyloid beta peptides (A β ). Although A β have a role in defending the brain against infections, their accumulation promotes an inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes...
2018: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Marloes van Splunter, Olaf Perdijk, Henriëtte Fick-Brinkhof, Anouk L Feitsma, Esther G Floris-Vollenbroek, Ben Meijer, Sylvia Brugman, Huub F J Savelkoul, Els van Hoffen, R J Joost van Neerven
During aging the immune system is dysregulated. Especially plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and myeloid DCs (mDCs) have reduced Toll like receptor (TLR)-mediated responses resulting in increased susceptibility to infections. Consumption of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) has been shown to reduce infections with viruses. Galacto-oligosacharides (GOS) and vitamin D are associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in serum, and increased TLR7/8 responses, respectively. A double-blind placebo-controlled nutritional intervention study in elderly women was performed, to investigate the potential of bLF, GOS, and vitamin D to restore TLR responsiveness of pDCs and mDCs and to reduce inflammatory markers in serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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