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Neha Garg, Mrinalini Kotru, Dilip Kumar, Rajesh Pathak, Meera Sikka
INTRODUCTION: Aberrant expression of immunophenotypic markers is commonly found in patients of acute leukemia. T-ALL also shows aberrant markers such as CD13, CD33, CD117, CD10, and CD79a. Morphologically, T-ALL has been categorized into L1, L2, and L3 subtypes. Till now, no study has been done to correlate these markers with morphological features of T-ALL. This study aimed to correlate the expression of aberrant immunophenotypic markers with morphology in T-ALL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the cases of T-ALL diagnosed by flow cytometry over a period of 2½ year were taken out from the records of Hematology Section of Department of Pathology of University College of Medical Science and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital and Max Hospital, Saket...
October 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Francis Mussai, Rachel Wheat, Evgenia Sarrou, Sarah Booth, Victoria Stavrou, Livingstone Fultang, Tracey Perry, Pamela Kearns, Paul Cheng, Karen Keehsan, Charles Craddock, Carmela De Santo
Therapeutic approaches which aim to target Acute Myeloid Leukaemia through enhancement of patients' immune responses have demonstrated limited efficacy to date, despite encouraging preclinical data. Examination of AML patients treated with azacitidine (AZA) and vorinostat (VOR) in a Phase II trial, demonstrated an increase in the expression of Cancer-Testis Antigens (MAGE, RAGE, LAGE, SSX2, and TRAG3) on blasts and that these can be recognised by circulating antigen-specific T cells. Although the T cells have the potential to be activated by these unmasked antigens, the low arginine microenvironment created by AML blast Arginase II activity acts a metabolic brake leading to T cell exhaustion...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Alessandra Stacchini, Sabrina Aliberti, Anna Demurtas, Francesca Maletta, Luca Molinaro, Laura Godio, Mauro Papotti
INTRODUCTION: Nonhemopoietic neoplasms (NHNs) may be encountered during routine flow cytometry (FC) immunophenotyping. The clue of their presence mainly relies on detection of CD45-negative (CD45-) cells with altered scatter parameters. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated a monoclonal antibody combination conceived to characterize the CD45- population by FC, suspected of belonging to NHNs, when present. The panel included CD45 for leucocytes identification, CD326 (clones BerEP4 and HEA-125) to mark epithelial cells, CD33 to identify myeloid cells, CD138 to trace plasma cells and CD56 useful in the identification of neuroendocrine tumours...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Yuriko Katsumata, Peter T Nelson, Steven Estus, David W Fardo
The International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) is a consortium for characterizing the genetic landscape of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The identified and/or confirmed 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AD are located on non-coding DNA regions, and their functional impacts on AD are as yet poorly understood. We evaluated the roles of the IGAP SNPs by integrating data from many resources, based on whether the IGAP SNP was (1) a proxy for a coding SNP or (2) associated with altered mRNA transcript levels...
October 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Przemyslaw Wielgat, Emil Trofimiuk, Robert Czarnomysy, Jan J Braszko, Halina Car
Glucocorticosteroids, including dexamethasone (Dex), are commonly used to control tumor-induced edema in the brain tumor patients. There are increasing evidences that immunosuppressive action of Dex interferes with immune surveillance resulting in lower patients overall survival; however, the mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. Changes in the expression of sialic acids are critical features of many cancers that reduce their immunogenicity and increase viability. Sialoglycans can be recognized by CD33-related Siglecs that negatively regulate the immune response and thereby impair immune surveillance...
November 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Linde M Morsink, Roland B Walter, Gert J Ossenkoppele
CLEC12A has recently been identified as an antigen, expressed on leukemic stem cells and leukemic blasts. Given the fact that this expression profile seems stable throughout diagnosis, treatment and relapse on leukemic blasts and leukemic stem cells, CLEC12A can be considered a highly potent and reliable marker for the detection of measurable residual disease and therefore applicable for risk stratification and prognostication in AML. Low CLEC12A expression on leukemic blasts seems to be independently associated with lower likelihood of achieving complete remission after 1 cycle of induction chemotherapy, shorter event free survival, as well as overall survival, indicating potential prognostic properties of CLEC12A expression itself...
November 1, 2018: Blood Reviews
Regina Jitschin, Domenica Saul, Martina Braun, Sehmus Tohumeken, Simon Völkl, Roman Kischel, Michael Lutteropp, Cedric Dos Santos, Andreas Mackensen, Dimitrios Mougiakakos
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia amongst adults with a 5-year overall survival lower than 30%. Emerging evidence suggest that immune alterations favor leukemogenesis and/or AML relapse thereby negatively impacting disease outcome. Over the last years myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been gaining momentum in the field of cancer research. MDSCs are a heterogeneous cell population morphologically resembling either monocytes or granulocytes and sharing some key features including myeloid origin, aberrant (immature) phenotype, and immunosuppressive activity...
November 5, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Anamika Misra, Sankha Shubhra Chakrabarti, Indrajeet Singh Gambhir
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) or sporadic AD is the most common form of AD. The precise pathogenetic changes that trigger the development of AD remain largely unknown. Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in multiple genes which are associated with AD; most notably, these are ABCA7, bridging integrator 1 (B1N1), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), CD33, clusterin (CLU), complement receptor 1 (CRI), ephrin type-A receptor 1 (EPHA1), membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A (MS4A) and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) genes...
August 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Ya Sun, Jun Shao, Feizhou Jiang, Yanqiu Wang, Qin Yan, Na Yu, Jin Zhang, Jie Zhang, Mingqing Li, Yinyan He
PROBLEM: Endometriosis (EM) is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease associated with an abnormal immunotolerant microenvironment. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that play a major role in immunosuppression in cancer, inflammation and other diseases. This paper aims to elucidate whether or not MDSCs are involved in regulating this microenvironment in EM and how this regulation occurs. METHOD OF STUDY: Immunochemistry (IHC) and qPCR were conducted to measure CD11b and ARG1 expression in the ectopic endometrium samples from EM patients...
October 30, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Hye Rim Cho, Hyejin Jeon, Chul-Kee Park, Sung-Hye Park, Seung Hong Choi
Although there have been a plethora of radiogenomics studies related to glioblastoma (GBM), most of them only used genomic information from tumor cells. In this study, we used radiogenomics profiling to identify MRI-associated immune cell markers in GBM, which was also correlated with prognosis. Expression levels of immune cell markers were correlated with quantitative MRI parameters in a total of 60 GBM patients. Fourteen immune cell markers (i.e., CD11b, CD68, CSF1R, CD163, CD33, CD123, CD83, CD63, CD49d and CD117 for myeloid cells, and CD4, CD3e, CD25 and CD8 for lymphoid cells) were selected for RNA-level analysis using quantitative RT-PCR...
October 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chao Liu, Wen-Bin An, Jing-Liao Zhang, Ran-Ran Zhang, Cong-Cong Sun, Li-Xian Chang, Tian-Feng Liu, Yao Zou, Hui-Jun Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and flow cytometric scoring system (FCSS) in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 42 children who were diagnosed with MDS. MFC was performed to investigate the phenotype and proportion of each lineage of bone marrow cells. The correlations of FCSS score with MDS type, International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score, and revised IPSS (IPSS-R) score were analyzed...
October 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Elham Safarzadeh, Shahryar Hashemzadeh, Pascal H G Duijf, Behzad Mansoori, Vahid Khaze, Ali Mohammadi, Tohid Kazemi, Mehdi Yousefi, Milad Asadi, Hamed Mohammadi, Farhad Babaie, Behzad Baradaran
Evading immune destruction is a hallmark of cancer. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of myeloid immune cells, are thought to foster the establishment of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, but it remains unclear how. This study aims to determine the levels of circulating MDSCs and their subpopulations and test their immunosuppressive functions in patients with breast cancer (BC). We analyzed the fractions of MDSCs in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with BC and healthy donors using flow cytometry...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Helen Ma, Ahmed Sawas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is about the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), a form of drug delivery consisting of a monoclonal antibody, linker, and cytotoxic payload. We summarize the history of ADC development, highlighting the three FDA-approved ADCs currently available. RECENT FINDINGS: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is a CD33-targeted ADC linked to calicheamicin. It is approved for CD33+ AML in the first line or the relapsed or refractory (R/R) setting. Brentuximab vedotin is a CD30-targeted ADC bound to MMAE...
October 25, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Rashi Khemka, Monica Gupta, Nehar Kanta Jena
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm consistently associated with the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located in the Philadelphia chromosome. The Blast Phase is diagnosed when blasts are ≥20% of the peripheral blood white cell count or of bone marrow nucleated cells or when there is an extramedullary blast proliferation. Megakaryocytic blast crisis as the presenting manifestation of CML is extremely rare and only 7 reported cases were found in the literature. Out of 34 cases of CML-Blast Phase between April 2015 and June 2016, 3 cases showed megakaryocytic differentiation...
October 25, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Sorour Nemati, Hamed Alizadeh Sardroud, Ali Baradar Khoshfetrat, Majid Khaksar, Mahdi Ahmadi, Hassan Amini, Shirin Saberianpour, Aref Delkhosh, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour, Reza Rahbarghazi
Today, many attempts have been collected in the field of tissue engineering for reconstitution of injured bone marrow capacity by transplantation of functional cell source. By having a 3D condition, microcapsules are appropriate candidates for cells transplantation to target sites. Here, we examined the effect of alginate-gelatin microcapsules on functional maturation of human myelomonocytic cell line U937 after 7 days in vitro. U937 cells were encapsulated by the mixture of alginate-gelatin and cultured for 7 days...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Erik A Holzwanger, Zainab Alam, Emily Hsu, Andrew Hsu, Mark Mangano, Deirdre L Kathman
BACKGROUND Granulocytic sarcoma, or 'chloroma,' due to extramedullary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or due to acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML M5), is rare and is associated with a poor prognosis. This report is of a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the gallbladder and describes the approach to diagnosis and treatment. CASE REPORT A 74-year-old Hispanic woman from Ecuador presented to the emergency department with a five-day history of fever, jaundice, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. The right upper quadrant ultrasound showed a thickened gallbladder wall with cholelithiasis, a positive sonographic Murphy sign, and marked dilatation of the common bile duct, which was up to 17 mm in diameter...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Lei Wang, Ming Ni, Angela Hückelhoven-Krauss, Leopold Sellner, Jean-Marc Hoffmann, Brigitte Neuber, Thomas Luft, Ute Hegenbart, Stefan Schönland, Christian Kleist, Martin Sill, Bao-An Chen, Patrick Wuchter, Volker Eckstein, William Krüger, Inken Hilgendorf, Ronit Yerushalmi, Arnon Nagler, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Anthony D Ho, Peter Dreger, Michael Schmitt, Anita Schmitt
Graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD), a severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, significantly affects the post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Systemic steroids remain the gold standard for the initial management of GvHD. However, up to 60% of patients will not sufficiently respond to steroids. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), a cell-based immunotherapy, has shown good clinical results in such steroid-refractory/resistant GvHD patients. Given its immunomodulatory, but not global immunosuppressive and steroid-sparing capacity, ECP constitutes an attractive option...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Stephan Kloess, Alessa Ede Valverde da Silva, Olaf Oberschmidt, Tanja Gardlowski, Nadine Matthies, Maulik Vyas, Lubomir Arseniev, Michael Heuser, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Ulrike Köhl
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01100.].
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Meng Wang, Yu Ping, Zhiqin Li, Jieyao Li, Zhen Zhang, Dongli Yue, Xinfeng Chen, Liping Wang, Lan Huang, Jianmin Huang, Li Yang, Xuan Zhao, Shuangning Yang, Hong Li, Jijing Shi, Jiansheng Li, Yi Zhang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been described as suppressors of T-cell function in many malignancies. Impaired T-cell responses have been observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC), which is reportedly associated with the establishment of persistent HCV infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that MDSCs also play a role in chronic HCV infection. MDSCs in the peripheral blood of 206 patients with CHC and 20 healthy donors were analyzed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy donors cultured with hepatitis C core protein (HCVc) were stimulated with or without interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Nikolaos Gardikas, Myrofora Vikentiou, Evgenia Konsta, Christos K Kontos, Sotirios G Papageorgiou, Aris Spathis, Efthimia Bazani, Anthi Bouchla, Violetta Kapsimali, Katherina Psarra, Periklis Foukas, George Dimitriadis, Vasiliki Pappa
BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with unknown aetiology. Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is being evaluated for the diagnosis and prognosis of MDS. METHODS: In the present study, five-color MFC was performed on bone marrow aspirates of 50 untreated patients, newly diagnosed with MDS and 27 age matched control samples. Patients were classified according to World Health Organization 2016, International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), and Revised IPSS (IPSS-R)...
October 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
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