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organ regeneration

Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
Febelyn Reguyal, Ajit K Sarmah, Wei Gao
Magnetisation of carbonaceous adsorbent using iron oxide (FexOy) has potential to decrease the recovery cost of spent adsorbent because it could be separated magnetically. However, formation of various phases of FexOy and iron hydroxide (Fex(OH)y) during synthesis particularly the non-magnetic phases are difficult to control and could significantly reduce the magnetic saturation of the adsorbent. Hence, formation of the most magnetic FexOy, Fe3O4, on biochar via oxidative hydrolysis of FeCl2 under alkaline media was performed to synthesise magnetic adsorbent using pine sawdust biochar (magnetic pine sawdust biochar: MPSB)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
M E Galarraga-Vinueza, J Mesquita-Guimarães, R S Magini, J C M Souza, M C Fredel, A R Boccaccini
Bioactive glasses (BGs) are promising materials for bone repair due to their desirable properties such as osteoconductivity, biodegradability, angiogenic potential, and antibacterial activity. Ionic dissolution products from bioactive glasses increase the medium pH reducing surrounding bacteria proliferation. The activity of BGs against biofilm formation has been enhanced by incorporating organic antibacterial compounds. The aim of this review was to summarize evidence in literature which assesses the efficacy of antibacterial and anti-biofilm compounds embedded in bioactive glasses to prevent peri-implant infection during bone healing...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Ganggang Zhang, Alice Brion, Anne-Sophie Willemin, Marie-Hélène Piet, Vanessa Moby, Arnaud Bianchi, Didier Mainard, Laurent Galois, Pierre Gillet, Marthe Rousseau
During the past two decades, with a huge and rapidly increasing clinical need for bone regeneration and repair, bone substitutes are more and more seen as a potential solution. Major innovation efforts are being made to develop such substitutes, some having advanced even to clinical practice. It is now time to turn to natural biomaterials. Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is an organic matrix-calcium carbonate coupled shell structure produced by molluscs. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that nacre is osteoinductive, osteoconductive, biocompatible and biodegradable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Hyun Sook Hong, Dae Yeon Hwang, Ju Hyeong Park, Suna Kim, Eun Jung Seo, Youngsook Son
Intestinal inflammation alters immune responses in the mucosa and destroys colon architecture, leading to serious diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, regulation of inflammation is regarded as the ultimate therapy for intestinal disease. Substance-P (SP) is known to mediate proliferation, migration, and cellular senescence in a variety of cells. SP was found to mobilize stem cells from bone marrow to the site of injury and to suppress inflammatory responses by inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages...
October 14, 2016: Cytokine
Yasemin Saygili, Magnus Söderberg, Norman Pellet, Fabrizio Giordano, Yiming Cao, Ana B Munoz-Garcia, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Nick Vlachopoulos, Michele Pavone, Gerrit Boschloo, Ladislav Kavan, Jacques-E Moser, Michael Grätzel, Anders Hagfeldt, Marina Freitag
Redox mediators play a major role determining the photocurrent and the photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). To maintain the photocurrent, the reduction of oxidized dye by the redox mediator should be significantly faster than the back electron transfer between TiO2 and the oxidized dye. The driving force for dye regeneration with the redox mediator should be sufficiently low to provide high photovoltages. With our introduction of new copper complexes as promising redox mediators in DSCs both criteria are satisfied to enhance power conversion efficiencies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shiv Kumar Sarin, Ashok Choudhury
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct entity that differs from acute liver failure and decompensated cirrhosis in timing, presence of treatable acute precipitant, and course of disease, with a potential for self-recovery. The core concept is acute deterioration of existing liver function in a patient of chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in response to an acute insult. The insult should be a hepatic one and presentation in the form of liver failure (jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, ascites) with or without extrahepatic organ failure in a defined time frame...
December 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Mehmet Emin Önger, Burcu Delibaş, Aysın Pınar Türkmen, Erkan Erener, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Süleyman Kaplan
Nerve injuries result in functional loss in the innervated organ or body parts, and recovery is difficult unless surgical treatment has been done. Different surgical treatments have been suggested for nerve repair. Tissue engineering related to growth factors has arisen as an alternative approach for triggering and improving nerve regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis related to growth factors as tools for optimizing the regeneration process. Studies and reviews on the use of growth factors for nerve regeneration were compiled over the course of the review...
October 17, 2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Haolin Chen, Yiyan Wang, Renshan Ge, Barry R Zirkin
Adult Leydig cells develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal-like stem cells (stem Leydig cells, SLCs) present in the interstitial compartment of the early postnatal testis. Putative SLCs also have been identified in peritubular and perivascular locations of the adult testis. The latter cells, which normally are quiescent, are capable of regenerating new Leydig cells upon the loss of the adult cells. Recent studies have identified several protein markers to identify these cells, including nestin, PDGFRα, COUP-TFII, CD51 and CD90...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
J S Osorio, F Batistel, E F Garrett, M M Elhanafy, M R Tariq, M T Socha, J J Loor
Supplying trace minerals in more bioavailable forms such as amino acid complexes (AAC) could help ameliorate the incidence of hoof disorders in peripartal dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing metal AAC during the peripartal period on expression of 28 genes in corium tissue related to claw composition, oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and transcriptional regulation. Forty-four multiparous Holstein cows received a common diet from -30 to 30 d relative to parturition and were assigned to receive an oral bolus containing either inorganic trace minerals (INO) or AAC (i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Chiara Cencioni, Sandra Atlante, Matteo Savoia, Fabio Martelli, Antonella Farsetti, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Andreas M Zeiher, Carlo Gaetano, Francesco Spallotta
Organ-specific mesenchymal cells naturally reside in the stroma, where they are exposed to some environmental variables affecting their biology and functions. Risk factors such as diabetes or aging influence their adaptive response. In these cases, permanent epigenetic modifications may be introduced in the cells with important consequences on their local homeostatic activity and therapeutic potential. Numerous results suggest that mesenchymal cells, virtually present in every organ, may contribute to tissue regeneration mostly by paracrine mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Miquel Sureda-Gómez, José M Martín-Durán, Teresa Adell
The βcatenin-dependent Wnt pathway exerts multiple context-dependent roles in embryonic and adult tissues. In planarians, βcatenin-1 is thought to specify posterior identities through the generation of an anteroposterior gradient. However, the existence of such gradient has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we use a specific polyclonal antibody to demonstrate that nuclear βCATENIN-1 exists as an anteroposterior gradient from the pre-pharyngeal region to the tail of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa High levels in the posterior region steadily decrease towards the pre-pharyngeal region but then increase again in the head region...
October 13, 2016: Development
J Liu, D T Bolick, G L Kolling, Z Fu, R L Guerrant
Malnutrition and cryptosporidiosis form a vicious cycle and lead to acute and long-term growth impairment in children from developing countries. Insights into mechanisms underlying the vicious cycle will help to design rational therapies to mitigate this infection. We test the effect of short term protein malnutrition on C. parvum infection in a murine model by examining stool shedding, tissue burden and histologic change, and explore the mechanism underlying the interaction between malnutrition and Cryptosporidiosis through immunostaining and immunoblotting...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Kamil Kowalski, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Maria Helena Sikorska, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Paulina Cichosz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Maria A Ciemerych, Edyta Brzoska
The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Mel S Lee, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Pei-Hsun Sung, John Y Chiang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
Despite state-of-the-art pharmaceutical regimens, continuous improvements in diagnostic techniques as well as refinements in equipment and interventional procedures, many diseases remain refractory to conventional therapies. Recent advances in stem cell (SC) biology have opened an avenue to exploring its therapeutic potential in various disease entities, especially those that are ischemia-related and refractory to conventional treatment. A number of experimental studies and clinical trials have already demonstrated promising outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Wei Zhou, Jihui Gao, Haiqian Zhao, Xiaoxiao Meng, Shaohua Wu
The reaction between Fe(2+) and H2O2 generates ·OH, which is capable of degrading organic pollutants. However, the weak conversion from Fe(3+) back to Fe(2+) limits its continuous reaction. Here, difference between Fenton system and modified Fenton system (i.e., Hydroquinone-Fenton, 1,4-Bezoquinone-Fenton, NH2OH-Fenton) for the regeneration of Fe(2+) was analyzed. UV-vis spectrometer and redox potential measurements were used to detect Fe(2+) concentration. HPLC was used to detect concentration of ·OH. Results indicated that, different from traditional Fenton system, Fe(2+) could be better regenerated in modified Fenton system...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Technology
J Patrick Gonzalez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Victoria Kyrychenko, Joel S Schneider, Celine J Granier, Eric Himelman, Kevin Lahey, Qingshi Zhao, Ghassan Yehia, Yuan-Xiang Tao, Mantu Bhaumik, Natalia Shirokova, Diego Fraidenraich
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the loss of the protein dystrophin, leading to muscle fragility, progressive weakening, and susceptibility to mechanical stress. Although dystrophin-negative mdx mouse models have classically been used to study DMD, phenotypes appear mild compared to patients. As a result, characterization of muscle pathology, especially in the heart, has proven difficult. We report that injection of mdx embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into Wild Type (WT) blastocysts produces adult mouse chimeras with severe DMD phenotypes in the heart and skeletal muscle...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cells
Sangmi Lee, Menna Elaskandrany, Afruja Ahad, Brahim Chaqour
The retina is a complex neurovascular structure that conveys light/visual image through the optic nerve to the visual cortex of the brain. Neuronal and vascular activities in the retina are physically and functionally intertwined, and vascular alterations are consequential to the proper function of the entire visual system. In particular, alteration of the structure and barrier function of the retinal vasculature is commonly associated with the development of vasoproliferative ischemic retinopathy, a set of clinically well-defined chronic ocular microvascular complications causing blindness in all age groups...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Weilu Cheng, Hui Li, Xiongfei Zheng, Lei Chen, Feng Cheng, Jinmei He, Ke Liu, Panpan Cai, Xiaofeng Wang, Yudong Huang
Collagen, one of the most biocompatible materials in nature, is widely used in wound healing and organ repair. However, the limited mechanical strength and biological effectiveness of collagen restrain its application as a hemostasis and filling material in medicine. To overcome these limitations, ultraporous collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose (Col/ORC) composites were prepared. The results showed that the Col-0.25%ORC composite had optimal wettability, porosity, and water absorption. An MTT assay proved that the Col and Col/ORC composites possessed no cytotoxicity in living cells...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jiaojiao Li, Shashank S Pawitwar, Barry P Rosen
Arsenic is the most pervasive environmental toxic substance. As a consequence of its ubiquity, nearly every organism has genes for resistance to inorganic arsenic. In bacteria these genes are found largely in bacterial arsenic resistance (ars) operons. Recently a parallel pathway for synthesis and degradation of methylated arsenicals has been identified. The arsM gene product encodes the ArsM (AS3MT in animals) As(iii) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase that methylates inorganic trivalent arsenite in three sequential steps to methylarsenite MAs(iii), dimethylarsenite (DMAs(iii) and trimethylarsenite (TMAs(iii))...
October 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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