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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145667/planarians-customize-their-stem-cell-responses-following-genotoxic-stress-as-a-function-of-exposure-time-and-regenerative-state
#1
An-Sofie Stevens, Annelies Wouters, Jan-Pieter Ploem, Nicky Pirotte, Andromeda Van Roten, Maxime Willems, Niels Hellings, Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Tom Artois, Michelle Plusquin, Karen Smeets
Aiming to in vivo characterise the responses of pluripotent stem cells and regenerative tissues to carcinogenic stress, we employed the highly regenerative organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Its broad regenerative capacities are attributable to a large pool of pluripotent stem cells, which are considered key players in the lower vulnerability towards chemically-induced carcinogenesis observed in regenerative organisms. S. mediterranea is, therefore, an ideal model to study pluripotent stem cell responses with stem cells residing in their natural environment...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144723/inorganic-strengthened-hydrogel-membrane-as-regenerative-periosteum
#2
Tianwen Xin, Yong Gu, Ruoyu Cheng, Jincheng Tang, Zhiyong Sun, Wenguo Cui, Liang Chen
Periosteum plays the pivotal role in neomineralization, vascularization and protection during bone tissue regeneration. However, many artificial periosteum focused only on protection and lacked of the osteogenesis and angiogenesis functional capacity. In this study, we developed a novelty inorganic strengthened gelatin hydrogel membrane via inorganic and organic co-cross-linked double network as artificial periosteum for enhancing the durable angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone reconstruction. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (MBGNs) chemically modified with photo-cross-linkable gelatin derivative (GelMA) were further incorporated into GelMA to fabricate an organic/inorganic co-cross-linked hydrogel membrane (GelMA-G-MBGNs)...
November 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144295/a-comparative-treatment-of-bleaching-wastewater-by-physicochemical-processes
#3
Ninad Oke, Swati Singh, Anurag Garg
The bleaching effluent discharged from a pulp and paper mill contains chlorinated organic compounds which are toxic to living matter. Physicochemical treatments such as coagulation and different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were employed for combined bleaching effluent generated from the first two stages (i.e. chlorination and alkali extraction) (pH = 3.5, chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 1,920 mg/L, and total organic carbon (TOC) = 663 mg/L). At optimum conditions (pH = 7.5, polyaluminium chloride (PAC) dose = 3...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144022/collagen-a-review-on-its-sources-and-potential-cosmetic-applications
#4
REVIEW
María Isabela Avila Rodríguez, Laura G Rodríguez Barroso, Mirna Lorena Sánchez
Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143226/aligned-ovine-diaphragmatic-myoblasts-overexpressing-human-connexin-43-seeded-on-poly-l-lactic-acid-scaffolds-for-potential-use-in-cardiac-regeneration
#5
Carlos Sebastián Giménez, Paola Locatelli, Florencia Montini Ballarin, Alejandro Orlowski, Ricardo A Dewey, Milagros Pena, Gustavo Abel Abraham, Ernesto Alejandro Aiello, María Del Rosario Bauzá, Luis Cuniberti, Fernanda Daniela Olea, Alberto Crottogini
Diaphragmatic myoblasts (DMs) are precursors of type-1 muscle cells displaying high exhaustion threshold on account that they contract and relax 20 times/min over a lifespan, making them potentially useful in cardiac regeneration strategies. Besides, it has been shown that biomaterials for stem cell delivery improve cell retention and viability in the target organ. In the present study, we aimed at developing a novel approach based on the use of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds seeded with DMs overexpressing connexin-43 (cx43), a gap junction protein that promotes inter-cell connectivity...
November 15, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139537/planaria-an-animal-model-that-integrates-development-regeneration-and-pharmacology
#6
Oné R Pagán
Although planarians are established model organisms in developmental biology and regeneration studies, in the last forty years or so, they have caught the attention of pharmacologists, especially to study the pharmacology of drugs of abuse. This review covers the following topics: some fundamentals of the history of animal models and planarians in biomedical research; an abbreviated story of systematic pharmacology research using planarians as a model organism; an example of how planarians are contributing to the search for compounds against acute cocaine toxicity; an analysis of the number of papers on planarians and pharmacological topics from 1900-2016; some perspectives on pharmacology in developmental and regeneration studies, arguing in favor of the planarian model as a leading subject for this interdisciplinary area of research, and finally some concluding thoughts...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138288/fibroblast-growth-factors-key-players-in-regeneration-and-tissue-repair
#7
REVIEW
Luigi Maddaluno, Corinne Urwyler, Sabine Werner
Tissue injury initiates a complex repair process, which in some organisms can lead to the complete regeneration of a tissue. In mammals, however, the repair of most organs is imperfect and results in scar formation. Both regeneration and repair are orchestrated by a highly coordinated interplay of different growth factors and cytokines. Among the key players are the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which control the migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival of different cell types. In addition, FGFs influence the expression of other factors involved in the regenerative response...
November 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137814/biofabrication-a-guide-to-technology-and-terminology
#8
REVIEW
Lorenzo Moroni, Thomas Boland, Jason A Burdick, Carmelo De Maria, Brian Derby, Gabor Forgacs, Jürgen Groll, Qing Li, Jos Malda, Vladimir A Mironov, Carlos Mota, Makoto Nakamura, Wenmiao Shu, Shoji Takeuchi, Tim B F Woodfield, Tao Xu, James J Yoo, Giovanni Vozzi
Biofabrication holds the potential to generate constructs that more closely recapitulate the complexity and heterogeneity of tissues and organs than do currently available regenerative medicine therapies. Such constructs can be applied for tissue regeneration or as in vitro 3D models. Biofabrication is maturing and growing, and scientists with different backgrounds are joining this field, underscoring the need for unity regarding the use of terminology. We therefore believe that there is a compelling need to clarify the relationship between the different concepts, technologies, and descriptions of biofabrication that are often used interchangeably or inconsistently in the current literature...
November 11, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136956/antagonistic-effect-of-oxytocin-and-tacrolimus-combination-on-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-antagonistic-effect-of-oxytocin-and-tacrolimus-antagonistic-effect-of-oxytocin-and-tacrolimus
#9
Gozde Sir, Bakiye Goker Bagca, Gurkan Yigitturk, Turker Cavusoglu, Cigir Biray Avci, Cumhur Gunduz, Yigit Uyanikgil
Tacrolimus (FK506) is a chemotherapeutic agent, which uses calcineurin pathway via inhibiting the stimulation of T cells to prevent the formation of immune response in the recipient individual in organ transplants. FK506 is mainly metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzyme system and is known that it has high toxic effects on different cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently gained importance since their potential to be used in cellular therapy and tissue regeneration. In some clinical cases, MSCs are transferred into the patient after the organ transplantations in order to support the treatment...
November 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136202/a-conceptual-framework-for-cell-identity-transitions-in-plants
#10
Idan Efroni
Multicellular organisms develop from a single cell that proliferates to form different cell types with specialized functions. Sixty years ago, Waddington's suggested the "epigenetic landscape" as a useful metaphor for the process. According to this view, cells move through a rugged identity space along genetically-encoded trajectories, until arriving at one of possible final fates. In plants in particular, these trajectories also have strong spatial correlates, as cell identity is intimately linked to its relative position within the plant...
November 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135240/an-osmotic-membrane-bioreactor-membrane-distillation-system-for-simultaneous-wastewater-reuse-and-seawater-desalination-performance-and-implications
#11
Wenhai Luo, Hop V Phan, Guo Xue Li, Faisal I Hai, William Evan Price, Menachem Elimelech, Long D Nghiem
In this study, we demonstrate the potential of an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) - membrane distillation (MD) hybrid system for simultaneous wastewater reuse and seawater desalination. A stable OMBR water flux of approximately 6 L m-2 h-1 was achieved when using MD to regenerate the seawater draw solution. Water production by the MD process was higher than that from OMBR to desalinate additional seawater and thus account for draw solute loss due to the reverse salt flux. Amplicon sequencing on the Miseq Illumina platform evidenced bacterial acclimatization to salinity build-up in the bioreactor, though there was a reduction in the bacterial community diversity...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134460/enzyme-based-electrobiotechnological-synthesis
#12
Lisa Marie Schmitz, Katrin Rosenthal, Stephan Lütz
Oxidoreductases are enzymes with a high potential for organic synthesis, as their selectivity often exceeds comparable chemical syntheses. The biochemical cofactors of these enzymes need regeneration during synthesis. Several regeneration methods are available but the electrochemical approach offers an efficient and quasi mass-free method for providing the required redox equivalents. Electron transfer systems involving direct regeneration of natural and artificial cofactors, indirect electrochemical regeneration via a mediator, and indirect electroenzymatic cofactor regeneration via enzyme and mediator have been investigated...
November 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133168/autologous-granulation-tissue-tubes-for-replacement-of-urethral-defects-an-experimental-study-in-male-rabbits
#13
Shi-Wei Jiang, Zhong-Hua Xu, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Lei Yan, Zun-Lin Zhou, Gang-Li Gu
INTRODUCTION: Tubularized urethroplasty is commonly performed in clinical practice using genital skin flaps, bladder mucosa, and buccal mucosa. However, the long-term effects are not satisfying, and donor site morbidities remain a problem. Besides, those grafts are unavailable with malignant conditions of the urinary tract, a history of lichen sclerosis, or oral disease. OBJECTIVE: An autologous granulation tissue tube of any required length and diameter can be produced by implanting foreign objects subcutaneously (Summary Fig...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133075/spinal-cord-self-repair-during-tail-regeneration-in-polypedates-maculatus-and-putative-role-of-fgf1-as-a-neurotrophic-factor
#14
Jutshina Hota, Sushri Sangita Pati, Pravati Kumari Mahapatra
Spinal cord injury could be fatal in man and often results in irreversible medical conditions affecting mobility. However, anuran amphibians win over such pathological condition by the virtue of regeneration abilities. The tail of anuran tadpoles therefore allures researchers to study spinal cord injury and self- repair process. In the present study, we inflicted injury to the spinal cord by means of surgical transection of the tail and investigated the self-repair activity in the tadpoles of the Indian tree frog Polypedates maculatus...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130303/assembly-of-rgd-modified-hydrogel-micromodules-into-permeable-3d-hollow-microtissues-mimicking-in-vivo-tissue-structures
#15
Huaping Wang, Juan Cui, Zhiqiang Zheng, Qing Shi, Tao Sun, Xiaoming Liu, Qiang Huang, Toshio Fukuda
Fabricated microscale tissues that replicate in vivo architectures have shown huge potential in regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Owing to the spatial organization of cell-encapsulated hydrogel microstructures, three-dimensional (3D) tissue structures have been broadly applied as novel pathological or pharmacological models. However, the spatial reorganization of arbitrary microstructures with tissue-specific shapes into 3D in vitro microtissues that mimic the physiological morphology and nutrient diffusion of native tissues presents a major challenge...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129684/rhoa-gtpase-controls-yap-mediated-ereg-signaling-in-small-intestinal-stem-cell-maintenance
#16
Ming Liu, Zheng Zhang, Leesa Sampson, Xuan Zhou, Kodandaramireddy Nalapareddy, Yuxin Feng, Shailaja Akunuru, Jaime Melendez, Ashley Kuenzi Davis, Feng Bi, Hartmut Geiger, Mei Xin, Yi Zheng
RHOA, a founding member of the Rho GTPase family, is critical for actomyosin dynamics, polarity, and morphogenesis in response to developmental cues, mechanical stress, and inflammation. In murine small intestinal epithelium, inducible RHOA deletion causes a loss of epithelial polarity, with disrupted villi and crypt organization. In the intestinal crypts, RHOA deficiency results in reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a loss of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that mimic effects of radiation damage...
November 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128764/synthetic-and-non-synthetic-anthropogenic-fibers-in-a-river-under-the-impact-of-paris-megacity-sampling-methodological-aspects-and-flux-estimations
#17
Rachid Dris, Johnny Gasperi, Vincent Rocher, Bruno Tassin
Processed fibers are highly present in our daily life and can be either natural, artificial (regenerated cellulose) and synthetic (made with petrochemicals). Their widespread use lead inevitably to a high contamination of environment. Previous studies focus on plastic particles regardless of their type or shape as long as they are comprised between 330μm and 5mm. On the contrary, this study focuses exclusively on fibers using a smaller mesh size net (80μm) to sample freshwater. Moreover, all processed organic fibers are considered, irrespective to their nature...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125798/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-liver-development-homeostasis-and-pathobiology
#18
Jacquelyn O Russell, Satdarshan S Monga
The liver is an organ that performs a multitude of functions, and its health is pertinent and indispensable to survival. Thus, the cellular and molecular machinery driving hepatic functions is of utmost relevance. The Wnt signaling pathway is one such signaling cascade that enables hepatic homeostasis and contributes to unique hepatic attributes such as metabolic zonation and regeneration. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a role in almost every facet of liver biology. Furthermore, its aberrant activation is also a hallmark of various hepatic pathologies...
November 9, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124976/rethinking-mercury-the-role-of-selenium-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mercury-toxicity
#19
Henry A Spiller
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that the pathophysiological target of mercury is in fact selenium, rather than the covalent binding of mercury to sulfur in the body's ubiquitous sulfhydryl groups. The role of selenium in mercury poisoning is multifaceted, bidirectional, and central to understanding the target organ toxicity of mercury. METHODS: An initial search was performed using Medline/PubMed, Toxline, Google Scholar, and Google for published work on mercury and selenium...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124565/glycosaminoglycans-from-fish-swim-bladder-isolation-structural-characterization-and-bioactive-potential
#20
Yongxi Pan, Peipei Wang, Fuming Zhang, Yanlei Yu, Xing Zhang, Lei Lin, Robert J Linhardt
The swim bladder of fish is an internal gas-filled organ that allows fish to control their buoyancy and swimming depth. Fish maws (the dried swim bladders of fish) have been used over many centuries as traditional medicines, tonics and a luxurious gourmet food in China and Southeast Asia. Little is known about the structural information of polysaccharides comprising this important functional material of fish tissue. In the present study, the total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) from fish maw was characterized. Two GAGs were identified, chondroitin sulfate (CS, having a molecular weight of 18-40 kDa) and heparan sulfate (HS), corresponding to 95% and 5% of the total GAG, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
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