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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820316/cell-cycle-related-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-replication-competent-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#1
Chiara Montemurro, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Tatyana Gurlo, Alexandra E Butler, Kenny E Vongbunyong, Anton Petcherski, Orian S Shirihai, Leslie S Satin, Daniel Braas, Peter C Butler, Slavica Tudzarova
Cell replication is a fundamental attribute of growth and repair in multicellular organisms. Pancreatic beta-cells in adults rarely enter cell cycle, hindering the capacity for regeneration in diabetes. Efforts to drive beta-cells into cell cycle have so far largely focused on regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Investigations in cancer biology have uncovered that adaptive changes in metabolism, the mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca(2+) are critical for permitting cells to progress through the cell cycle...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820214/mediated-water-electrolysis-in-biphasic-systems
#2
Micheál D Scanlon, Pekka Peljo, Lucie Rivier, Heron Vrubel, Hubert H Girault
The concept of efficient electrolysis by linking photoelectrochemical biphasic H2 evolution and water oxidation processes in the cathodic and anodic compartments of an H-cell, respectively, is introduced. Overpotentials at the cathode and anode are minimised by incorporating light-driven elements into both biphasic reactions. The concepts viability is demonstrated by electrochemical H2 production from water splitting utilising a polarised water-organic interface in the cathodic compartment of a prototype H-cell...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819314/a-symbiotic-like-biologically-driven-regenerating-fabric
#3
Neta Raab, Joe Davis, Rachel Spokoini-Stern, Moran Kopel, Ehud Banin, Ido Bachelet
Living organisms constantly maintain their structural and biochemical integrity by the critical means of response, healing, and regeneration. Inanimate objects, on the other hand, are axiomatically considered incapable of responding to damage and healing it, leading to the profound negative environmental impact of their continuous manufacturing and trashing. Objects with such biological properties would be a significant step towards sustainable technology. In this work we present a feasible strategy for driving regeneration in fabric by means of integration with a bacterial biofilm to obtain a symbiotic-like hybrid - the fabric provides structural framework to the biofilm and supports its growth, whereas the biofilm responds to mechanical tear by synthesizing a silk protein engineered to self-assemble upon secretion from the cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818620/secrets-from-immortal-worms-what-can-we-learn-about-biological-ageing-from-the-planarian-model-system
#4
REVIEW
Sounak Sahu, Anish Dattani, A Aziz Aboobaker
Understanding how some animals are immortal and avoid the ageing process is important. We currently know very little about how they achieve this. While research in genetic model systems has revealed the existence of conserved genetic pathways and molecular processes that affect longevity. Most of these studies have been performed in established model organisms, amenable to both classical and molecular genetic approaches, with relatively short lifespans. Here we consider the use of planarians, with an immortal life-history that is able to entirely avoid the ageing process...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818390/three-novel-recessive-mutations-in-lama2-syne1-and-ttn-are-identified-in-a-single-case-with-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#5
Liang Wu, Bingwu Xiang, Huan Zhang, Xiaoxiao He, Celina Shih, Xiang Chen, Tao Cai
Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a group of heterogeneous disorders. Here, targeted next generation sequencing of 168 CMD-associated genes was performed on collected clinic samples to identify potential mutations. A loss-of-function mutation (c.4676-4682delGCTGCAA; p.Cys1560Thrfs*33) of the LAMA2 gene in a consanguineous family was identified and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The second recessive mutation in SYNE1 (c.2881C>T; p.Arg961Trp) was found in the SAP motif, which was predicted to be involved in chromosomal organization...
July 6, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816640/exosomal-microrna-communication-between-tissues-during-organogenesis
#6
Toru Hayashi, Matthew P Hoffman
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are required to coordinate cell proliferation, patterning, and functional differentiation of multiple cell types in a developing organ. This exquisite coordination is dependent on various secreted molecules that provide developmental signals to mediate these tissue interactions. Recently, it was reported that mature mesenchymal-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in the fetal mouse salivary gland are loaded into exosomes, and transported to the epithelium where they influence progenitor cell proliferation...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815441/pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adult-tissues-struggling-to-be-acknowledged-over-two-decades
#7
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya
Stem cells have fascinated scientists for a long time and huge research efforts have been put into them as they have the potential to regenerate diseased organs. Besides embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), it has been postulated that pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may also exist in various adult tissues. They are thought to be more primitive than the adult stem cells (ASCs), serve as a backup pool to give rise to ASCs and thus play a crucial role in maintaining life-long homeostasis...
August 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814789/differential-oxidation-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-during-zebrafish-caudal-fin-regeneration
#8
Wei Wu, Alexander James Hale, Simone Lemeer, Jeroen den Hertog
Zebrafish have the capacity to regenerate lost tissues and organs. Amputation of the caudal fin results in a rapid, transient increase in H2O2 levels emanating from the wound margin, which is essential for regeneration, because quenching of reactive oxygen species blocks regeneration. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have a central role in cell signalling and are susceptible to oxidation, which results in transient inactivation of their catalytic activity. We hypothesized that PTPs may become oxidized in response to amputation of the caudal fin...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814761/transplantation-of-bioengineered-rat-lungs-recellularized-with-endothelial-and-adipose-derived-stromal-cells
#9
Ryoichiro Doi, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Norisato Mitsutake, Satoshi Nishimura, Mutsumi Matsuu-Matsuyama, Yuka Nakazawa, Tomoo Ogi, Sadanori Akita, Hiroshi Yukawa, Yoshinobu Baba, Naoya Yamasaki, Keitaro Matsumoto, Takuro Miyazaki, Ryotaro Kamohara, Go Hatachi, Hideyori Sengyoku, Hironosuke Watanabe, Tomohiro Obata, Laura E Niklason, Takeshi Nagayasu
Bioengineered lungs consisting of a decellularized lung scaffold that is repopulated with a patient's own cells could provide desperately needed donor organs in the future. This approach has been tested in rats, and has been partially explored in porcine and human lungs. However, existing bioengineered lungs are fragile, in part because of their immature vascular structure. Herein, we report the application of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) for engineering the pulmonary vasculature in a decellularized rat lung scaffold...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814609/tail-regeneration-and-other-phenomena-of-wound-healing-and-tissue-restoration-in-lizards
#10
REVIEW
Kathy Jacyniak, Rebecca P McDonald, Matthew K Vickaryous
Wound healing is a fundamental evolutionary adaptation with two possible outcomes: scar formation or reparative regeneration. Scars participate in re-forming the barrier with the external environment and restoring homeostasis to injured tissues, but are well understood to represent dysfunctional replacements. In contrast, reparative regeneration is a tissue-specific program that near-perfectly replicates that which was lost or damaged. Although regeneration is best known from salamanders (including newts and axolotls) and zebrafish, it is unexpectedly widespread among vertebrates...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811674/regenerative-medicine-and-cell-based-approaches-to-restore-pancreatic-function
#11
REVIEW
Cara Ellis, Adam Ramzy, Timothy J Kieffer
The pancreas is a complex organ with exocrine and endocrine components. Many pathologies impair exocrine function, including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conversely, when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, patients develop diabetes mellitus. Pathology in either the endocrine or exocrine pancreas results in devastating economic and personal consequences. The current standard therapy for treating patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is daily exogenous insulin injections, but cell sources of insulin provide superior glycaemic regulation and research is now focused on the goal of regenerating or replacing β cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808393/evaluation-of-the-antidiabetic-properties-of-s-1708-mulberry-variety
#12
Brijesh Ranjan, Randhir Kumar, Neeraj Verma, Swati Mittal, Pranab Lal Pakrasi, R Venkatesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a metabolic disease prevalent worldwide in all age group of people. The source of diabetes is due to an oxidation process that can produce free radicals. An increase in oxidative free radicals in the body is reported to be one of the several causes of diabetes. The best remedy to combat oxidative stress is the use of antioxidants, which inhibit and scavenge free radicals. AIM: This study has been undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect of mulberry leaf extract in diabetic mice...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808109/slow-induction-of-photosynthesis-on-shade-to-sun-transitions-in-wheat-may-cost-at-least-21-of-productivity
#13
Samuel H Taylor, Stephen P Long
Wheat is the second most important direct source of food calories in the world. After considerable improvement during the Green Revolution, increase in genetic yield potential appears to have stalled. Improvement of photosynthetic efficiency now appears a major opportunity in addressing the sustainable yield increases needed to meet future food demand. Effort, however, has focused on increasing efficiency under steady-state conditions. In the field, the light environment at the level of individual leaves is constantly changing...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807897/cytoplasmic-poly-a-binding-protein-pabpc2-critically-regulates-epidermal-maintenance-and-turnover-in-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#14
Dhiru Bansal, Jahnavi Kulkarni, Kavana Nadahalli, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Srikar Krishna, Vidyanand Sasidharan, Jini Geo, Shilpa Dilipkumar, Renu Pasricha, Akash Gulyani, Srikala Raghavan, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is critical for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic Poly A binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown (KD) of Smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807895/the-mir-124-family-of-micrornas-is-critical-for-regeneration-of-the-brain-and-visual-system-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#15
Sasidharan Vidyanand, Srujan Marepally, Sarah A Elliott, Srishti Baid, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Nishtha Nayyar, Dhiru Bansal, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado, Praveen Kumar Vemula, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Brain regeneration in planarians is mediated by precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression and is critical for multiple aspects of neurogenesis. However, the mechanisms underpinning the gene regulation essential for brain regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the miR-124 family of microRNAs in planarian brain regeneration. The miR-124 family (miR-124) is highly conserved in animals and it regulates neurogenesis by facilitating neural differentiation. Yet, its role in neural wiring and brain organization is not known...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807548/application-of-a-simple-column-switching-ion-chromatography-technique-for-removal-of-matrix-interferences-and-sensitive-fluorescence-determination-of-acidic-compounds-pharmaceutical-drugs-in-complex-samples
#16
Nadeem Muhammad, Qamar Subhani, Fenglian Wang, Dandan Guo, Qiming Zhao, Shuchao Wu, Yan Zhu
This work illustrates the introduction of a simple, rugged and flexible column-switching ion chromatography (IC) technique for an automated on-line QuEChERS extracted samples extracts washing followed by sensitive fluorescence (FLD) determination of five acidic pharmaceutical drugs namely; clofibric acid (CLO), ibuprofen (IBU), aspirin (ASP), naproxen (NAP) and flurobrofen (FLU) in three complex samples (spinach, apple and hospital sewage sludge). An old anion exchange column IonPac(®) AS11-HC was utilized as a pre-treatment column for on-line washing of inorganic and organic interferences followed by isocratic separation of five acidic drugs with another anion exchange IonPac(®) AS12A analytical column by exploiting the column-switching technique...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806560/tio2-porous-adsorbents-recent-advances-and-novel-applications
#17
REVIEW
Shayan MiarAlipour, Donia Friedmann, Jason Scott, Rose Amal
This article reviews two interrelated areas of research: the first is the use of TiO2-supported adsorbent materials as enhanced heterogeneous photocatalysts and their application to various reactions for organic pollutant removal from air and water; the second is the combination of adsorbent materials with TiO2 photocatalysts which aims to efficiently regenerate adsorbent materials using illumination. By reviewing both areas of research, the following topics are covered; (i) photocatalytic activation of TiO2; (ii) related properties of photocatalytic TiO2; (iii) shortcomings of photocatalytic processes; (iv) preparation methods of composite TiO2/adsorbent materials and their photocatalytic performance; (v) properties of common adsorbents and their applications for pollutant removal from air and water; (vi) adsorbent regeneration methods and their economic and operational issues; (vii) conclusions and future outlooks...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805859/thermo-responsive-molecularly-imprinted-sensor-based-on-the-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-for-selective-detection-of-r6g-in-the-water
#18
Hongji Li, Xiaonan Wang, Zirun Wang, Jiaqi Jiang, Maobin Wei, Jiahong Zheng, Yongsheng Yan, Chunxiang Li
In this study, a novel SERS sensor was successfully prepared by combining a molecular imprinted technique (MIT) with a SERS technique to improve the selectivity of the traditional SERS technique. Moreover, a thermo-sensitive technique was also introduced to confer stimuli-responsive properties to the materials. In a typical procedure, the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were reduced on the surface of ZnO nanorods (NRs), and the ZnO/Ag heterostructures were used as the SERS substrates. Subsequently, a layer of thermo-sensitive imprinted polymer was coated on the surface of ZnO/Ag heterostructures to prepare the thermoresponsive ZnO/Ag/molecularly imprinted polymers (ZOA-TMIPs) by precipitation polymerization...
August 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805814/cerebellar-granule-cell-replenishment-postinjury-by-adaptive-reprogramming-of-nestin-progenitors
#19
Alexandre Wojcinski, Andrew K Lawton, N Sumru Bayin, Zhimin Lao, Daniel N Stephen, Alexandra L Joyner
Regeneration of several organs involves adaptive reprogramming of progenitors, but the intrinsic capacity of the developing brain to replenish lost cells remains largely unknown. Here we found that the developing cerebellum has unappreciated progenitor plasticity, since it undergoes near full growth and functional recovery following acute depletion of granule cells, the most plentiful neuron population in the brain. We demonstrate that following postnatal ablation of granule cell progenitors, Nestin-expressing progenitors, specified during mid-embryogenesis to produce astroglia and interneurons, switch their fate and generate granule neurons in mice...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805303/controlled-release-of-igf1-enhances-urethral-sphincter-function-and-histological-structure-in-the-treatment-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-in-a-rodent-model
#20
Hao Yan, Liren Zhong, Yaodong Jiang, Jian Yang, Junhong Deng, Shicheng Wei, Emmanuel Opara, Anthony Atala, Xiangming Mao, Margot Damaser, Yuanyuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) diminishes the quality of life of millions, particularly women who have delivered vaginally, which can injure the urethral sphincter. Despite several well-established treatments for SUI, growth factor therapy might provide an alternative to promote urethral sphincter repair. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of controlled release of IGF1 from alginate-poly-L-ornithine-gelatin microbeads (IGF1-A-PLO-G microbeads) on sphincter tissue regeneration in a rat model of SUI...
August 14, 2017: BJU International
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