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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637104/-treatment-options-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Won Kim
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has sharply increased over the past several decades in Korea. In most cases of NAFLD, metabolic stress and cellular apoptosis are often driven by metabolic abnormality, eventually leading to inflammation and fibrosis . Along with a dramatic surge in the obesity epidemic, 10-20% of NAFLD patients ultimately progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a precursor to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as multi-organ systemic diseases...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636876/tissue-alignment-enhances-remodeling-potential-of-tendon-derived-cells-lessons-from-a-novel-microtissue-model-of-tendon-scarring
#2
Jasper Foolen, Stefania L Wunderli, Sandra Loerakker, Jess G Snedeker
Tendinopathy is a widespread and unresolved clinical challenge, in which associated pain and hampered mobility present a major cause for work-related disability. Tendinopathy associates with a change from a healthy tissue with aligned extracellular matrix (ECM) and highly polarized cells that are connected head-to-tail, towards a diseased tissue with a disorganized ECM and randomly distributed cells, scar-like features that are commonly attributed to poor innate regenerative capacity of the tissue. A fundamental clinical dilemma with this scarring process is whether treatment strategies should focus on healing the affected (disorganized) tissue or strengthen the remaining healthy (anisotropic) tissue...
June 18, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634452/establishing-the-basis-for-mechanobiology-based-physical-therapy-protocols-to-potentiate-cellular-healing-and-tissue-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Joanna L Ng, Mariana E Kersh, Sharon Kilbreath, M Knothe Tate
Life is mechanobiological: mechanical stimuli play a pivotal role in the formation of structurally and functionally appropriate body templates through mechanobiologically-driven cellular and tissue re/modeling. The body responds to mechanical stimuli engendered through physical movement in an integrated fashion, internalizing and transferring forces from organ, through tissue and cellular length scales. In the context of rehabilitation and therapeutic outcomes, such mechanical stimuli are referred to as mechanotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633566/microsphere-based-scaffolds-in-regenerative-engineering
#4
Vineet Gupta, Yusuf Khan, Cory J Berkland, Cato T Laurencin, Michael S Detamore
Microspheres have long been used in drug delivery applications because of their controlled release capabilities. They have increasingly served as the fundamental building block for fabricating scaffolds for regenerative engineering because of their ability to provide a porous network, offer high-resolution control over spatial organization, and deliver growth factors/drugs and/or nanophase materials. Because they provide physicochemical gradients via spatiotemporal release of bioactive factors and nanophase ceramics, microspheres are a desirable tool for engineering complex tissues and biological interfaces...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633074/programming-cells-for-cardiac-repair
#5
REVIEW
Rocco Romagnuolo, Michael A Laflamme
Because the heart is a poorly regenerative organ, there has been considerable interest in developing novel cell-based approaches to restore lost contractile function after myocardial infarction (MI). While a wide variety of candidate cell types have been tested in animal MI models, the vast majority of clinical trials have used adult stem cell types, usually derived from bone marrow. These studies have generally yielded disappointing results, an outcome that may reflect in part the limited cardiogenic potential of the adult stem cell sources employed...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629025/polycaprolactone-and-polycaprolactone-ceramic-based-3d-bioplotted-porous-scaffolds-for-bone-regeneration-a-comparative-study
#6
K K Gómez-Lizárraga, C Flores-Morales, M L Del Prado-Audelo, M A Álvarez-Pérez, M C Piña-Barba, C Escobedo
One of the critical challenges that scaffolding faces in the organ and tissue regeneration field lies in mimicking the structure, and the chemical and biological properties of natural tissue. A high-level control over the architecture, mechanical properties and composition of the materials in contact with cells is essential to overcome such challenge. Therefore, definition of the method, materials and parameters for the production of scaffolds during the fabrication stage is critical. With the recent emergence of rapid prototyping (RP), it is now possible to create three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with the essential characteristics for the proliferation and regeneration of tissues, such as porosity, mechanical strength, pore size and pore interconnectivity, and biocompatibility...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625845/injury-and-defective-regeneration-of-the-epithelial-basement-membrane-in-corneal-fibrosis-a-paradigm-for-fibrosis-in-other-organs
#7
REVIEW
Steven E Wilson, Gustavo K Marino, Andre A M Torricelli, Carla S Medeiros
Myofibroblast-mediated fibrosis is important in the pathophysiology of diseases in most organs. The cornea, the transparent anterior wall of the eye that functions to focus light on the retina, is commonly affected by fibrosis and provides an optimal model due to its simplicity and accessibility. Severe injuries to the cornea, including infection, surgery, and trauma, may trigger the development of myofibroblasts and fibrosis in the normally transparent connective tissue stroma. Ultrastructural studies have demonstrated that defective epithelial basement membrane (EBM) regeneration after injury underlies the development of myofibroblasts from both bone marrow- and keratocyte-derived precursor cells in the cornea...
June 15, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625420/formation-and-remodeling-of-the-brain-extracellular-matrix-in-neural-plasticity-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronan
#8
REVIEW
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the brain is rich in glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan. These glycosaminoglycans are organized into either diffuse or condensed ECM. Diffuse ECM is distributed throughout the brain and fills perisynaptic spaces, whereas condensed ECM selectively surrounds parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV cells) in mesh-like structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The brain ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neural plasticity and axon regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#9
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624236/regulation-of-the-proprotein-convertases-expression-and-activity-during-regenerative-angiogenesis-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif
#10
Jia Ma, Serge Evrard, Iker Badiola, Geraldine Siegfried, Abdel-Majid Khatib
Proprotein convertases (PCs) are involved in various physiological and pathological processes ranging from embryogenesis to carcinogenesis. Here, using the zebrafish fin regeneration model, we report induced expression of furin and PC5 but not PACE4 and PC7 during fin regeneration that is associated with increased PC activity. Stabilization of HIF by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) further increases these processes. The use of the general PC-inhibitor decanoyl-RVKR-cholromethyl ketone (CMK) inhibited control and CoCl2-induced PC activity...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621418/single-cell-analysis-of-the-inner-ear-sensory-organs
#11
Ofer Yizhar-Barnea, Karen B Avraham
The inner ear is composed of a complex mixture of cells, which together allow organisms to hear and maintain balance. The cells in the inner ear, which undergo an extraordinary process of development, have only recently begun to be studied on an individual level. As it has recently become clear that individual cells, previously considered to be of uniform character, may differ dramatically from each other, the need to study cell-to-cell variation, along with distinct transcriptional and regulatory signatures, has taken hold in the scientific community...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620747/amniotic-fluid-cells-current-progress-and-emerging-challenges-in-renal-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Stefano Da Sacco, Laura Perin, Sargis Sedrakyan
Amniotic fluid (AF) contains a heterogeneous population of cells that have been identified to possess pluripotent and progenitor-like characteristics. These cells have been applied in various regenerative medicine applications ranging from in vitro cell differentiation to tissue engineering to cellular therapies for different organs including the heart, the liver, the lung, and the kidneys. In this review, we examine the different methodologies used for the derivation of amniotic fluid stem cells and renal progenitors, and their application in renal repair and regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620603/advances-in-the-knowledge-about-kidney-decellularization-and-repopulation
#13
REVIEW
Afrânio Côgo Destefani, Gabriela Modenesi Sirtoli, Breno Valentim Nogueira
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by the progressive deterioration of renal function that may compromise different tissues and organs. The major treatment indicated for patients with ESRD is kidney transplantation. However, the shortage of available organs, as well as the high rate of organ rejection, supports the need for new therapies. Thus, the implementation of tissue bioengineering to organ regeneration has emerged as an alternative to traditional organ transplantation. Decellularization of organs with chemical, physical, and/or biological agents generates natural scaffolds, which can serve as basis for tissue reconstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618219/hierarchical-microspheres-constructed-from-chitin-nanofibers-penetrated-hydroxyapatite-crystals-for-bone-regeneration
#14
Bo Duan, Kangquan Shou, Xiaojuan Su, Yahui Niu, Guan Zheng, Yao Huang, Ai-Xi Yu, Yu Zhang, Hong Xia, Lina Zhang
Chitin exists abundantly in the crab and shrimp shell as the template of the minerals, which inspired us to mineralize it for fabricating the bone grafting materials. In present work, chitin nanofibrous microspheres were used as the matrix for in situ synthesisof the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals including micro-flake, submicron-needle and submicron-osphere, which were penetrated by long chitin nanofibers, leading to the hierarchical structure. The shape and size of the HA crystals could be controled by changing the HA synthesisprocess...
June 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616246/fibroblast-reticular-cells-engineer-a-blastema-extracellular-network-during-digit-tip-regeneration-in-mice
#15
Luis Marrero, Jennifer Simkin, Mimi Sammarco, Ken Muneoka
The regeneration blastema which forms following amputation of the mouse digit tip is composed of undifferentiated cells bound together by an organized network of fibers. A monoclonal antibody (ER-TR7) that identifies extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers produced by fibroblast reticular cells during lymphoid organogenesis was used to characterize the ECM of the digit, the blastema, and the regenerate. Digit fibroblast reticular cells produce an ER-TR7(+) ECM network associated with different tissues and represent a subset of loose connective tissue fibroblasts...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616244/macrophages-and-fibroblasts-during-inflammation-and-tissue-repair-in-models-of-organ-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Anthony L Mescher
This review provides a concise summary of the changing phenotypes of macrophages and fibroblastic cells during the local inflammatory response, the onset of tissue repair, and the resolution of inflammation which follow injury to an organ. Both cell populations respond directly to damage and present coordinated sequences of activation states which determine the reparative outcome, ranging from true regeneration of the organ to fibrosis and variable functional deficits. Recent work with mammalian models of organ regeneration, including regeneration of full-thickness skin, hair follicles, ear punch tissues, and digit tips, is summarized and the roles of local immune cells in these systems are discussed...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616151/therapeutic-potential-of-dental-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Elna Paul Chalisserry, Seung Yun Nam, Sang Hyug Park, Sukumaran Anil
Stem cell biology has become an important field in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapy since the discovery and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been isolated from human dental tissues, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle progenitor cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Dental stem cells are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615804/the-neurochemistry-of-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#18
Andreea Benga, Fatih Zor, Ahmet Korkmaz, Bogdan Marinescu, Vijay Gorantla
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can be most disabling, resulting in the loss of sensitivity, motor function and autonomic control in the involved anatomical segment. Although injured peripheral nerves are capable of regeneration, sub-optimal recovery of function is seen even with the best reconstruction. Distal axonal degeneration is an unavoidable consequence of PNI. There are currently few strategies aimed to maintain the distal pathway and/or target fidelity during regeneration across the zone of injury...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615510/formation-function-and-exhaustion-of-notochordal-cytoplasmic-vacuoles-within-intervertebral-disc-current-understanding-and-speculation
#19
REVIEW
Feng Wang, Zeng-Xin Gao, Feng Cai, Arjun Sinkemani, Zhi-Yang Xie, Rui Shi, Ji-Nan Wei, Xiao-Tao Wu
Notochord nucleus pulposus cells are characteristic of containing abundant and giant cytoplasmic vacuoles. This review explores the embryonic formation, biological function, and postnatal exhaustion of notochord vacuoles, aiming to characterize the signal network transforming the vacuolated nucleus pulposus cells into the vacuole-less chondrocytic cells. Embryonically, the cytoplasmic vacuoles within vertebrate notochord originate from an evolutionarily conserved vacuolation process during neurulation, which may continue to provide mechanical and signal support in constructing a mammalian intervertebral disc...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615312/stem-cells-in-repair-of-gastrointestinal-epithelia
#20
REVIEW
Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Matthias Zilbauer, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Hans Clevers
Among the endodermal tissues of adult mammals, the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium exhibits the highest turnover rate. As the ingested food moves along the GI tract, gastric acid, digestive enzymes, and gut resident microbes aid digestion as well as nutrient and mineral absorption. Due to the harsh luminal environment, replenishment of new epithelial cells is essential to maintain organ structure and function during routine turnover and injury repair. Tissue-specific adult stem cells in the GI tract serve as a continuous source for this immense regenerative activity...
July 2017: Physiology
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