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Cancer Or Neoplasm

Zhi Liu, Yang Zhong, Yu Jian Chen, Hui Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality. Identifying key molecules involved in the regulation of HCC development is of great clinical significance. SOX11 is a transcription factor belonging to group C of Sry-related HMG box family whose abnormal expression is frequently seen in many kinds of human cancers. Here, we reported that the expression of SOX11 was decreased in human HCC tumors than that in matched normal tissues. Overexpression of SOX11 promoted growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCC cell line HuH-7...
December 5, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Neha Jaiswal, Juber Akhtar, Satya Prakash Singh, Farogh Ahsan
Genistein is the natural isoflavone and a phytoestrogen with a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as tyrosine and topoisomerase inhibition. It also induces apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition, differentiates cancer cells. Added health benefits include the reduction of osteoporosis by suppressing osteoclasts and lymphocyte functions, decreased the risk of cardiovascular attacks and relieved postmenopausal problems. Genistein traditionally used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine and are found to be associated with lower risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer...
December 5, 2018: Drug Research
Wouter W de Herder, Jaume Capdevila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Yangzhou Liu, Shankun Zhao, Jiamin Wang, Zhiguo Zhu, Lianmin Luo, Ermao Li, Fucai Tang, Zhigang Zhao
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether serum neuroendocrine markers could effectively predict treatment outcomes in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase databases were sought to identify eligible studies concerning serum neuroendocrine markers and the prognosis of post-treatment mCRPC from inception to April 2018. The association between serum neuroendocrine markers, that is, chromogranin A (CgA) and neurone-specific enolase (NSE), levels and the prognosis of post-treatment mCRPC were summarized using a random-effects model and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess potential bias...
December 5, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Dongyang Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Zengjun Li, Jianjun Han, Yongsheng Gao, Ming Chen, Yanqing Li
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) promotes tumor growth in various types of cancer, but its function has not been investigated in the context of colorectal adenoma. Here, we report that FGF19 expression was greater in colorectal adenoma than in normal tissues, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry. FGF19 expression was also elevated in a subset of human colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4), the cognate receptor for FGF19, was upregulated in colorectal adenoma tissues...
December 5, 2018: Digestive Diseases
Wen-Ping Wang, Long-Qi Chen, Han-Lu Zhang, Yu-Shang Yang, Song-Lin He, Yong Yuan, Yun Wang
BACKGROUND: Intrathoracic esophagogastrostomy plays an important role in minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for cancer. Intrathoracic anastomosis with robot-assisted Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy (RAILE) includes hand-sewn and circular stapler methods, which remain technically challenging. In this study, we modified the techniques for intrathoracic anastomosis at RAILE, in order to simplify the complex procedures. METHODS: "Side-insertion" technique was used for anvil placement and purse string suture for intrathoracic anastomosis at RAILE...
December 5, 2018: Digestive Surgery
Juan M R Albano, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Verônica Muniz Couto, Mariana Barbosa Messias, Gustavo Henrique Rodrigues da Silva, Márcia Cristina Breitkreitz, Eneida de Paula, Monica Pickholz
In this work, a stable nanocarrier for the anti-cancer drug docetaxel was rational designed. The nanocarrier was developed based on the solid lipid nanoparticle preparation process aiming to minimize the total amount of excipients used in the final formulations. A particular interest was put on the effects of the polymers in the final composition. In this direction, two poloxoamers -Pluronic F127 and F68- were selected. Some poloxamers are well known to be inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Additionally, their poly-ethylene-oxide blocks can help them to escape the immune system, making the poloxamers appealing to be present in a nanoparticle designed for the treatment of cancer...
November 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Julie Leca, Thorsten Berger, Tak Wah Mak
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cell metabolism. Recently, in Cancer Cell, Ye and colleagues (2018) reported that leukemic cells have the capacity to modulate glucose metabolism in multiple organs of their host, thereby increasing the glucose resources available for malignant cell growth.
December 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Issam Ben-Sahra, Alexandre Puissant
Alteration of cell energy metabolism represents a major determinant of cancer progression; however, our understanding of oncogenic mechanisms underlying this rewiring remains elusive. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Kurmi et al. (2018) show that HER2 signaling promotes ABL-mediated phosphorylation of the mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK1), providing ATP to support breast tumor growth.
December 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Alejandro López-Soto, Guido Kroemer
Compelling evidence indicates that tumors may evade immunosurveillance by subverting the metabolism of immune cells. In a recent paper in Nature, Song et al. (2018) demonstrate that ovarian cancers activate IRE1α-XBP1 signaling within CD4+ T lymphocytes, thereby disrupting their bioenergetic function and contribution to anticancer immune responses.
December 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Wenyi Gu, Surong Sun, Andrew Kahn, Dalton Dacus, Sebastian O Wendel, Nigel McMillan, Nicholas A Wallace
High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the causative agent in virtually every cervical cancer as well as a host of other anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies. These viruses must activate DNA repair pathways to facilitate their replication, while avoiding the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis that can accompany DNA damage. HPV oncoproteins facilitate each of these goals, but also reduce genome stability. Our data dissect the cytotoxic and cytoprotective characteristics of HPV oncogenes in cervical cancer cells...
December 2, 2018: Gene
Jung Kim, Yongik Lee, Xiaodong Lu, Bing Song, Ka-Wing Fong, Qi Cao, Jonathan D Licht, Jonathan C Zhao, Jindan Yu
Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) is the enzymatic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which catalyzes histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at target promoters for gene silencing. Here, we report that EZH2 activates androgen receptor (AR) gene transcription through direct occupancy at its promoter. Importantly, this activating role of EZH2 is independent of PRC2 and its methyltransferase activities. Genome-wide assays revealed extensive EZH2 occupancy at promoters marked by either H3K27ac or H3K27me3, leading to gene activation or repression, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Varsha G Desai, Taewon Lee, Carrie L Moland, Vikrant Vijay, Tao Han, Sherry M Lewis, Eugene H Herman, James C Fuscoe
Cardiotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX) treatment in cancer patients. Currently, there is a lack of sensitive biomarkers to predict the risk of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Using SOMAmer-based proteomic technology, 1129 proteins were profiled to identify potential early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity in plasma from male B6C3F1 mice given a weekly intravenous dose of 3 mg/kg DOX or saline (SAL) for 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 weeks (6, 9, 12, 18, or 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively)...
December 2, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Lucie Vanickova, Roman Guran, Sándor Kollár, Gabriella Emri, Sona Krizkova, Tomas Do, Zbynek Heger, Ondrej Zitka, Vojtech Adam
Looking insight pathological processes, metallothioneins (MTs) are considered to be potential biomarkers for monitoring of a development of various types of malignant disease, such as cancer. The early identification of the MT biomarkers in biological tissues could be important tool for the estimation of appropriate clinical therapy. Therefore here we investigated the application of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) together with immunohistochemical analyses (IHC) using MT-1/2 antibody for MT detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy specimens of human skin...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Joseph T Hicks, Lu-Yu Hwang, Sarah Baraniuk, Margaret White, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Nkechi Onwuka, Michael W Ross, Alan G Nyitray
Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk of developing anal cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) than the rest of the general population. Currently, there are no formal national guidelines in the US advising men how and when to get anal cancer screening. We sought to assess differences in demographics, familiarity and anxiety about anal cancer among men who report having had anal cancer screening (i.e. anal cytology and/or a digital anorectal examination (DARE)). Methods: MSM were recruited to participate in a study to assess the feasibility of teaching self and partner anal examinations as a means of screening for anal cancer...
December 6, 2018: Sexual Health
Alison Chopel, Danielle Soto, Bre'Jaynae Joiner, Tina Benitez, Ruth Konoff, Lucy Rios, Elva Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Young mothers (age 14-24 years), who are often low income, are less likely than other mothers to breastfeed for 6 months. They also are more likely to be diagnosed with aggressive forms of breast cancer; breastfeeding significantly reduces this risk. While adolescent breastfeeding has been investigated from the perspective of the individual, the social ecological model recognizes the influence of factors at multiple levels. RESEARCH AIM: The aim was to identify social and structural barriers to and motivators of breastfeeding that young mothers may encounter...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
James G Dolan, Peter J Veazie
PURPOSE: In the process of developing an evidence-based decision dashboard to support treatment decisions for patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, we found that the clinical evidence base is insufficient to provide high-quality comparative outcome data. We therefore sought to determine if clinically acceptable outcome estimates could be created using a modified version of the Sheffield Elicitation Framework (SHELF), a formal method for eliciting judgments regarding probability distributions of expected decision outcomes...
December 5, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Dustin H. Marks, Adam Friedman
Cannabinoids have demonstrated utility in the management of cancer, obesity, and neurologic disease. More recently, their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified for the treatment of several dermatologic conditions. This review thus assesses the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, endoocannabinoids, and chemically synthetic cannabinoids in the management of cutaneous disease. The PubMed® and Scopus® databases were subsequently reviewed in December 2017 using MeSH and keywords, such as cannabinoid, THC, dermatitis, pruritus, and skin cancer...
November 2018: Skin Therapy Letter
Lufen Chang, Lei Shen, Hu Zhou, Jing Gao, Hangyi Pan, Li Zheng, Brian Armstrong, Yang Peng, Guang Peng, Binhua P Zhou, Steven T Rosen, Binghui Shen
The downregulation of the DNA damage response (DDR) enables aggressive tumors to achieve uncontrolled proliferation against replication stress, but the mechanisms underlying this process in tumors are relatively complex. Here, we demonstrate a mechanism through which a distinct E3 ubiquitin ligase, ITCH, modulates DDR machinery in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We found that expression of a nuclear form of ITCH was significantly increased in human TNBC cell lines and tumor specimens. Phosphorylation of ITCH at Ser257 by AKT led to the nuclear localization of ITCH and ubiquitination of H1...
December 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Arthur R Gorter de Vries, Lucas G F Couwenberg, Marcel van den Broek, Pilar de la Torre Cortés, Jolanda Ter Horst, Jack T Pronk, Jean-Marc G Daran
Targeted DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with CRISPR-Cas9 have revolutionized genetic modification by enabling efficient genome editing in a broad range of eukaryotic systems. Accurate gene editing is possible with near-perfect efficiency in haploid or (predominantly) homozygous genomes. However, genomes exhibiting polyploidy and/or high degrees of heterozygosity are less amenable to genetic modification. Here, we report an up to 99-fold lower gene editing efficiency when editing individual heterozygous loci in the yeast genome...
December 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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