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Cancer Or Neoplasm

Jiayi Wang, Wen Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Bing Luo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aquaporins are widely expressed in a variety of cancers and were found to play an important role in cell migration, angiogenesis, tumor formation, and tumor development. Thus, they have been proposed as a potential biomarker for some cancers. Accordingly, we analyzed the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism locus of aquaporin 3 (rs2231231) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (EBVaNPC), lymphoma (EBVaL), and gastric carcinoma in China...
August 15, 2018: Intervirology
Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Abhay Gaidhane, Shilpa Gaidhane, Zahiruddin Syed Quazi
Cachexia is a devastating complication of cancer and an important cause of morbidity and mortality and can have a great effect on quality of life, and sense of self-esteem. Unfortunately; there is no standard cure available for cancer cachexia. Ghrelin; a 28 amino acid orexigenic gut hormone and its mimetics have shown potential benefits in reversing the breakdown of protein and weight loss in catabolic states like cancer cachexia. Ghrelin has effects on several vital pathways in the regulation of appetite, and composition of the body...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chun-Wen Cheng, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Wen-Ling Liao, Jia-Ching Shieh, Chung-Chin Yao, Huei-Jane Lee, Po-Ming Chen, Pei-Ei Wu, Chen-Yang Shen
Background /Aims: Recent studies of microRNA (miRNA) involvement in tumorigenesis have indicated the critical role of these non-coding small RNAs in malignant transformation, but the prognostic role, if any, of miRNAs in breast cancer remains undetermined. Therefore, we assessed the prognostic significance of microRNA-9 (miR-9) and miR-221 in breast cancer toward the goal of understanding the contribution(s) of these miRNAs to cancer cell stemness. METHODS: The level of each of miR-9 and miR-221 in 206 paired laser capture microdissected tumor cells and non-tumor cells was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR)...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Zi Wang, Yan-Fei Li, Xin-Yue Han, Yin-Shi Sun, Lian-Xue Zhang, Wei Liu, Xiang-Xiang Liu, Wei Li, Ying-Ying Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cisplatin (CDDP) was the first platinum-containing anti-cancer drug. However, CDDP causes nephrotoxicity as a side effect, which limits its clinic application. The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effect of ginsenoside Re (G-Re) in a murine model of CDDP-induced acute kidney injury. METHODS: Male ICR mice were divided into 4 groups. G-Re was administered to the mice by oral gavage once a day at a dose of 25 mg/kg for 10 days...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Lin Yang, Cui Ma, Lixin Zhang, Min Zhang, Fei Li, Chen Zhang, Xiufeng Yu, Xiaoying Wang, Siyu He, Daling Zhu, Yinli Song
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) have been considered as latent mediators of diverse biological processes including cancer. However, their functions in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether 15-LOX-2/15(S)-HETE is involved in the proliferation and migration of A549 cells and to identify the signaling pathways that participate in this process. We used immunohistochemistry to identify the expression levels of 15-LOX-2 in lung cancer tissue samples...
August 12, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Chie Kudo-Saito, Akiko Ishida, Yuji Shouya, Koji Teramoto, Tomoyuki Igarashi, Ryoko Kon, Kenji Saito, Chihiro Awada, Yamato Ogiwara, Masayoshi Toyoura
Immune dysfunction is a strong factor in the resistance of cancer to treatment. Blocking immune checkpoint pathways is a promising approach to improve anti-tumor immunity, but the clinical efficacies are still limited. We previously identified follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) as a determinant of immune dysfunction mediated by mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and immunoregulatory cells. Here, we demonstrate that blocking FSTL1 but not immune checkpoint pathways significantly suppresses cancer progression and metastasis in several mouse tumor models with increased MSCs...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Kazuaki Suda, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Kosuke Yoshihara, Tatsuya Ishiguro, Ryo Tamura, Yutaro Mori, Kaoru Yamawaki, Sosuke Adachi, Tomoko Takahashi, Hiroaki Kase, Kenichi Tanaka, Tadashi Yamamoto, Teiichi Motoyama, Ituro Inoue, Takayuki Enomoto
Endometriosis is characterized by ectopic endometrial-like epithelium and stroma, of which molecular characteristics remain to be fully elucidated. We sequenced 107 ovarian endometriotic and 82 normal uterine endometrial epithelium samples isolated by laser microdissection. In both endometriotic and normal epithelium samples, numerous somatic mutations were identified within genes frequently mutated in endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers. KRAS is frequently mutated in endometriotic epithelium, with a higher mutant allele frequency (MAF) accompanied by arm-level allelic imbalances...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Juan Manuel Vazquez, Michael Sulak, Sravanthi Chigurupati, Vincent J Lynch
Large-bodied organisms have more cells that can potentially turn cancerous than small-bodied organisms, imposing an increased risk of developing cancer. This expectation predicts a positive correlation between body size and cancer risk; however, there is no correlation between body size and cancer risk across species ("Peto's paradox"). Here, we show that elephants and their extinct relatives (proboscideans) may have resolved Peto's paradox in part through refunctionalizing a leukemia inhibitory factor pseudogene (LIF6) with pro-apoptotic functions...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Lavina Sierra Tay, Vaidehi Krishnan, Haresh Sankar, Yu Lin Chong, Linda Shyue Huey Chuang, Tuan Zea Tan, Arun Mouli Kolinjivadi, Dennis Kappei, Yoshiaki Ito
The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is a pivotal genome maintenance network that orchestrates the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). The tumor suppressors RUNX1 and RUNX3 were shown to regulate the FA pathway independent of their canonical transcription activities, by controlling the DNA damage-dependent chromatin association of FANCD2. Here, in further biochemical characterization, we demonstrate that RUNX3 is modified by PARP-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which in turn allows RUNX binding to DNA repair structures lacking transcription-related RUNX consensus motifs...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Inês Pereira, Flávia Sousa, Patrick Kennedy, Bruno Sarmento
Bioengineered functionalized nanoparticles have extensively been proposed in recent years to efficiently deliver anti-cancer drugs to the tumour site, by targeting the cancer cells and improving the therapeutic efficiency of active molecules. In this work, polymeric poly (lactic-co- glycolic)-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles were produced by nanoprecipitation and loaded with paclitaxel, following surface-functionalized with a monoclonal antibody targeting the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) of intestinal epithelial cells...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Christian Antonio Tuwahatu, Chi Chung Yeung, Yun Wah Lam, Vellaisamy Arul Lenus Roy
The development of polymeric materials as drug delivery systems has advanced from systems that rely on classical passive targeting to carriers that can sustain the precisely controlled release of payloads upon physicochemical triggers in desired microenvironment. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), materials designed to capture specific molecules based on their molecular shape and charge distribution, are attractive candidates for fulfilling these purposes. In particular, drug-imprinted polymers coupled with active targeting mechanisms have been explored as potential drug delivery systems...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jennifer K Litton, Hope S Rugo, Johannes Ettl, Sara A Hurvitz, Anthony Gonçalves, Kyung-Hun Lee, Louis Fehrenbacher, Rinat Yerushalmi, Lida A Mina, Miguel Martin, Henri Roché, Young-Hyuck Im, Ruben G W Quek, Denka Markova, Iulia C Tudor, Alison L Hannah, Wolfgang Eiermann, Joanne L Blum
Background The poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) inhibitor talazoparib has shown antitumor activity in patients with advanced breast cancer and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ( BRCA1/2). Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial in which patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation were assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive talazoparib (1 mg once daily) or standard single-agent therapy of the physician's choice (capecitabine, eribulin, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine in continuous 21-day cycles)...
August 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Masanori Kawakami, Xi Liu, Ethan Dmitrovsky
Aneuploidy is a hallmark of cancer. Defects in chromosome segregation result in aneuploidy. Multiple pathways are engaged in this process, including errors in kinetochore-microtubule attachments, supernumerary centrosomes, spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) defects, and chromosome cohesion defects. Although aneuploidy provides an adaptation and proliferative advantage in affected cells, excessive aneuploidy beyond a critical level can be lethal to cancer cells. Given this, enhanced chromosome missegregation is hypothesized to limit survival of aneuploid cancer cells, especially when compared to diploid cells...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Christina Schoenherr, Margaret C Frame, Adam Byron
Cell adhesion to macromolecules in the microenvironment is essential for the development and maintenance of tissues, and its dysregulation can lead to a range of disease states, including inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. The biomechanical and biochemical mechanisms that mediate cell adhesion rely on signaling by a range of effector proteins, including kinases and associated scaffolding proteins. The intracellular trafficking of these must be tightly controlled in space and time to enable effective cell adhesion and microenvironmental sensing and to integrate cell adhesion with, and compartmentalize it from, other cellular processes, such as gene transcription, protein degradation, and cell division...
August 15, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Meng-Lu Zhu, Xiao-Ling Xu, Xiao-Juan Wang, Nan-Nan Zhang, Kong-Jun Lu, Jing Qi, Fei-Yang Jin, Di Liu, Yong-Zhong Du
Targeted Drug Delivery Systems (TDDS) have attracted wide attention with reduced drug side effects and improved anti-tumor efficacy in comparison with traditional preparations. While targeting moiety in existing TDDS principally focused on recognition of receptors on the surface of tumor cells, accumulation into tumor tissue only could be performed by enhanced permeability and retention effect and active transportation into tumor cells. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded sialic acid-dextran (Dex)-octadecanoic acid (OA) micelles (SA-Dex-OA/DOX) were designed for targeting hepatocellular carcinoma effectively...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Luca Gambini, Ahmed F Salem, Parima Udompholkul, Xiao-Feng Tan, Carlo Baggio, Neh Shah, Alexander Aronson, Jikui Song, Maurizio Pellecchia
EphA2 overexpression is invariably associated with poor prognosis and development of aggressive metastatic cancers in pancreatic, prostate, lung, ovarian and breast cancers, and melanoma. Recent efforts from our laboratories identified a number of agonistic peptides targeting the ligand-binding domain of the EphA2 receptor. The individual agents, however, were still relatively weak in affinities (micromolar range) that precluded detailed structural studies on the mode of action. Using a systematic optimization of the 12-mer peptide mimetic 123B9, we were able to first derive an agent that displayed a sub-micromolar affinity for the receptor...
August 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Gisèle Carrière, Claudia Sanmartin, Patricia Murison
BACKGROUND: National population information about the surgical treatment rate for primary cancers, including breast cancer, has remained a significant data gap in Canada. This gap has implications for cancer care planning and evaluating health system performance. New linkages between the Canadian Cancer Registry and hospital discharge records were conducted by Statistics Canada in 2016. Using already existing, routinely collected health administrative data, these linkages allow viable reporting of surgical cancer treatment for the first time for all provinces and territories (except Quebec)...
August 15, 2018: Health Reports
Chang K Zhao, Chan Li, Xian H Wang, Yu J Bao, Fu H Yang, Mei Huang
A series of conjugates of 10-hydroxy camptothecin (HCPT) with functionalized norcantharidin derivatives were regio-selectively synthesized in the condition of (3-dimethylaminopropyl) ethyl-carbodiimide monohydrochloride in a moderate yield. The synthesized conjugate HCPT pro-drugs can also suppress cancer cell growth in vitro . These conjugated pro-drug constructs possess therapeutic potential as novel bi-functional conjugate platforms for cancer treatment.
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Hany M Hassanin, Rabah A T Serya, Wafaa R Abd Elmoneam, Mai A Mostafa
A series of novel pyranoquinolinone-based Schiff's bases were designed and synthesized. They were evaluated for topoisomerase IIβ (TOP2B) inhibitory activity, and cytotoxicity against breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) for the development of novel anticancer agents. A molecular docking study was employed to investigate their binding and functional properties as TOP2B inhibitors, using the Discovery Studio 2.5 software, where they showed very interesting ability to intercalate the DNA-topoisomerase complex. Compounds 2a , 2c and 2f showed high docking score values (82...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Salah A Sheweita, Ainour A Almasmari, Sabah G El-Banna
Tramadol is an analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain caused by cancer, osteoarthritis, and other musculoskeletal diseases. Cytochrome P450 system metabolizes tramadol and induces oxidative stress in different organs. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the changes in the activities and the protein expressions of CYPs isozymes (2E1, 3A4, 2B1/2), antioxidants status, free radicals levels after pretreatment of rats with Curcumin and/or Gallic as single- and/or repeated-doses before administration of tramadol...
2018: PloS One
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