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Cancer Or Neoplasm

Matthias M Dollinger, Susanna Behl, Wolfgang E Fleig
BACKGROUND: Although colonoscopy-based screening has proven to be highly effective in detecting colorectal cancer (CRC), participation rates remain disappointing. Development of CRC is associated with a number of genetic or somatic mutations. New, non-invasive stool tests are currently being developed based on the detection of these alterations. We investigated if a non-invasive stool assay can offer sufficient sensitivity and specificity to supplement colonoscopy-based screening. METHODS: We compared a combined stool assay, which incorporates fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), quantification of human DNA (hDNA) as well as detection of genetic mutations of KRAS and BRAF (Combined DNA stool assay), with commercially available FOBT and M2-PK tests in a multi-centric six-armed pre-clinical case cohort study...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Chao Xing, Zhengzhai Cai, Jian Gong, Jun Zhou, Jingjing Xu, Feng Guo
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Increasing studies have indicated that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play critical roles in cancer progression. They have shown great potential to be useful markers and therapeutic targets. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to detect mRNA and ncRNAs' expression changes between tumor samples and adjacent non-tumor samples. The gene expression profiles were obtained from the national center of biotechnology information gene expression omnibus (GEO)...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Razavi Hashemi M, Vahabpour R, Ranji N, Sanati Mh, Mapar M, Sadat Sm
BACKGROUND: Acute T Cell Leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive and prevalent human malignancy. Chemotherapy is the most frequent therapeutic strategy; however, cytotoxicity and recurrence of cancer are the main concerns. The discovery of microRNA (miRNA) drew the attention of scientists who were working on targeted cancer therapy to use the potential of gene regulation by using this small RNAs. METHODS: miRanda, TargetScan, miRDB databases, and miRWalk software were applied to find probable miRNAs targeting 3'UTR of JAK1, STAT3, SOCS6, AKT1, APAF, BID, and Caspase9 mRNA...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Melissa Gonzalez Veiga, Rogério Tadeu Felizi, Dayane Guerino Reis, Ivo Carelli Filho, Cesar Eduardo Fernandes, Ricardo Peres do Souto, Emerson Oliveira
OBJECTIVE:  Epidemiological studies have shown evidence of the effect of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and have suggested a relationship of the disease with variations in genes involved in estrogen synthesis and/or metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the CYP3A4*1B gene polymorphism (rs2740574) and the risk of developing breast cancer. METHODS:  In the present case-control study, the frequency of the CYP3A4*1B gene polymorphism was determined in 148 women with breast cancer and in 245 women without the disease...
October 18, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Lloyd J W Tack, Ellen Maris, Leendert H J Looijenga, Sabine E Hannema, Laura Audi, Birgit Köhler, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Stefan Riedl, Amy Wisniewski, Christa E Flück, Justin H Davies, Guy T Apos Sjoen, Angela K Lucas-Herald, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Nils Krone, Violeta Iotova, Otilia Marginean, Antonio Balsamo, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Naomi Weintrob, Mona Ellaithi, Anna Nordenström, Annemarie Verrijn Stuart, Kirsten B Kluivers, Katja P Wolffenbuttel, S Faisal Ahmed, Martine Cools
BACKGROUND: Complete and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS, PAIS) are associated with an increased risk of gonadal germ cell cancer (GGCC). Recent guidelines recommend gonadectomy in women with CAIS in late adolescence. Nevertheless, many adult women prefer to retain their gonads. AIMS: This study aims to explore attitudes towards gonadectomy in AIS in centres around the world, estimate the proportion of adults with retained gonads and/or who developed GGCC, and explore reasons for declining gonadectomy...
October 18, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Jiao Xu, Tuochen Zheng, Wenli Hong, Haifeng Ye, Chuan Hu, Yuehui Zheng
The ovary is surrounded by a whitish layer of mesodermally derived ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) that lines the intraembryonic celom and comprises simple squamous to cuboidal to low pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells. Its integrity is maintained by simple desmosomes, incomplete tight junctions, several integrins and cadherins. Recent research has found that ovarian stem cells (OSCs) exist within the OSE and may be responsible for both neo-oogenesis and ovarian cancer during adult life. The factors determining whether OSCs undergo neo-oogenesis or ovarian cancer are of great interest to researchers and clinicians...
October 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yuan Meng, Xiaohui Liu, Shaoyong Lu, Tingting Zhang, Baichuan Jin, Qiao Wang, Zhurui Tang, Ying Liu, Xiaochun Guo, Junli Zhou, Beidou Xi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residues have attracted attention worldwide. This study summarizes the current levels of PAH exposure in the water environments of lakes. In addition, the risk levels from individual PAHs and ΣPAHs in the water environments of lakes in China were evaluated by incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) assessment, the toxic equivalent concentration (TEQBaP ), the risk quotient (RQ), the effects range-low (ERL) and the effects range-median (ERM). The results showed that the concentrations of ∑PAHs in water and sediment ranged from 4...
October 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Husam A Babikir, Rayhaneh Afjei, Ramasamy Paulmurugan, Tarik F Massoud
p53 is a transcription factor that activates numerous genes involved in essential maintenance of genetic stability. P53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. One third of these mutations are structural, resulting in mutant p53 with a disrupted protein conformation. Here we review current progress in a relatively underexplored aspect of p53-targeted drug development, that is, strategies to reactivate wild-type function of misfolded mutant p53. Unfortunately, most p53-targeted drugs are still at early stages of development and many of them are progressing slowly toward clinical implementation...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Rakesh K Pathak, Uttara Basu, Anis Ahmad, Shrita Sarkar, Anil Kumar, Bapurao Surnar, Saba Ansari, Katarzyna Wilczek, Michael E Ivan, Brian Marples, Nagesh Kolishetti, Shanta Dhar
Multimodal therapies are used to treat advanced cancers including castration-resistant prostate cancer to manage the biological characteristics of the tumors like inflammation, bone metastases, and participation of metabolically altered cancer stem cells (CSCs) that have integral roles in disease dissemination and progression. We developed a multifunctional polymer-based self-assembled technology to deliver a predefined stoichiometric combination of a chemotherapy and an anti-inflammatory agent in a stimuli responsive manner, to complement and improve the currently established treatment methods of prostate cancer...
September 5, 2018: Biomaterials
Evert-Ben van Veen
Insights into the incidence and survival of cancer, the influence of lifestyle and environmental factors and the interaction of treatment regimens with outcomes are hugely dependent on observational research, patient data derived from the healthcare system and from volunteers participating in cohort studies, often non-selective. Since 25th May 2018, the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) applies to such data. The GDPR focusses on more individual control for data subjects of 'their' data. Yet, the GDPR was preceded by a long debate...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Masoumeh Mansouri Bidkani, Hossein Tabatabaeian, Soha Parsafar, Nafezeh Ghanei, Mohammad Fazilati, Kamran Ghaedi
PURPOSE: A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EebB4 gene have been studied, which has clarified their impact on breast cancer in different populations. Nevertheless, the importance of rs13423759 in breast cancer has not been studied and its effect remained almost unclear. In this paper, we evaluated the frequency of rs13423759 different alleles in Iranian population and statistically analyzed their association with breast cancer risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allele-specific Primer PCR (ASP-PCR) was recruited in this study to genotype rs13423759 position in 172 breast cancer and 148 healthy control subjects...
October 9, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
A Lammers, C G Slatore, E K Fromme, K Vranas, D R Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Ikumi Kuno, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hanako Shimizu, Takashi Uehara, Masaya Uno, Mitsuya Ishikawa, Tomoyasu Kato
OBJECTIVES: Incidentally discovered lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) in sampled lymph nodes are infrequent but intractable issues for gynecologists. The aims of this study were to elucidate the prevalence of incidental nodal LAM in a consecutive cohort of gynecologic surgical specimens from Japanese patients, to document clinicopathological features of nodal LAM cases, and to investigate the association between the subsequent development of pulmonary LAM and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Pei Pei, Chunyang Sun, Wei Tao, Jie Li, Xianzhu Yang, Jun Wang
Minimizing drug leakage at off-target sites and triggering sufficient drug release in tumor tissue are major objectives for effective nanoparticle (NP)-based cancer therapy. The current covalent and cleavable drug-NP conjugation strategy is promising but lacks high controllability to realize tumor-specific release. As a proof-of-concept, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activatable thioketal (TK) bond was explored as the linkage between doxorubicin (DOX) and polyphosphoester (PPE-TK-DOX). The Ce6@PPE-TK-DOX NPs constructed by co-self-coassembly of PPE-TK-DOX and the photosensitizer Ce6 efficiently prevented premature drug leakage in the off-target tissue and cells because of the high stability of the TK bond under physiological conditions...
October 11, 2018: Biomaterials
Salman Guraya
BACKGROUND: Literature has shown that aberrantly expressed microRNAs may have implications in certain cancers. A wealth of studies signal potential prognostic role of microRNA-21 in GIT cancers. This meta-analysis quantitatively determines prognostic significance of circulating microRNA-21 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). METHODS: Databases of Medline, Wiley online library, Cochrane library, Taylor and Francis Online, CINAHL, Springer, Proquest, ISI Web of knowledge, ScienceDirect, and Emerald were searched using MeSH terms serum/tissue microRNA-21, prognosis, esophagus squamous cell carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, colorectal cancer...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Francesco Prattichizzo, Angelica Giuliani, Emanuela Mensà, Jacopo Sabbatinelli, Valeria De Nigris, Maria Rita Rippo, Lucia La Sala, Antonio Domenico Procopio, Fabiola Olivieri, Antonio Ceriello
Metformin is the first-choice therapy to lower glycaemia and manage type 2 diabetes. Continuously emerging epidemiological data and experimental models are showing additional protective effects of metformin against a number of age-related diseases (ARDs), e.g., cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This evidence has prompted the design of a specific trial, i.e., the Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) trial, to test metformin as an anti-ageing molecule. However, a unifying or prevailing mechanism of action of metformin is still debated...
October 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Weijun Xu, Junmin Qian, Guanghui Hou, Yaping Wang, Jinlei Wang, Tiantian Sun, Lijie Ji, Aili Suo, Yu Yao
Integration of multimodal therapies into one nanoplatform holds great promise to overcome the drawbacks of conventional single-modal therapy and pursues enhanced anticancer efficacy. Herein, we developed a PEGylated gold nanorods (GNRs)-based nanoplatform (GNRs-MPH-ALA/DOX -PEG) with pH-responsive drug release property for triple-combined chemotherapy (CT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) of breast cancer. GNRs were first decorated with mercaptopropionylhydrazide (MPH) and thiol-terminated monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-SH) via Au-thiol linkage, and subsequently conjugated with chemotherapeutant doxorubicin (DOX) and pro-photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) through acid-liable hydrazone bonds between drugs and MPH molecules...
October 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Axel Largent, Anaïs Barateau, Jean-Claude Nunes, Caroline Lafond, Peter B Greer, Jason A Dowling, Hervé Saint-Jalmes, Oscar Acosta, Renaud de Crevoisier
PURPOSE: Methods have been recently developed to generate pseudo-CT (pCT) for dose calculation in MRI-only radiotherapy. This study aimed to propose an original non-local mean patch-based method (PBM), and to compare this PBM to an atlas-based method (ABM) and to a bulk density method (BDM) for prostate MRI-only radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients received a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer. In addition to the planning CTs, T2 -weighted MRIs were acquired...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Xueyuan Zhou, Pengfei Xu, Ruili Dang, Yujin Guo, Gongying Li, Yi Qiao, Ruining Xie, Yuanyuan Liu, Pei Jiang
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer agent, whose clinical use is limited by the cytotoxicity in non-target tissues, especially the heart and brain. The drug-induced neuronal damage is primarily mediated by oxidative stress, in which autophagy plays a central role. Although numerous studies indicate the involvement of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury, the evidence concerning autophagic process in Dox-induced neuronal death is limited. We found that repeated Dox administration induced the protein expression of LC3II and P62 and impaired autophagic flux with enhanced autophagasome accumulation in rat hippocampus, whereas two weeks after the cessation of Dox treatment, the autophagic process was restored, even stimulated, with normalized protein levels of LC3II and P62 and enhanced expression of Becline-1, indicating a compensatory response in the recovery state...
October 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Haicong Chen, Zhaojun Wang, Xin Wang, Zhen Guo, Zhujin Xu, Yi Zhao, Jiashang Cai, Jun Liu
In the present study, a polysaccharide (ECP) from Enterobacter cloacae dose and time-dependently inhibited cell growth of human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells via induction of apoptosis. ECP treatment was selectively toxic to U-2 OS cells whereas had no cytotoxic effect on normal human osteoblast cell line NHOst. ECP-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with collapse of mitochondrial membrane, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, activation of caspase-9 and-3, degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), elevated the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein and overexpression of p53, suggesting the involvement of the activation of p53 and mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in ECP-induced apoptosis...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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