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LDL cholesterol

Alexander J Michels, Scott W Leonard, Sandra L Uesugi, Gerd Bobe, Balz Frei, Maret G Traber
Background: Inadequate vitamin E and magnesium intakes are of concern for older adults owing to the associated incidence of age-related diseases. Objective: This study was designed to determine the extent to which a 16-wk intervention with hazelnuts alters vitamin E and magnesium status in a group of older men and women, and used a pre-post intervention design without a control group to adjust for temporal changes. Methods: Participants (n = 32 including 22 women; mean ± SD age: 63 ± 6 y) consumed hazelnuts (∼57 g/d) for 16 wk...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Fabiana Letícia da Silva, Rodrigo Pimenta Del-Rei, Déborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Leonardo Maia Leony, Alina Maria Gonzaga Carlos de Souza, Fred Luciano Neves Santos
INTRODUCTION: Portal hypertension and periportal fibrosis commonly occur in severe Schistosoma mansoni infection. Changes in lipid profile and elevated levels of circulating liver enzymes have also been described in infected individuals. The present study sought to assess the alterations in laboratory parameters associated with liver disorder in individuals infected by S. mansoni who visited a private routine laboratory service. Levels of circulating liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase [γ-GT], aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) and a lipid panel (total cholesterol [COL], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides [TRI]) were evaluated in both infected and non-infected individuals and relative risk was used to measure associations...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Mariane de Mello Fontanelli, Luana Romão Nogueira, Marcela Riccioppo Garcez, Cristiane Hermes Sales, José Eduardo Corrente, Chester Luiz Galvão César, Moisés Goldbaum, Regina Mara Fisberg
The study aimed to validate self-report of high cholesterol in São Paulo, Brazil, and verify factors associated with this information's sensitivity. Data were used from the Health Survey of the City of São Paulo 2015, a cross-sectional population-based study with a probabilistic sample of the city's residents. The sample included 886 individuals with information from the structured questionnaire, blood measurements of total cholesterol and fractions or who reported being on medication for high cholesterol...
November 29, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Brett McGettigan, Rachel McMahan, David Orlicky, Matthew Burchill, Thomas Danhorn, Prashanth Francis, Lin Ling Cheng, Lucy Golden-Mason, Claudia Jakubzick, Hugo Rosen
A crucial component of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis is lipid stress, which may contribute to hepatic inflammation and activation of innate immunity in the liver. However, little is known regarding how dietary lipids, including fat and cholesterol, may facilitate innate immune activation in vivo. We hypothesized that dietary fat and cholesterol drive NAFLD progression to steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis by altering the transcription and phenotype of hepatic macrophages METHODS: This hypothesis was tested by using RNA-seq methods to characterize and analyze sort-purified hepatic macrophage populations that were isolated from mice fed diets with varying amounts of fat and cholesterol RESULTS: The addition of cholesterol to a high fat diet triggered hepatic pathology reminiscent of advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans characterized by signs of cholesterol dysregulation, generation of oxidized LDL, increased recruitment of hepatic macrophages, and significant fibrosis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Lingpeng Shan, Abdus Sattar, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
Background: This study was conducted to explore the associations between serum albumin and markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. Methods: We conducted a nested study within in the SATURN-HIV trial in which 147 HIV+ adults on stable antiretroviral therapy were (1) virally suppressed, (2) had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level <130 mg/dL, and (3) were randomized to 10 mg daily rosuvastatin or placebo...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Ali M Albarrati, Mansour Saleh M Alghamdi, Rakan I Nazer, Maarab M Alkorashy, Nora Alshowier, Nichola Gale
Background: Regular exercise reduces risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) contributes to atherosclerosis formation, which is associated with an increased risk of CVD. The relationship between exercise therapy and lipid levels has been widely studied, but it is established that high-intensity exercise improves lipid profile. However, the effectiveness of low- to moderate-intensity exercise in altering LDL levels is controversial...
2018: BioMed Research International
Priscila Alves Maranhão, Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Diogo Guarnieri Panazzolo, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Eliete Bouskela, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar
Background: Frequently, ingestion of lipids exceeds our daily requirements and constantly exposes humans to circulating lipid overload which may lead to endothelial dysfunction (ED), the earliest marker of atherosclerosis. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) technique can detect ED on microcirculation. Using NVC, we aimed to demonstrate if metabolic alterations evoked by high-fat meals can act differently on microvascular endothelial reactivity in lean and women with obesity. Methods: Women, aged between 19 and 40 years, were allocated to control group (CG) and with obesity group (OBG) and were subjected to blood analysis for determination of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and NVC evaluation at fasting and 30, 60, 120, and 180-min after high-fat meal ingestion...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ibiza Aguilar-Morales, Eloisa Colin-Ramirez, Susana Rivera-Mancía, Maite Vallejo, Clara Vázquez-Antona
The most common tools used to screen for abdominal obesity are waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); the latter may represent a more suitable tool for the general non-professional population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of WHtR, WC, and body mass index with lipidic and non-lipidic cardio-metabolic risk factors and the prediction capability of each adiposity indicator in a sample of school-aged Mexican children. Overall, 125 children aged 6 to 12 years were analyzed...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Alpo Vuorio, Petri T Kovanen
This review covers the current knowledge about plant stanol esters as a dietary treatment option for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (he-FH) children. The current estimation of the prevalence of he-FH is about one out of 200⁻250 persons. In this autosomal dominant disease, the concentration of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is strongly elevated since birth. Quantitative coronary angiography among he-FH patients has revealed that stenosing atherosclerotic plaques start to develop in he-FH males in their twenties and in he-FH females in their thirties, and that the magnitude of the plaque burden predicts future coronary events...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
François Singh, Joffrey Zoll, Urs Duthaler, Anne-Laure Charles, Miljenko V Panajatovic, Gilles Laverny, Thomas G McWilliams, Daniel Metzger, Bernard Geny, Stephan Krähenbühl, Jamal Bouitbir
Statins inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and lower serum LDL-cholesterol levels. Statins are generally well tolerated, but can be associated with potentially life-threatening myopathy of unknown mechanism. We have shown previously that statins impair PGC-1β expression in human and rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that PGC-1β may play a role in statin-induced myopathy. PGC-1β is a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of important genes in mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidative capacity and energy metabolism...
December 3, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Emilio Márquez Contreras, Ignacio Vázquez-Rico, Agueda Baldonedo-Suárez, Sara Márquez-Rivero, Jesús Jiménez, Francisco Machancoses, Rocío Morano-Báez, Antonio León-Justel
Objective: To evaluate the impact that the moderate and regular consumption of Cinco Jotas acorn-fed 100% Iberian ham has on overall cardiovascular risk, lipid parameters, blood pressure, and weight. Methods: A longitudinal, analytical, and quasi-experimental clinical study with repeated measures was carried out with 100 randomly selected individuals in primary care. The sample population included men and women (64%) between the ages of 25 and 55 (42.08, SD 9.6) who were not diagnosed with any cardiovascular illness or diabetes, were not undergoing antihypertensive treatment, nor taking lipid-lowering drugs...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Jean Mboma, Nadine Leblanc, Sereana Wan, René L Jacobs, André Tchernof, Pascal Dubé, Paul Angers, Hélène Jacques
Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) generated through domestic or industrial heating of vegetable oils may alter liver enzymes and induce hepatomegaly and steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of CFAM on liver and plasma lipids and to determine whether these effects are modulated by dietary lipids. Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were fed either of the four isoenergetic diets consisting of canola oil or soybean oil with/without 500 mg/100 g CFAM of total fat for 28 days...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Shahnaz Barat, Azita Ghanbarpour, Zinatossadat Bouzari, Zohre Batebi
Background: Using oral glucose for glucose challenge test (GCT) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) is problematic, especially in early pregnancy when the pregnant woman is experiencing gastrointestinal complications. This research seeks to investigate the relationship between the ratio of Triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the risk of gestational diabetes and large for gestational age (LGA) fetus for suggesting a more appropriate index for diagnosis of gestational diabetes...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Matthieu Chodorge, Anthony J Celeste, Joseph Grimsby, Anish Konkar, Pia Davidsson, David Fairman, Lesley Jenkinson, Jacqueline Naylor, Nicholas White, Jonathan C Seaman, Karen Dickson, Benjamin Kemp, Jennifer Spooner, Emmanuel Rossy, David C Hornigold, James L Trevaskis, Nicholas J Bond, Timothy B London, Andrew Buchanan, Tristan Vaughan, Cristina M Rondinone, Jane K Osbourn
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex and progressive disease requiring polypharmacy to manage hyperglycaemia and cardiovascular risk factors. However, most patients do not achieve combined treatment goals. To address this therapeutic gap, we have developed MEDI4166, a novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist peptide fused to a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) neutralising antibody that allows for glycaemic control and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering in a single molecule...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
F Aghakhanian, C Wong, J S Y Tan, L F Yeo, A Ramadas, J Edo, B P Hoh, B A K Khalid, M E Phipps
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Orang Asli (OA), the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia. OA consist of Negrito, Proto-Malay, and Senoi groups who collectively comprise only 0.76% of the population of Peninsular Malaysia. Owing to the challenges in accessing their remote villages, these groups are often excluded in larger government health surveys. Although tropical diseases were scourges in the past, with rapid national development, many OA communities have been gradually urbanized...
November 30, 2018: Public Health
Tamio Teramoto, Arihiro Kiyosue, Yasushi Ishigaki, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Yumiko Kawabata, Asuka Ozaki, Marie T Baccara-Dinet, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, given every 2 weeks (Q2W), significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients on background statin. We evaluated alirocumab 150mg every 4 weeks (Q4W) in patients on lowest-dose statin or non-statin lipid-lowering therapy (LLT). METHODS: ODYSSEY NIPPON was a double-blind study conducted in Japanese patients with LDL-C ≥100mg/dL (heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or non-familial hypercholesterolemia with coronary heart disease) or ≥120mg/dL (non-familial hypercholesterolemia, Japan Atherosclerosis Society category III) on atorvastatin 5mg/day or non-statin LLT...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Wen Dai, Ziyu Zhang, Shuiping Zhao
BACKGROUND: The contributions of inflammation, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to the residual risk of cardiovascular events have not been determined in a large cohort of Chinese population before. This study was aimed to investigate the association of serum levels of high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP), TG and HDL-C with the residual risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We enrolled 4090 patients with stable CAD from 13 hospitals in China...
December 3, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Yongmei Liu, Peiling Zhao, Mingliang Cheng, Lei Yu, Zhuo Cheng, Linda Fan, Chi Chen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed that triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (henceforth TG/HDL-C) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and metabolism syndrome. However, there are fewer investigations of the correlations between the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the AST to ALT ratio and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in a Japanese population...
December 3, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Bernhard Schwaab, Uwe Zeymer, Christina Jannowitz, David Pittrow, Anselm Gitt
AIMS: The PATIENT CARE registry aimed to document clinical characteristics of patients during cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, including the current pharmacological treatment, risk factor modification and achievement of treatment targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). METHODS: Multicentre, prospective non-interventional study at 20 cardiac rehabilitation in-patient centres across Germany. RESULTS: A total of 1408 patients post myocardial infarction were analysed...
December 3, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Caroline C Gasparin, Neiva Leite, Luciane V Tureck, Ricardo L R Souza, Gerusa E Milano-Gai, Larissa R Silva, Wendell A Lopes, Lupe Furtado-Alle
Genes can influence lipid profile and anthropometric variables related to obesity. The present study aimed to verify if variants of the APOE, APOB, ADIPOQ, HSD11β1, and PLIN4 genes are associated with lipid levels or anthropometric variables in a sample comprised of 393 Euro-Brazilian children and adolescents. DNA was genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. The ε4 and ε2 alleles of the APOE gene were associated respectively with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (p=0...
November 23, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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