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LDL cholesterol

Ying Ma, Zhenyu Huang, Zhaoli Zhou, Xiaoyan He, Ying Wang, Chao Meng, Gang Huang, Ningyuan Fang
A bulk of cholesteryl esters accumulation in macrophage foam cells drives the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Evidence now shows that autophagy plays key roles in the degradation of intracellular lipid droplets via autolysosome, and also in the release of intracellular lipids via cholesterol efflux. In this study, we identified that a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, Mito-Tempol, has protective effects against cholesteryl esters accumulation by activating autophagy. Mito-Tempol was shown to ameliorate the lipid burden for atherosclerosis, both in vitro and in vivo...
October 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Rodrigo Martins Dos Santos, Fernando Marani, Fernando Yamamoto Chiba, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho Mattera, Thais Verônica Saori Tsosura, Gestter Willian Lattari Tessarin, Renato Felipe Pereira, Bianca Elvira Belardi, Beatriz Costa E Silva Pinheiro, Doris Hissako Sumida
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (ME) on insulin resistance (IR) and signaling (IS), proinflammatory cytokine levels, and lipid profiles in pinealectomyzed (PNX) rats with periodontal disease (PD). MAIN METHODS: One hundred and forty-four rats (age = 40 days) were distributed into 8 groups: 1) control (CN); 2) PD only; 3) PNX only; 4) PNX and PD (PNXPD); 5) CN treated with ME (CNM); 6) PD treated with ME (PDM); 7) PNX treated with ME(PNXM); 8) PNX and PD treated with ME(PNXPDM)...
October 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Xinbo Zhang, William C Sessa, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Seminal studies from Nikolai Anichckov identified the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries as the initial event that lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Further studies by Gofman and colleagues demonstrated that high levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was responsible for the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in humans. These findings were confirmed by numerous epidemiological studies which identified elevated LDL-C levels as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Muhammad Umair Ijaz, Muhammad Ijaz Ahmed, Xiaoyou Zou, Muzahir Hussain, Min Zhang, Fan Zhao, Xinglian Xu, Guanghong Zhou, Chunbao Li
Consumption of dietary protein at recommended levels is considered a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management, but how protein from different dietary sources effect the obesity development, lipid metabolism, and gut microbiota is not known. This study focused on the effects of beef, casein, and soy protein diet on lipid metabolism, triglycerides accumulation, and microbial diversity in colon of C57BL/6J mice, which were given either low-fat diets (LFD, 12% Kcal) or high-fat diets (HFD, 60% Kcal) for 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kazuo Kitagawa, Naohisa Hosomi, Yoji Nagai, Tatsuo Kagimura, Toshiho Ohtsuki, Hirofumi Maruyama, Hideki Origasa, Kazuo Minematsu, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Masakazu Nakamura, Masayasu Matsumoto
AIMS: To investigate the relative contribution of on-treatment low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) to the risk of recurrent stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in patients with history of ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 1095 patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke were randomized into two groups: control and patients receiving 10 mg of pravastatin per day. After excluding 18 patients who did not have baseline CRP data, the effects of LDL cholesterol and CRP on recurrent stroke and TIA were prospectively assessed in 1077 patients...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Allan D Sniderman, Jacqueline de Graaf, George Thanassoulis, André J Tremblay, Seth S Martin, Patrick Couture
BACKGROUND: Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is a highly atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia characterized by hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia due to markedly increased numbers of cholesterol-enriched chylomicron and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnant lipoprotein particles. Type III can be distinguished from mixed hyperlipidemia based on a simple diagnostic algorithm, which involves total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B (apoB). However, apoB is not measured routinely...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Sam Mirzaee, Paul M Thein, Jason Nogic, Nitesh Nerlekar, Arthur Nasis, Adam J Brown
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend an intensive lipid-lowering therapy to achieve the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target in patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Former studies suggested adding ezetimibe to statin therapy in the above setting may promote plaque changes; however, this effect has not been consistently reported. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library on November 30, 2017 to identify prospective trials assessing the effects of combined ezetimibe and statin therapy versus statin therapy alone on atheroma volume using intravascular ultrasound...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Aikaterini N Tsouka, Constantinos C Tellis, Alexandros D Tselepis
Protein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease primarily expressed in the liver, which represents the main source of the plasma enzyme. The best characterized function of PCSK9 relates to the binding to low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) in hepatocytes, increasing its endosomal and lysosomal degradation. This results in the inhibition of LDL-R recycling to the cell surface and therefore the reduction of the hepatic uptake of LDL, leading to the increase in plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol, a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD)...
October 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Vasilios Papademetriou, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Christodoulos Papadopoulos, Konstantinos Koutsampasopoulos, Kiriakos Dimitriadis, Kostas Tsioufis
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by substantially increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Patients with FH have a significantly higher risk for cardiovascular (CV) events, and the timely reduction of LDL-C is of paramount importance to ameliorate the risk for CV disease. Among the available lipid-lowering therapies, the novel proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have emerged as a very promising class of drugs for the management of such patients...
October 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Edgar A Rivera-Leon, Iris M Llamas-Covarrubias, Raul A Soria-Rodriguez, Sergio Sanchez-Enriquez, Luz A González-Hernández, Jaime F Andrade-Villanueva, Mara A Llamas-Covarrubias
INTRODUCTION: Patients with HIV+ often present lipid disturbances. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in these lipid disturbances is not clear. The effect of antiretroviral (ART) drugs on those molecules is also unknown. This study measured ghrelin and obestatin levels, as well as metabolic markers, in patients with HIV+ before and after 36 weeks of ART. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty HIV-positive, ART-naïve patients who started a scheme consisting of tenofovir/emtricitabine+lopinavir/ritonavir were enrolled...
October 10, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
J M Colijn, A I den Hollander, A Demirkan, A Cougnard-Grégoire, T Verzijden, E Kersten, M A Meester, B M J Merle, G Papageorgiou, S Ahmad, M T Mulder, M A Costa, P Benlian, G Bertelsen, A Bron, B Claes, C Creuzot-Garcher, M G Erke, S Fauser, P J Foster, C J Hammond, H W Hense, C B Hoyng, A P Khawaja, J Korobelnik, S Piermarocchi, T Segato, R Silva, E H Souied, K M Williams, C M van Duijn, C Delcourt, C C W Klaver
PURPOSE: Genetic and epidemiologic studies have shown that lipid genes and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) are implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We studied circulating lipid levels in relation to AMD in a large European dataset, and investigated whether this relationship is driven by certain sub fractions. DESIGN: (Pooled) analysis of cross-sectional data. PARTICIPANTS: 30,953 individuals aged 50+ participating in the E3 consortium; and 1530 individuals from the Rotterdam Study with lipid sub fraction data...
October 10, 2018: Ophthalmology
Helen Triantafyllidi, Dimitris Benas, Stefanos Vlachos, Dimitris Vlastos, George Pavlidis, Antonios Schoinas, Mary Varoudi, Dionysia Birmpa, Paraskevi Moutsatsou, John Lekakis, Ignatios Ikonomidis
Endothelial dysfunction indicates target organ damage in hypertensive patients. The integrity of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) plays a vital role in vascular permeability, inflammation and elasticity, and finally to cardiovascular disease. The authors aimed to investigate the role of increased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, which usually are considered protective against cardiovascular disease, in EG integrity in older hypertensive patients. The authors studied 120 treated hypertensive patients older than 50 years were divided regarding HDL-C tertiles in group HDLH (HDL-C ≥ 71 mg/dL, upper HDL-C tertile) and group HDLL (HDL-C < 71 mg/dL, two lower HDL-C tertiles)...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Katarzyna Szczeklik, Tomasz Mach, Dorota Cibor, Danuta Owczarek, Jacek Sapa, Monika Papież, Jolanta Pytko-Polończyk, Wirginia Krzyściak
Diagnostics of Crohn's disease (CD) requires noninvasive biomarkers facilitating early detection and differentiation of the disease. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), the severity of CD, oxidative stress, and inflammation in CD. The CD activity index was based on the current classification. Plasma PON-1 was measured in 47 patients with CD, and in 23 control volunteers. Using quantitative variables such as receiver operating characteristics (ROC) (area under the curve (AUC)), the diagnostic utility of PON-1 in differentiating the severity of CD was assessed...
October 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Motahareh Hasani, Shirin Djalalinia, Farshad Sharifi, Mehdi Varmaghani, Maryam Zarei, Mohammad Esmaeili Abdar, Hamid Asayesh, Mehdi Noroozi, Amir Kasaeian, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Mostafa Qorbani
Selenium is an essential mineral that plays a key role in plenty of major metabolic processes. A growing body of literature has shown that selenium deficiency leads to an increase in plasma TC and TG levels. This study explores the effect of selenium supplementation on serum level of lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)]. We systematically searched PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/WOS, and Scopus (from their commencements to Jan 2016) to identify the papers investigating the association between the intake of selenium and lipid profile...
October 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Daiana Ibarretxe, Cèlia Rodríguez-Borjabad, Albert Feliu, José Ángel Bilbao, Lluís Masana, Núria Plana
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is underdiagnosed in children. We assessed a combination of two screening methods. The first method was to detect hypercholesteraemic children and then study the parents (Ch-P pathway), and the second one was to study the offspring of FH-affected parents (P-Ch pathway). METHODS: In the Ch-P path, primary care paediatricians were asked to include lipid profiling or, at least, total cholesterol (TC) and then lipid profiling if TC was higher than 5...
October 1, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Akira Sato, Keiju Nakazawa, Ayano Sugawara, Yoji Yamazaki, Keiichi Ebina
β2 -Glycoprotein I (β2 -GPI) is a plasma protein that binds to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and negatively charged substances, and inhibits platelet activation and blood coagulation. In this study, we investigated the interaction of β2 -GPI with a negatively charged lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on platelet aggregation and blood clotting. Two negatively charged lysophospholipids, LPA and lysophosphatidylserine, specifically inhibited the binding of β2 -GPI to oxidized LDL in a concentration-dependent manner...
October 9, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Jianyong Zhang, Rixin Liang, Lan Wang, Bin Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The danshen (the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.)-shanzha (the fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.) (DS) herb combination is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine with cardiovascular disease (CVD) treatment potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the anti-atherosclerotic effects and mechanisms of DS by the integration of network pharmacology and polypharmacology. Eight main components were selected for target fishing by PharmMapper...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Muhammad Usman, Clare L Gillies, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies
AIMS: The effect of intensive glycaemic control, blood pressure control and lipid levels control alone or as part of a multifactorial intervention has not been fully evaluated. We aimed to estimate the effects of more intensive interventions, compared with standard care, on risk factor control and cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane library without language restrictions from inception to August 10, 2018...
October 9, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Damodara Gowda, Hitha Harshitha, Amrit M Mirajkar
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin level and antioxidative status and metabolic dysregulation in young adult obese population. This cross-sectional study included three hundred subjects of either sex, grouped as obese and non-obese subjects. The Body Mass Index (BMI), serum ferritin, Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS), Total cholesterol (TC), High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Triglyceride (TG), Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and vitamin-C level was estimated...
October 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Pratik B Sandesara, Salim S Virani, Sergio Fazio, Michael D Shapiro
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-established mediator of atherosclerosis and a key target for intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. However, despite significant reduction in LDL-C, patients continue to have recurrent ASCVD events. Hypertriglyceridemia maybe an important contributor of this residual risk. Observational and genetic epidemiological data strongly support a causal role of triglycerides and the cholesterol content within triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) and/or remnant cholesterol (RC) in the development of ASCVD...
October 11, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
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