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Emma L Feeney, Rebecca Barron, Victoria Dible, Zita Hamilton, Yvonne Power, Linda Tanner, Cal Flynn, Paul Bouchier, Tom Beresford, Nessa Noronha, Eileen R Gibney
Background: Dairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself. Objective: We aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, eaten within macronutrient-matched food matrices, on markers of metabolic health, in overweight adults aged ≥50 y. Design: The study was a 6-wk randomized parallel intervention; 164 volunteers (75 men) received ∼40 g of dairy fat/d, in 1 of 4 treatments: (A) 120 g full-fat Irish cheddar cheese (FFCC) (n = 46); (B) 120 g reduced-fat Irish cheddar cheese + butter (21 g) (RFC + B) (n = 45); (C) butter (49 g), calcium caseinate powder (30 g), and Ca supplement (CaCO3) (500 mg) (BCC) (n = 42); or (D) 120 g FFCC, for 6 wk (as per A) (n = 31)...
August 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Giorgio Biasiotto, Isabella Zanella, Federica Predolini, Ivonne Archetti, Moris Cadei, Eugenio Monti, Marcello Luzzani, Barbara Pacchetti, Paola Mozzoni, Roberta Andreoli, Giuseppe De Palma, Federico Serana, Annika Smeds, Diego Di Lorenzo
7-Hydroxymatairesinol (7-HMR) is a plant lignan abundant in various concentrations in plant foods. The objective of this study was to test HMRLignan™, a purified form of 7-HMR, and the corresponding Picea abies extract (total extract P. abies; TEP) as dietary supplements on a background of a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in mice and in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model. Mice, 3 weeks old, were fed a HFD for 60 d. Subgroups were treated with 3 mg/kg body weight 7-HMR (HMRLignan™) or 10 mg/kg body weight TEP by oral administration...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Anthony P Morise, Jennifer Tennant, Sari D Holmes, Danyel H Tacker
Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have demonstrated significant effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and nonhigh density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To date, there have been limited reports on the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on remnant cholesterol. Objectives: Assess the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on nonfasting remnant cholesterol in a real world population. Identify whether pretreatment triglyceride levels are associated with PCSK9 inhibition success as indicated by changes in remnant cholesterol levels...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Yanliu Lu, Yimei Du, Lin Qin, Di Wu, Wei Wang, Lei Ling, Feifei Ma, Hua Ling, Li Yang, Changhong Wang, Zhengtao Wang, Xumei Zhou, Yuqi He
Gypenosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino have significant role in reducing serum lipid level and treating fatty liver diseases, however, without clear mechanism. As gypenosides share the similar core structures with bile acids (the endogenous ligands of nuclear receptor FXR), we hypothesize that gypenosides may improve hypercholesterolemia via FXR-mediated bile acids signaling. The present study was designed to validate the role of gypenosides in reducing levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as well as in regulating bile acids homeostasis and related gene expression levels...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jean Joel Bigna, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Ulrich Flore Nyaga, Eric Vounsia Balti, Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui, André Pascal Kengne
BACKGROUND: The burden of dyslipidaemia in Africa remains inadequately characterised. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in African adults from hospital-based and community-based studies. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, African Journals Online, and African Index Medicus for studies published between Jan 1, 1980, and July 31, 2017, without language restriction. We assessed methodological quality of all cross-sectional studies reporting on the prevalence of elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, or triglycerides, or low concentrations of HDL cholesterol in adults residing in African countries...
September 2018: Lancet Global Health
Behnam Ahmadipour, Hossein Hassanpour, Fariborz Khajali
BACKGROUND: Fatness is an unwanted side effect of genetic selection in broiler chickens. In this study, we introduce mountain celery powder as a feed supplement to suppress lipogenesis and improve antioxidant status in broiler chickens. Male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were fed a control diet or a diet that includes mountain celery (MC) at 7.5 gkg-1 over 42 days. RESULTS: Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly (P < 0.05) improved in chicks fed MC...
August 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Vladimír Pavlík, Jana Fajfrová, Václav Šafka, Lucie Pravdová, Miroslav Urban, Pavla Krutišová, Milan Tuček
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to describe current prevalence of selected risk factors in the Czech general population in a particular region and to compare the data with recently published results in the selected population of Czech soldiers. The work also deals with the advantages and disadvantages of methods determining overweight and obesity. METHODS: Within medical preventive examinations the data of 1,051 individuals (482 men, 569 women) were obtained...
June 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
Wei Fang, Li Zhang, Qingshi Meng, Weida Wu, Yuan Kun Lee, Jingjing Xie, Hongfu Zhang
Pectin has been known to lower circulating cholesterol by interacting with bile acid (BA) metabolism. The current study was aimed to investigate intestinal BA transport at the molecular level in a pig model. Twelve young pigs (11.05 ± 0.11kg) were randomly divided into two groups and fed corn-soybean meal diets with either 5% pectin or cornstarch for 72 days. In pigs fed with pectin, total cholesterol and LDL-C were lowered but HDL-C was increased (P < 0.05). Serum triglycerides tended to be lower in the PEC-fed animals (P = 0...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S Serpunja, I H Kim
A total of 768 1-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens with an average body weight of 43.64 ± 0.59 g were used in a 5-wk feeding trial. The chickens were distributed into 4 treatments of 12 replications per treatment with 16 chickens per pen. Dietary treatments included the following: TRT1, basal diet; TRT2, -40 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier; TRT3, -60 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier; TRT4, -80 kcal diet + 0.05% emulsifier. The emulsifier contained 80% sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and 20% tween 20. In our study, the treatment diets had no significant effect on growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, serum lipid profiles, and excreta microbiota...
August 7, 2018: Poultry Science
E Lätt, J Mäestu, J Jürimäe
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess associations between android and gynoid fat distribution and different cardiovascular disease risk factors in normal weight as well as overweight/obese boys during the pubertal period. METHODS: In total, 146 boys (baseline age 11.9 ±0.6 years) were recruited for a 2-year longitudinal study. Total body fat percentage and android-gynoid fat distribution were measured using DXA. In addition, waist and hip circumference was measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Chandima N D Balasuriya, Astrid Kamilla Stunes, Mats P Mosti, Berit Schei, Marit S Indredavik, Ingrid K Hals, Kari Anne I Evensen, Unni Syversen
Context and objectives: Low birth weight (LBW) has emerged as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Whether very low birth weight (VLBW) adults born preterm are at higher risk than term-born small for gestational age (tb-SGA) individuals is not established. We assessed metabolic outcomes, including relation with skeletal parameters, in these two LBW categories. Design, participants and outcomes: This follow-up cohort study included 189 individuals (females 51%), 25 to 28 years; 55 preterm VLBW (≤1500g), 59 tb-SGA (<10th percentile), and 75 controls (>10th percentile)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Henny-Kristine Korsmo-Haugen, Kjetil Gundro Brurberg, Jim Mann, Anne-Marie Aas
AIMS: This systematic review and meta-analysis compares the effects of low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) on body weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile and blood pressure with those observed on higher carbohydrate diets (HCDs) in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Food Science Source and SweMed+ databases were systematically searched to identify randomised controlled trials (duration ≥ 3 months) investigating the effects of a LCD compared to a HCD in the management of type 2 diabetes...
August 11, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sahar Nakhl, Ghassan Sleilaty, Salam El Samad, Youakim Saliba, Ramez Chahine, Nassim Farès
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have associated vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. The underlying mechanism remains elusive. Lipid and non-lipid markers of CVD and their relationship to vitamin D deficiency have not been assessed simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between vitamin D deficiency and non-lipid markers of CVD after adjustment of lipid markers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used the following biological data, which was routinely collected in a general hospital laboratory database between 2011 and 2016: 25OH vitamin D [25(OH)D], creatinine, CKD-EPI eGFR (eGFR), fasting blood glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), uric acid, γ-glutamyl transferase (γGT), C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and a surrogate for CVD...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Elizabeth J White, Gabriel Gyulay, Šárka Lhoták, Magdalena M Szewczyk, Taryne Chong, Mark T Fuller, Omid Dadoo, Alison E Fox-Robichaud, Richard C Austin, Bernardo Trigatti, Suleiman A Igdoura
Atherosclerosis is a complex disease that involves alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and inflammation. Protein and lipid glycosylation events, such as sialylation, contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and are regulated by specific glycosidases, including sialidases. To evaluate the effect of the sialidase neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) on atherogenesis, here we generated apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice that express hypomorphic levels of NEU1 ( Neu1hypo Apoe-/- ). We found that the hypomorphic NEU1 expression in male Apoe-/- mice reduces serum levels of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL cholesterol, diminishes infiltration of inflammatory cells into lesions, and decreases aortic sinus atherosclerosis...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nikolaos Peroulis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, George Notas, Stella Koinaki, Elsa Giakoumaki, Apostolos Spyros, Εfstathia Manolopoulou, Sophia Kargaki, Maria Tzardi, Eleni Moustou, Euripides G Stephanou, Efstathia Bakogeorgou, Niki Malliaraki, Maria Niniraki, Christos Lionis, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism are the main health issues of growing prevalence and significant high healthcare cost, requiring novel prevention and/or therapeutic approaches. Epidemiological and animal studies revealed that olive oil is an important dietary constituent, inducing normolipidemia. However, no studies have specifically investigated the polyphenol-rich water extract of olives (OLWPE), generated during olive oil production. METHODS: In the present work, we initially examined the effect of OLPWE on animals' metabolic parameters...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Isabelle Ruel, Diane Brisson, Sumayah Aljenedil, Zuhier Awan, Alexis Baass, Alexandre Bélanger, Jean Bergeron, David Bewick, James M Brophy, Liam R Brunham, Patrick Couture, Robert Dufour, Gordon A Francis, Jiri Frohlich, Claude Gagné, Daniel Gaudet, Jean C Grégoire, Milan Gupta, Robert A Hegele, G B John Mancini, Brian W McCrindle, Jing Pang, Paolo Raggi, Jack V Tu, Gerald F Watts, Jacques Genest
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal codominant lipoprotein disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Definitions for FH rely on complex algorithms that are on the basis of levels of total or LDL-C, clinical features, family history, and DNA analysis that are often difficult to obtain. We propose a novel simplified definition for FH. Definite FH includes: (1) elevated LDL-C (≥ 8.50 mmol/L); or (2) LDL-C ≥ 5...
May 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Dong-Hyun Lee, Ho Chul Yi, So Hyun Bae, Joon Hee Cho, Sang Wook Choi, Hakyoung Kim
OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk factors for retinal microvascular impairment on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in type 2 diabetic patients without clinical diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: This retrospective and cross-sectional study enrolled 74 diabetic patients without clinically evident DR for the study group and 34 healthy subjects for the control group. OCT-A parameters were measured to determine vascular density (VD) and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) size in the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP/DCP) of the retina...
2018: PloS One
Joselyn Allen, Jingtao Zhang, Michael D Quickel, Mary Kennett, Andrew D Patterson, Pamela A Hankey-Giblin
Liver fibrosis is commonly observed in the terminal stages of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and with no specific and effective anti-fibrotic therapies available, this disease is a major global health burden. The MSP/Ron receptor axis has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in a number of mouse models, due at least in part, to its ability to limit pro-inflammatory responses in tissue-resident macrophages and hepatocytes. In this study, we established the role of the Ron receptor in steatohepatitis-induced hepatic fibrosis using Ron ligand domain knockout mice on an apolipoprotein E knockout background (DKO)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Ewa Podolecka, Grzegorz Wystrychowski, Władysław Grzeszczak, Ewa Żukowska-Szczechowska
BACKGROUND: LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process, initiated by the damage of the vascular endothelium, which leads to remodelling the artery wall. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between LDL-cholesterol and arterial wall elasticity indices. METHODS: The study group comprised of 315 men and women at mean age of 55.84 ± 9...
August 9, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
Pankaj Hari, Priyanka Khandelwal, Amit Satpathy, Smriti Hari, Ranjeet Thergaonkar, R Lakshmy, Aditi Sinha, Arvind Bagga
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Efficacy of statins for treatment of hyperlipidemia in children with SRNS is unclear. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial enrolled 30 patients with SRNS, aged 5-18 years, with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between 130 and 300 mg/dl, to receive a fixed dose of atorvastatin (n = 15, 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 15) by block randomization in a 1:1 ratio...
August 8, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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