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South america

Deepali Singhal, Pranita Sahay, Prafulla K Maharana, Nimmy Raj, Namrata Sharma, Jeewan S Titiyal
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis, a chronic, bilateral, seasonal allergic inflammatory disease of the eye, is an important cause of visual debilitation and impairment of quality of life in children and young adults in certain parts of the world such as the Mediterranean areas, Central and West Africa, the Middle East, Japan, the Indian subcontinent, and South America. It usually has a self-limiting course; however, in a few cases the disease is recurrent and leads to long-term visual disabling complications like keratoconus and limbal stem cell deficiency...
December 11, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
José Esteban Muñoz-Medina, Miguel Antonio Garcia-Knight, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Irma Eloísa Monroy-Muñoz, Ricardo Grande, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Clara Esperanza Santacruz-Tinoco, César Raúl González-Bonilla
The epidemic potential of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently made evident by its introduction and rapid expansion in the Caribbean and the Americas. We sought to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic in Mexico, the country with the highest number of confirmed CHIKV cases in the Americas, and to characterise viral evolution at the population and intra-host level. Analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of 2,739 diagnosed cases in Mexico from December 2014 to December 2015 showed a rapid nationwide expansion of the epidemic with focalisation in the South West of the country...
2018: PloS One
Azar Kariminia, Matthew Law, Mary-Ann Davies, Michael Vinikoor, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Valeriane Leroy, Andrew Edmonds, Catherine McGowan, Rachel Vreeman, Lee Fairlie, Samuel Ayaya, Marcel Yotebieng, Elom Takassi, Jorge Pinto, Adebola Adedimeji, Karen Malateste, Daisy M Machado, Martina Penazzato, Rohan Hazra, Annette H Sohn
INTRODUCTION: We assessed mortality and losses to follow-up (LTFU) during adolescence in routine care settings in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium. METHODS: Cohorts in the Asia-Pacific, the Caribbean, Central, and South America, and sub-Saharan Africa (Central, East, Southern, West) contributed data, and included adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) enrolled from January 2003 and aged 10 to 19 years (period of adolescence) while under care up to database closure (June 2016)...
December 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Juan A González-Sánchez, Giovanni F Ramírez-Arroyo
Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by a virus endemic to Africa and Asia. Due to the ease with which its vectors propagate, the virus has spread to India and Europe, and more recently it arrived to the Caribbean, eventually extending into North, Central, and South America. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most common clinical manifestations are abrupt fever, polyarthralgia, headache, maculopapular rash, myalgia, and nausea/vomiting. Severe joint pain and stiffness have been known to incapacitate some patients from a few days to several months after infection...
December 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Andrea L Joyce, Melany Murillo Torres, Ryan Torres, Miguel Moreno
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is associated with dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. This vector is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas, and can also occur in temperate areas at higher latitudes. The geographical distribution of Ae. aegypti continues to spread due to human activities. This is the first study to examine the population genetic structure of this insect in El Salvador, Central America. METHODS: Aedes aegypti larvae were collected from six geographical regions of El Salvador: Sonsonate, San Salvador, Chalatenango, Usulután, San Miguel and Morazán...
December 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Zimeng You, Xiaoxiao Yang, Jianbin Yu, Jiangan Zhang, Yuping Ran
Chromoblastomycosis is found worldwide with higher incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. Fonsecaea spp. is one of the major causative agents of this disease. First case of chromoblastomycosis due to Fonsecaea nubica in Northern China is reported in a 75-year-old Chinese male. We firstly summarized molecular identification methods of Fonsecaea spp. and all the strains of F. nubica reported in the literature. Sequencing of internal transcribed spacer alone and/or combined with actin (ACT1), partial cell division cycle (CDC42) and partial beta-tubulin (BT2) were most commonly used to identify species, while lactase (Lac), homogentisate (HmgA) and polyketide synthase (PKS1) were also used in some cases...
December 13, 2018: Mycopathologia
Perrine Decaudin, Lukshe Kanagaratnam, Isabelle Kmiec, Yohan Nguyen, Caroline Migault, Delphine Lebrun, Maxime Hentzien, Eric Bertin, Moustapha Drame, Firouzé Bani-Sadr
Geophagy is widespread among women from Sub-Saharan Africa, South America and the Caribbean and may persist in western countries. This practice may be associated with adverse effects such as anaemia, constipation or intestinal occlusion. We aimed to determine the prevalence of geophagy and the level of knowledge about its health effects among healthy adults originating from these countries and attending a travel medicine and international vaccination consultation in France. Among 101 travellers enrolled in the study, 83 (82...
December 13, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Christina Nelson, Nicanor Mori, Thanh Ton, Joseph Zunt, T Kochel, A Romero, N Gadea, D Tilley, E Ticona, J Soria, V Celis, D Huanca, A Delgado, M Rivas, M Stiglich, M Sihuincha, G Donayre, J Celis, R Romero, N Tam, M Tipismana, I Espinoza, M Rozas, A Peralta, E Sanchez, L Vasquez, P Muñoz, G Ramirez, I Reyes
Multicenter collaborative networks are essential for advancing research and improving clinical care for a variety of conditions. Research networks are particularly important for central nervous system infections, which remain difficult to study due to their sporadic occurrence and requirement for collection and testing of cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of long-term research networks in resource-limited areas also facilitates diagnostic capacity building, surveillance for emerging pathogens, and provision of appropriate treatment where needed...
December 2018: ENeurologicalSci
Logan Kistler, S Yoshi Maezumi, Jonas Gregorio de Souza, Natalia A S Przelomska, Flaviane Malaquias Costa, Oliver Smith, Hope Loiselle, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Nathan Wales, Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro, Ryan R Morrison, Claudia Grimaldo, Andre P Prous, Bernardo Arriaza, M Thomas P Gilbert, Fabio de Oliveira Freitas, Robin G Allaby
Domesticated maize evolved from wild teosinte under human influences in Mexico beginning around 9000 years before the present (yr B.P.), traversed Central America by ~7500 yr B.P., and spread into South America by ~6500 yr B.P. Landrace and archaeological maize genomes from South America suggest that the ancestral population to South American maize was brought out of the domestication center in Mexico and became isolated from the wild teosinte gene pool before traits of domesticated maize were fixed. Deeply structured lineages then evolved within South America out of this partially domesticated progenitor population...
December 14, 2018: Science
Meletios A Dimopoulos, Francesca Gay, Fredrik Schjesvold, Meral Beksac, Roman Hajek, Katja Christina Weisel, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Vladimir Maisnar, Philippe Moreau, Chang Ki Min, Agnieszka Pluta, Wee-Joo Chng, Martin Kaiser, Sonja Zweegman, Maria-Victoria Mateos, Andrew Spencer, Shinsuke Iida, Gareth Morgan, Kaveri Suryanarayan, Zhaoyang Teng, Tomas Skacel, Antonio Palumbo, Ajeeta B Dash, Neeraj Gupta, Richard Labotka, S Vincent Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Maintenance therapy following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) can delay disease progression and prolong survival in patients with multiple myeloma. Ixazomib is ideally suited for maintenance therapy given its convenient once-weekly oral dosing and low toxicity profile. In this study, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of ixazomib as maintenance therapy following ASCT. METHODS: The phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM3 study took place in 167 clinical or hospital sites in 30 countries in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and North and South America...
December 10, 2018: Lancet
Elkin Y Suárez-Villota, Camila A Quercia, Leila M Díaz, Victoria Vera-Sovier, José J Nuñez
The alsodid ground frogs of the Eupsophus genus are divided into two groups, the roseus (2n = 30) and vertebralis (2n = 28), which are distributed throughout the temperate Nothofagus forests of South America. Currently, the roseus group is composed by four species, while the vertebralis group consists of two. Phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within each group are controversial. In fact, previous analyses considered that the roseus group was composed of between four to nine species. In this work, we evaluated phylogenetic relationships, diversification times, and species delimitation within the roseus group using a multi-locus dataset...
2018: PloS One
I E Alvial, H A Vargas, M Marinov, C Esquivel, J Araya, R Araya-Donoso, I Vila, D Véliz
Although low levels of genetic structure are expected in highly widespread species, geographical and/or ecological factors can limit species distributions and promote population structure and morphological differentiation. In order to determine the effects of geographical isolation on population genetic structure and wing morphology, 281 individuals of the cosmopolitan odonate Pantala flavescens were collected from four continental (Central and South America) and five insular sites (Polynesian islands and the Maldives)...
December 12, 2018: Heredity
Christopher R Gustafson, Rachel Kent, Michael R Prate
This study examines the potential for point-of-decision prompts (PDPs) to promote healthier food choices among shoppers in a rural, low-income, minority community. We hypothesized that a narrowly defined PDP (focused on fresh produce) would be easier for shoppers to remember than a broadly defined PDP (focused on any healthy items), resulting in a higher proportion of healthy items purchased. PDPs were placed at the entrance to a supermarket in Mission, South Dakota, United States of America, on the Rosebud Sioux Reservation for alternating time periods, July 9-10, 2017...
2018: PloS One
Dandara Cassu-Corsi, Willames Mbs Martins, Adriana G Nicoletti, Luiz Gp Almeida, Ana Tr Vasconcelos, Ana C Gales
OBJECTIVES The emergence of 16S rRNA methyltranferases (16 RMTAses) has jeopardised the clinical use of aminoglycosides. RmtB is one of the most frequently reported in Gram-negatives worldwide. In this study, we aimed to estimate the frequency of 16S RMTAses encoding genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a three-month period from a tertiary Brazilian hospital. METHODS All Gram-negatives classified as resistant to amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin by agar screening were selected for analysis. The presence of 16SRMTases encoding genes was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
M Burger, J H J van Vuren, L de Wet, A Nel
Depression wetlands (colloquially referred to in South Africa (SA) as pans) are found worldwide and primarily occur in arid regions including North and South America, southern and central Africa and southern and western Australia. Surface water resources in SA, and specifically in Gauteng, are under pressure from urbanisation, poor agricultural practices and untreated mining and industrial effluent. Research of these wetlands will benefit the development of health assessment tools for these unique aquatic resources...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Theerapong Krajaejun, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Thidarat Rujirawat, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong
OBJECTIVES: The oomycete Pythium insidiosum infects humans and animals worldwide, and causes the life-threatening condition, called pythosis. Most patients lose infected organs or die from the disease. Comparative genomic analyses of different P. insidiosum strains could provide new insights into its pathobiology, and can lead to discovery of an effective treatment method. Several draft genomes of P. insidiosum are publicly available: three from Asia (Thailand), and one each from North (the United States) and Central (Costa Rica) Americas...
December 11, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Damien Esquerré, Ian G Brennan, Renee A Catullo, Fernando Torres-Pérez, J Scott Keogh
Testing hypotheses on the drivers of clade evolution and trait diversification provides insight into many aspects of evolutionary biology. Often, studies investigate only the intrinsic biological properties of organisms as the causes of diversity, however extrinsic properties of a clade's environment, particularly geological history, may also offer compelling explanations. The Andes are a young mountain chain known to have shaped many aspects of climate and diversity of South America. The Liolaemidae are a radiation of South American reptiles with over 300 species found across all biomes and with similar numbers of egg-laying and live-bearing species...
December 11, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Deivys M Alvarez Garcia, Antonio Pérez-Hérazo, Eduardo Amat
Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are necrophagous flies with ecological, medical, veterinary, and forensic importance. These flies carry pathogens that they spread to animals and humans, and produce myiasis. Furthermore, they are useful tools in forensic science as indicators of postmortem intervals, and in biomedicine they are successfully used in larval therapy. This study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal variation of the blowflies community from the urban area of Sincelejo City, located in the Colombian Caribbean region...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Cecilia Perret, Cecilia Vizcaya, Thomas Weitzel, Reinaldo Rosas, Jeannette Dabanch, Constanza Martínez
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIK) was introduced in The Americas in 2013, spreading rapidly. In 2014, the first imported case was diagnosed in Chile. AIM: To identify patients with clinical suspicion of CHIK and describe their clinical and laboratory characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with suspected CHIK were enrolled. All were confirmed by PCR, IgM or IgG CHIK. A structured survey was applied, which included demographic questions, travel characteristics, clinical manifestations, and laboratory results...
August 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Eduardo Álvarez, José Amaro, Leonel Villavicencio
In the last eleven months, we have diagnosed 9 cases of Histoplasmosis in our country. All patients affected were from endemic areas of South-America. Here, we wish to inform and prevent to all clinical laboratories from Chile about the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum in clinical samples. In the same way we want to prepare and raising awareness of the strengthening of biosecurity measures.
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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