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South america

Edson Delatorre, Jorge Fernández, Gonzalo Bello
The role of Easter Island in the dissemination of Zika virus from the Pacific islands into the Americas remains unclear. We analyzed new Zika virus sequences from Eastern Island and found that Zika virus was independently disseminated from French Polynesia into the Americas and Easter Island at around the same time.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kathleen M MacQueen, Natalie T Eley, Mike Frick, Carol Hamilton
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate community and stakeholder engagement can lead to accusations that research is unethical and can delay or slow research or translation of results to practice. Such experiences have led major funders as well as regulatory and advisory bodies to establish minimal requirements for community and stakeholder engagement in HIV and other clinical research. However, systematic efforts to formally evaluate the contributions and impact of particular practices are lacking...
October 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
M I Pasqualetti, F A Fariña, S J Krivokapich, G M Gatti, G A Daneri, E A Varela, S Lucero, M E Ercole, C Bessi, M Winter, M M Ribicich
Trichinella spp. from a sylvatic cycle has been found in several animal species such as pumas (Puma concolor), armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Argentina. Moreover, Trichinella infection has been detected in a wide range of marine mammals around the world, including polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). Until the present time, Trichinella spp. infection has not been detected in marine mammals of South America. Samples from four South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Rio Negro, Argentina, were analyzed by artificial digestion, and in the case of one animal, Trichinella larvae were identified at the species level by nested multiplex PCR as Trichinella spiralis...
October 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Lina María Preciado, Jeffrey Comer, Vitelbina Núñez, Paola Rey-Súarez, Jaime Andrés Pereañez
Most of the snakebite envenomations in Central and South America are caused by species belonging to Bothrops genus. Their venom is composed mainly by zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, responsible of the hemorrhage characteristic of these envenomations. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory ability of ten flavonoids on the in-vitro proteolytic activity of Bothrops atrox venom and on the hemorrhagic, edema-forming and myonecrotic activities of Batx-I, the most abundant metalloproteinase isolated from this venom...
October 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thomas E Grys, Anjuli Brighton, Yu-Hui Chang, Rachael Liesman, Cassie Bolster LaSalle, Janis E Blair
Coccidioidomycosis is a disease endemic to the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Diagnosis of the disease is commonly delayed because of the lack of prompt testing and the dearth of reliable diagnostic tests. Culture and nucleic acid testing require a specimen, yet the typical patient presents with a dry cough and no sputum. Serologic methods depend on an effective antibody response by the patient, but antibody production may be unreliable or delayed until several weeks after initial symptom onset...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Hyunkyu Sang, Alexander Witte, Janette L Jacobs, Hao-Xun Chang, Jie Wang, Mitchell G Roth, Martin I Chilvers
The succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide, fluopyram, is used as a soybean seed treatment to manage Fusarium virguliforme , the casual agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS). More recently, other species within clade 2 of the Fusarium solani species, F. tucumaniae in South America and F. brasiliense in America and Africa, have been recognized as additional agents capable of causing SDS. To determine if fluopyram could be used for management of SDS caused by these species, in vitro sensitivity tests of the three Fusarium species to fluopyram were conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yanfeng Tong, Greta Binford, Cristina A Rheims, Matjaž Kuntner, Jie Liu, Ingi Agnarsson
The origin of the Caribbean biota remains debated, but amassing evidence suggests important roles of both dispersal and vicariance events in the colonization the archipelago. The most prominent vicariance hypothesis is colonization over the GAARlandia land bridge that putatively connected the Greater Antilles to South America around 33 mya. This hypothesis has received support from studies of individual lineages, but its main prediction-the simultaneous colonization of multiple lineages during that time window-requires further unambiguous corroboration...
October 13, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Cíntia Luíza Silva-Luz, José Rubens Pirani, John Daniel Mitchell, Douglas Daly, Natalie do Valle Capelli, Diego Demarco, Susan K Pell, Gregory M Plunkett
Schinus, best known by its few cultivated and invasive species, is the largest genus of Anacardiaceae in southern South America. It is remarkably diverse compared to closely related genera, with approximately 42 species, most of which occur in several arid vegetation types and extend into Andean and Atlantic moist forests. The most comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus dates to 1957, recognizing S. subg. Schinus and S. subg. Duvaua, the latter of which were further divided into two sections. Subsequent studies have highlighted morphological inconsistencies in this infrageneric classification, and species delimitation remains a challenge...
October 13, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Si-Yu Zhang, Despina Tsementzi, Janet K Hatt, Aaron Bivins, Nikunj Khelurkar, Joe Brown, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis
Little is known about microbial communities in the Ganges River, India and how they respond to intensive anthropogenic inputs. Here we applied shotgun metagenomics sequencing to study microbial community dynamics and function in planktonic samples collected along a ~700 km river transect, including urban cities and rural settings in upstream waters, before and after the monsoon rainy season. Our results showed that 11-32% of the microbes represented terrestrial, sewage and human inputs (allochthonous). Sewage inputs significantly contributed to the higher abundance, by 13-fold of human gut microbiome (HG) associated sequences and 2-fold of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Ganges relative to other riverine ecosystems in Europe, North and South America...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Luis Fernando Aranguren, Arun K Dhar
Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a bacterial disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium classified as Hepatobacter penaei. H. penaei affects cultured penaeid shrimp in several countries from the western hemisphere, including the USA, and most Central and South American countries that farm shrimp. The current PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays based on the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene developed at the University of Arizona Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory (UAZ-APL) are the only techniques recommended in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) manual for H...
October 16, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Bárbara S S Leal, Lilian R Medeiros, Elen A Peres, Thadeu Sobral-Souza, Clarisse Palma-Silva, Gustavo Q Romero, Claudia M A Carareto
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Historical abiotic and biotic factors have strongly affected species diversification and speciation. Although pre-Pleistocene events have been linked to the divergence of several Neotropical organisms, studies have highlighted a more prominent role of Pleistocene climatic oscillations in shaping current patterns of genetic variation of plants. METHODS: We performed phylogeographic analyses based on plastidial markers and modeled the current distribution and paleodistribution of Bromelia balansae (Bromeliaceae), an herbaceous species with a wide geographical distribution in South America, to infer the processes underlying its evolutionary history...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Botany
C Bendick
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common all over the world and the incidence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and trichomoniasis alone is estimated at 500 million/year. Of these infections 75% occur in tropical countries in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and South as well as Southeast Asia. The bacterial infections chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and granuloma inguinale (GI, Donovanosis) are termed tropical STI. They occur mainly in tropical countries, i. e. regions situated between the equator and the northern and southern 23...
October 15, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Pía Simonetti, Sandra Elizabeth Botté, Jorge Eduardo Marcovecchio
An extensive population of the burrowing crab, Neohelice granulata, inhabits the intertidal areas of the Bahía Blanca estuary, a moderately polluted temperate ecosystem located to the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In order to determine the metal-accumulating ability of this species, concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe in soft tissues of adult specimens were measured. Subsequently, the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of all heavy metals were determined using levels of concentrations previously obtained in intertidal sediments...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alan N Costa, Emilio M Bruna, Heraldo L Vasconcelos
Background: Ecosystem engineers are species that transform habitats in ways that influence other species.While the impacts of many engineers have been well described, our understanding of how their impact varies along environmental gradients remains limited. Although disentangling the effects of gradients and engineers on biodiversity is complicated-the gradients themselves can be altered by engineers-doing so is necessary to advance conceptual and mathematical models of ecosystem engineering...
2018: PeerJ
Abdulrahman Hamad Al-Abdulwahhab, Abdulaziz Mohammad Al-Sharydah, Sari Saleh Al-Suhibani, Saeed Ahmad Al-Jubran, Ali Khalaf Al-Haidey, Abdulkhaliq Ibrahim Al-Hifzi, Wissam Al-Issawi
Background: Spinal myelitis is an infrequent manifestation of spinal cord infection. It is caused by the Schistosoma species, which are endemic in South America, part of the Middle East, and Africa. Case presentation: We report the case of a 13-year-old male adolescent complaining of progressive lower back pain and weakness of the lower extremities for 3 days. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed typical transverse myelitis. Subsequently, parasite serology showed a markedly elevated level of Schistosoma antibody titers, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis yielded normal results...
2018: Patient Safety in Surgery
Ties Boerma, Carine Ronsmans, Dessalegn Y Melesse, Aluisio J D Barros, Fernando C Barros, Liang Juan, Ann-Beth Moller, Lale Say, Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Mu Yi, Dácio de Lyra Rabello Neto, Marleen Temmerman
In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births...
October 13, 2018: Lancet
Martin Stervander, Peter G Ryan, Martim Melo, Bengt Hansson
Rails (Aves: Rallidae) are renowned for their extreme dispersal capability, which has given rise to numerous island lineages. Many insular species lost the ability to fly as a response to release from predator pressure-a feature causing rapid extinction when humans subsequently introduced mammals. The world's smallest extant flightless bird, the Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisia rogersi, is endemic to Inaccessible Island, Tristan da Cunha archipelago, in the central South Atlantic Ocean. It is placed in a monotypic genus, but its taxonomic affinity, as well as geographic origin, are disputed...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Daniel Gaudet, Gisle Langslet, Samuel S Gidding, Ilse K Luirink, Andrea Ruzza, Christopher Kurtz, Chen Lu, Ransi Somaratne, Frederick J Raal, Albert Wiegman
BACKGROUND: Evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, is safe and effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with familial hypercholesterolemia. A dedicated study, HAUSER-RCT, is being conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of evolocumab in pediatric patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). OBJECTIVE: To present the rationale and design of the HAUSER-RCT study...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Laurence Culot, Lucas Augusto Pereira, Ilaria Agostini, Marco Antônio Barreto de Almeida, Rafael Souza Cruz Alves, Izar Aximoff, Alex Bager, María Celia Baldovino, Thiago Ribas Bella, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Caryne Braga, Carlos Rodrigo Brocardo, Ana Kellen Nogueira Campelo, Gustavo R Canale, Jader da Cruz Cardoso, Eduardo Carrano, Diogo Cavenague Casanova, Camila Righetto Cassano, Erika Castro, Jorge José Cherem, Adriano Garcia Chiarello, Braz Antonio Pereira Cosenza, Rodrigo Costa-Araújo, Nilmara Cristina da Silva, Mario S Di Bitetti, Aluane Silva Ferreira, Priscila Coutinho Ribas Ferreira, Marcos de S Fialho, Lisieux Franco Fuzessy, Guilherme Siniciato Terra Garbino, Francini de Oliveira Garcia, Cassiano A F R Gatto, Carla Cristina Gestich, Pablo Rodrigues Gonçalves, Nila Rássia Costa Gontijo, Maurício Eduardo Graipel, Carlos Eduardo Guidorizzi, Robson Odeli Espíndola Hack, Gabriela Pacheco Hass, Renato Richard Hilário, André Hirsch, Ingrid Holzmann, Daniel Henrique Homem, Hilton Entringer Júnior, Gilberto Sabino-Santos Júnior, Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, Christoph Knogge, Fernando Lima, Elson Fernandes de Lima, Cristiana Saddy Martins, Adriana Almeida de Lima, Alexandre Martins, Waldney Pereira Martins, Fabiano R de Melo, Ricardo Melzew, João Marcelo Deliberador Miranda, Flávia Miranda, Andréia Magro Moraes, Tainah Cruz Moreira, Maria Santina de Castro Morini, Mariana B Nagy-Reis, Luciana Oklander, Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Anderson Pagoto, Marcelo Passamani, Fernando de Camargo Passos, Carlos A Peres, Michell Soares de Campos Perine, Míriam Plaza Pinto, Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes, Marcio Port Carvalho, Bárbara Heliodora Soares do Prado, André Luis Regolin, Gabriela Cabral Rezende, Alessandro Rocha, Joedison Dos S Rocha, Raisa Reis de Paula Rodarte, Lilian Patrícia Sales, Edmilson Dos Santos, Paloma Marques Santos, Christine Steiner São Bernardo, Ricardo Sartorello, Leonardo La Serra, Eleonore Setz, Anne Sophie de Almeida E Silva, Leonardo Henrique da Silva, Pedro Bencke Ermel da Silva, Maurício Silveira, Rebecca L Smith, Sara Machado de Souza, Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo, Leonardo Carreira Trevelin, Claudio Valladares Padua, Luciana Zago, Eduardo Marques, Stephen Francis Ferrari, Raone Beltrão-Mendes, Denison José Henz, Francys E da Veiga da Costa, Igor Kintopp Ribeiro, Lucas Lacerda Toth Quintilham, Marcos Dums, Pryscilla Moura Lombardi, Renata Twardowsky Ramalho Bonikowski, Stéfani Gabrieli Age, João Pedro Souza-Alves, Renata Chagas, Rogério Grassetto Teixeira da Cunha, Monica Mafra Valença-Montenegro, Gabriela Ludwig, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Gerson Buss, Renata Bocorny de Azevedo, Roberio Freire Filho, Felipe Bufalo, Louis Milhe, Mayara Mulato Dos Santos, Raíssa Sepulvida, Daniel da Silva Ferraz, Michel Barros Faria, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Mauro Galetti
Primates play an important role in ecosystem functioning and offer critical insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and emerging infectious diseases. There are 26 primate species in the Atlantic Forests of South America, 19 of them endemic. We compiled a dataset of 5,472 georeferenced locations of 26 native and 1 introduced primate species, as hybrids in the genera Callithrix and Alouatta. The dataset includes 700 primate communities, 8,121 single species occurrences and 714 estimates of primate population sizes, covering most natural forest types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina and some other biomes...
October 13, 2018: Ecology
Camila Helena Ferreira Cuelho, Geórgia de Assis Dias Alves, Marina Ortiz Lovatto, Iuri França Bonilha, Fernanda Barbisan, Ivana Beatrice Manica da Cruz, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Roselei Fachinetto, Gizele Scotti do Canto, Melânia Palermo Manfron
Ultraviolet B radiation represents 10% of the total UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, being the primary responsible for the biological effects related to skin cancer and photoaging. Ilex Paraguariensis A. St. Hil., known as Yerba mate (YM), is a native tree of South America whose polyphenols in its leaves are described to exhibit photochemoprotective effect and are employed in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, the polyphenols are used to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce the UV-induced damage, which ultimately decreases the oxidative stress...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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