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South america

Bernardo T Lopes, Isaac C Ramos, Marcella Q Salomão, Frederico P Guerra, Steve C Schallhorn, Julie M Schallhorn, Riccardo Vinciguerra, Paolo Vinciguerra, Fancis W Price, Marianne O Price, Dan Z Reinstein, Timothy J Archer, Michael W Bellin, Aydano P Machado, Renato Ambrósio
PURPOSE: To improve the detection of corneal ectasia susceptibility using tomographic data. DESIGN: Multicenter case control study METHODS: Data from patients from five different clinics from South-America, United States and Europe were evaluated. Artificial intelligence models were generated using Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) parameters to discriminate the preoperative data of three groups: stable LASIK cases (2,980 patients with minimum follow up of 7 years), ectasia susceptibility (71 eyes of 45 patients that developed post-LASIK ectasia [PLE]) and clinical keratoconus (182 patients [KC])...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Isabel Gómez, Josue Ocelotl, Jorge Sánchez, Christina Lima, Erica Martins, Anayeli Rosales-Juárez, Sotero Aguilar-Medel, André Abad, Hua Dong, Rose Monnerat, Guadalupe Peña, Jie Zhang, Mark Nelson, Gusui Wu, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa toxins are environmentally safe insecticides that control important insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda is an important maize pest that shows low susceptibility to Cry1A toxins in contrast to Cry1Fa that is highly active against this pest and is used in transgenic maize for S. frugiperda control. The region of β16 from domain III of Cry1Ab has been shown to be involved in interaction with receptors such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or aminopeptidase (APN) in different lepidopteran insects...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
S Salmani-Ghabeshi, E Chamizo, M Christl, C Miró, E Pinilla-Gil, F Cereceda-Balic
236 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu are present in soils mainly as a result of the local- and global-fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out mainly in the 1950's and 1960's. In this work we provide new data on the presence of 236 U and 239,240 Pu in surface soils (i.e. up to 5 cm depth) from Chile and Africa. The results were obtained by low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). In the case of the Chilean samples, 236 U/239 Pu atom ratios show a high variability and are in general higher than the reported value for the global fallout in the Northern Hemisphere, ranging from 0...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sharon Y Irving, Bridget Daly, Judy Verger, Katri V Typpo, Ann-Marie Brown, Alexandra Hanlon, Scott L Weiss, Julie C Fitzgerald, Vinay M Nadkarni, Neal J Thomas, Vijay Srinivasan
OBJECTIVES: The impact of nutrition status on outcomes in pediatric severe sepsis is unclear. We studied the association of nutrition status (expressed as body mass index z score) with outcomes in pediatric severe sepsis. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Sepsis Prevalence, Outcomes, and Therapies study. Patient characteristics, ICU interventions, and outcomes were compared across nutrition status categories (expressed as age- and sex-adjusted body mass index z scores using World Health Organization standards)...
August 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Lara M Stepleman, Jiby Yohannan, Samantha M Scott, Lauren L Titus, Joan Walker, Eliot J Lopez, Lauren Wooten Smith, Alexis L Rossi, Thomas M Toomey, Elizabeth D Eldridge
The 2016 Municipal Equality Index rated Augusta, the largest city in the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA), as one of the least lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) friendly cities in America. To understand the context of our region in relation to LGBT wellness, we conducted the first LGBT health needs assessment of the CSRA, assessing physical and mental health status and health care needs and experiences in the community. Participants (N = 436) were recruited using venue and snowball sampling and completed an anonymous online survey...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
Craig Anderson, Ryan Hafen, Oleg Sofrygin, Louise Ryan
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Healthy Birth, Growth and Development knowledge integration project aims to improve the overall health and well-being of children across the world. The project aims to integrate information from multiple child growth studies to allow health professionals and policy makers to make informed decisions about interventions in lower and middle income countries. To achieve this goal, we must first understand the conditions that impact on the growth and development of children, and this requires sensible models for characterising different growth patterns...
August 9, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Donald P McManus, David W Dunne, Moussa Sacko, Jürg Utzinger, Birgitte J Vennervald, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic flatworms (blood flukes) of the genus Schistosoma, with considerable morbidity in parts of the Middle East, South America, Southeast Asia and, particularly, in sub-Saharan Africa. Infective larvae grow in an intermediate host (fresh-water snails) before penetrating the skin of the definitive human host. Mature adult worms reside in the mesenteric (Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum) or pelvic (Schistosoma haematobium) veins, where female worms lay eggs, which are secreted in stool or urine...
August 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Preetha D Kamath, Jennifer L Abrahams, Jeong Hee Cho-Vega
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive malignancy of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. This virus is endemic to the Caribbean, Japan, and regions of South America and Africa.[1] In Miami/ South Florida, whose population is enriched with immigrants from HTLV-1 endemic areas, we have identified multiple cases of ATLL. [2] This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Derek Hellenberg, Farion R Williams, Mohan Kubendra, Resmi S Kaimal
Family physicians (FP) practising in different parts of the world may require different sets of knowledge and skills to satisfy the needs of the communities in which they work as well as the requirements of the professional bodies with which they are registered. This article gives an overview of the strengths and limitations of the FP globally and more specifically within India, South Africa, and the United States of America. The historical context and evolution of FM as a clinical and academic discipline is discussed in this article...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Suely Aparecida Kfouri, José Eluf Neto, Sérgio Koifman, Maria Paula Curado, Ana Menezes, Alexander Welaussen Daudt, Victor Wünsch Filho
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the fraction of head and neck cancer (HNC) attributable to tobacco and alcohol in cities in the Midwest, Southeast and South regions of Brazil. METHODS: Case-control study including 1,594 cases of HNC and 1,292 hospital controls. The association of HNC with tobacco and alcohol was estimated by the odds ratio and respective 95% confidence intervals through non-conditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, schooling, consumption of fruits and vegetables, alcohol drinking (to examine the tobacco effect), and tobacco smoking (to examine the alcohol effect)...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Stefan Monecke, Peter Slickers, Darius Gawlik, Elke Müller, Annett Reissig, Antje Ruppelt-Lorz, Patrick E Akpaka, Dirk Bandt, Michele Bes, Samar S Boswihi, David C Coleman, Geoffrey W Coombs, Olivia S Dorneanu, Vladimir V Gostev, Margaret Ip, Bushra Jamil, Lutz Jatzwauk, Marco Narvaez, Rashida Roberts, Abiola Senok, Anna C Shore, Sergey V Sidorenko, Leila Skakni, Ali M Somily, Muhammad Ali Syed, Alexander Thürmer, Edet E Udo, Teodora Vremerǎ, Jeannete Zurita, Ralf Ehricht
ST239-MRSA-III is probably the oldest truly pandemic MRSA strain, circulating in many countries since the 1970s. It is still frequently isolated in some parts of the world although it has been replaced by other MRSA strains in, e.g., most of Europe. Previous genotyping work (Harris et al., 2010; Castillo-Ramírez et al., 2012) suggested a split in geographically defined clades. In the present study, a collection of 184 ST239-MRSA-III isolates, mainly from countries not covered by the previous studies were characterized using two DNA microarrays (i) targeting an extensive range of typing markers, virulence and resistance genes and (ii) a SCC mec subtyping array...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrea B Kuenzli, Jonas Marschall, Joerg C Schefold, Margaret Schafer, Oliver B Engler, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, David C Reineke, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Cornelia Staehelin
Two travellers returning from South America were diagnosed with Andes hantavirus infection, the only member of the Hantaviridae family known to be transmitted from person to person. We describe the clinical course and therapeutic and infection control measures. While both patients showed high viral load (VL) and shedding over several months, 1 patient recovered within 1 week from severe respiratory illness that required noninvasive ventilation, whereas the second patient developed severe hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 27 days...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Dennis Chan, Joseph Andrew Geiger, Elton José Rosas Vasconcelos, Brian Oakley, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva Diniz
Bartonella rochalimae is an emerging zoonotic pathogen present in the United States, South America, and Europe. The molecular detection of B. rochalimae frequently relies on PCR assays that target the genus Bartonella coupled with DNA sequencing for species determination. However, the presence of other Bartonella spp. in the sample being tested may result in false-negative results for B. rochalimae , especially when Sanger sequencing is used. We developed a sensitive and specific quantitative PCR platform for B...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gina Mills, Katrina Sharps, David Simpson, Håkan Pleijel, Michael Frei, Kent Burkey, Lisa Emberson, Johan Uddling, Malin Broberg, Zhaozhong Feng, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Madhoolika Agrawal
Increasing both crop productivity and the tolerance of crops to abiotic and biotic stresses is a major challenge for global food security in our rapidly changing climate. For the first time, we show how the spatial variation and severity of tropospheric ozone effects on yield compare with effects of other stresses on a global scale, and discuss mitigating actions against the negative effects of ozone. We show that the sensitivity to ozone declines in the order soybean > wheat > maize > rice, with genotypic variation in response being most pronounced for soybean and rice...
August 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Bárbara Rincón-Llorente, David De la Lama-Calvente, María J Fernández-Rodríguez, Rafael Borja-Padilla
The table olive industry produces a high quantity of wastewater annually. These wastewaters are very problematic because of their characteristics of high organic matter, high phenolic content, high salinity and conductivity. The quantities in which they are produced are also a serious problem. The worldwide production of table olives reached 2,550,000 tons in the last five campaigns, with the European Union contributing to 32% of total production. The problem of these wastewaters is focused on the Mediterranean area where the highest quantity of table olives is produced and to a lesser extent on the United States and South America...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah Larney, Matthew Hickman, David A Fiellin, Timothy Dobbins, Suzanne Nielsen, Nicola R Jones, Richard P Mattick, Robert Ali, Louisa Degenhardt
INTRODUCTION: North America is amid an opioid use epidemic. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) effectively reduces extramedical opioid use and related harms. As with all pharmacological treatments, there are risks associated with OAT, including fatal overdose. There is a need to better understand risk for adverse outcomes during and after OAT, and for innovative approaches to identifying people at greatest risk of adverse outcomes. The Opioid Agonist Treatment and Safety study aims to address these questions so as to inform the expansion of OAT in the USA...
August 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Guillermina Isla, Florencia Leonardelli, Iris N Tiraboschi, Nicolás Refojo, Alejandra Hevia, Walter Vivot, Wanda Szusz, Susana B Córdoba, Guillermo García-Effron
One of the most recently described Aspergillus fumigatus CYP51A -mediated azole resistance mechanism is the named TR46/Y121F/T289A. Clinical A. fumigatus strains harboring these substitutions were reported worldwide with the exception of South-America. We describe the first clinical A. fumigatus strain with this resistance mechanism isolated from an Argentinian patient. The strain was isolated in 2009 (one year later than the firstly described mutant in US) demonstrating that these alleles were scattered worldwide before than previously thought...
August 6, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Dean A McKeown, Joanna L Schroeder, Kim Stevens, Akira F Peters, Claudio A Sáez, Jihae Park, Mark D Rothman, John J Bolton, Murray T Brown, Declan C Schroeder
Two sister orders of the brown macroalgae (class Phaeophyceae), the morphologically complex Laminariales (commonly referred to as kelp) and the morphologically simple Ectocarpales are natural hosts for the dsDNA phaeoviruses (family Phycodnaviridae ) that persist as proviruses in the genomes of their hosts. We have previously shown that the major capsid protein (MCP) and DNA polymerase concatenated gene phylogeny splits phaeoviruses into two subgroups, A and B (both infecting Ectocarpales), while MCP-based phylogeny suggests that the kelp phaeoviruses form a distinct third subgroup C...
August 5, 2018: Viruses
Dietrich Mebs, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Werner Pogoda, Joseph Vargas Alvarez, Raffael Ernst, Gunther Köhler, Stefan W Toennes
Frogs of the family Dendrobatidae are known to contain toxic alkaloids in their skin secretion, but Allobates species of the closely related Aromobatidae family are considered to lack toxic secretions. However, contradictory results have been reported. Analyses of alcohol extracts from three different Allobates species from South-America (Guiana Shield), Central America (Costa Rica), and from the dendrobatid frog Silverstoneia flotator confirm the absence of alkaloids and tetrodotoxin in aromobatids and in a dendrobatid of the subfamily Colostethinae...
August 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Sunamita de Carvalho Lima, Lucas de Carvalho Porta, Álvaro da Costa Lima, Joana D'Arc Campeiro, Ywlliane Meurer, Nathália Bernardes Teixeira, Thiago Duarte, Eduardo Brandt Oliveira, Gisele Picolo, Rosely Oliveira Godinho, Regina Helena Silva, Mirian Akemi Furuie Hayashi
The high medical importance of Crotalus snakes is unquestionable, as this genus is the second in frequency of ophidian accidents in many countries, including Brazil. With a relative less complex composition compared to other genera venoms, as those from the Bothrops genus, the Crotalus genus venom from South America is composed basically by the neurotoxin crotoxin (a phospholipase A2), the thrombin-like gyroxin (a serinoprotease), a very potent aggregating protein convulxin, and a myotoxic polypeptide named crotamine...
August 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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