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Muriel Vray, Boris G Hedible, Pierrick Adam, Laura Tondeur, Alexandre Manirazika, Rindra Randremanana, Halima Mainassara, André Briend, Cecile Artaud, Cassandre von Platen, Mathias Altmann, Ronan Jambou
BACKGROUND: The aim of this open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted in four African countries (Madagascar, Niger, Central African Republic, and Senegal) is to compare three strategies of renutrition for moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) in children based on modulation of the gut microbiota with enriched flours alone, enriched flours with prebiotics or enriched flours coupled with antibiotic treatment. METHODS: To be included, children aged between 6 months and 2 years are preselected based on mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) and are included based on a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) between - 3 and - 2 standard deviations (SD)...
December 4, 2018: Trials
Mame Thierno Bakhoum, Mamadou Sarr, Assane Gueye Fall, Karine Huber, Moussa Fall, Mbacké Sembène, Momar Talla Seck, Karien Labuschagne, Laetitia Gardès, Mamadou Ciss, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Jérémy Bouyer, Thierry Baldet, Claire Garros
BACKGROUND: Biting midge species of the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) comprise more than 1300 species distributed worldwide. Several species of Culicoides are vectors of various viruses that can affect animals, like the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), known to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The ecological and veterinary interest of Culicoides emphasizes the need for rapid and reliable identification of vector species. However, morphology-based identification has limitations and warrants integration of molecular data...
December 3, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Onikepe O Owolabi, Ann Biddlecom, Hannah S Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Abortion-related mortality is one of the main causes of maternal mortality worldwide. Laws often restrict the provision of safe abortion care, yet post-abortion care is a service that all countries have committed to provide to manage abortion complications. There is minimal evidence on the capacity of national health systems to provide post-abortion care. METHODS: We did a multicountry analysis of data from nationally representative Service Provision Assessment surveys done between 2007 to 2017 in ten countries across three regions (Bangladesh, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda)...
November 29, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Federica Dal Pesco, Julia Fischer
Ritualized greetings, defined as exchanges of non-aggressive signals, are common among males living in multi-male groups and are thought to balance the trade-offs of male co-residence. While ritualized greetings are widespread in the animal kingdom, the behavioral repertoire described in the genus Papio is exceptional, as it involves potentially harmful behaviors such as genital fondling. Although greetings are one of the most striking male social interactions in baboons, their function is still disputed. We investigated the function of male-male ritualized greeting behavior in wild Guinea baboons...
December 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Mark Myatt, Tanya Khara, Carmel Dolan, Michel Garenne, André Briend
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether children with concurrent wasting and stunting require therapeutic feeding and to better understand whether multiple diagnostic criteria are needed to identify children with a high risk of death and in need of treatment. DESIGN: Community-based cohort study, following 5751 children through time. Each child was visited up to four times at 6-month intervals. Anthropometric measurements were taken at each visit. Survival was monitored using a demographic surveillance system operating in the study villages...
December 3, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Martin C Arostegui, Chelsea L Wood, Isabel J Jones, Andy Chamberlin, Nicolas Jouanard, Djibril S Faye, Armand M Kuris, Gilles Riveau, Giulio A De Leo, Sanna H Sokolow
More than 200 million people in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with schistosome parasites. Transmission of schistosomiasis occurs when people come into contact with larval schistosomes emitted from freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. Thus, controlling snails through augmenting or restoring their natural enemies, such as native predators and competitors, could offer sustainable control for this human disease. Fishes may reduce schistosomiasis transmission directly, by preying on snails or parasites, or indirectly, by competing with snails for food or by reducing availability of macrophyte habitat (i...
November 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gisele M S Ouedraogo, Güler Demirbas-Uzel, Jean-Baptiste Rayaisse, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Astan C Traore, Antonios Avgoustinos, Andrew G Parker, Issa Sidibe, Anicet G Ouedraogo, Amadou Traore, Bale Bayala, Marc J B Vreysen, Kostas Bourtzis, Adly M M Abd-Alla
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are vectors of African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause sleeping sickness (or human African trypanosomosis) in humans and nagana (or animal African trypanosomosis) in livestock. In addition to trypanosomes, four symbiotic bacteria Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Sodalis glossinidius, Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and one pathogen, the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), have been reported in different tsetse species. We evaluated the prevalence and coinfection dynamics between Wolbachia, trypanosomes, and SGHV in four tsetse species (Glossina palpalis gambiensis, G...
November 23, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Awa Ndong Ba, Fabrice Cazier, Anthony Verdin, Guillaume Garcon, Mathilde Cabral, Lucie Courcot, Amadou Diouf, Dominique Courcot, Maurizio Gualtieri, Mamadou Fall
Exposure to atmospheric pollutants has been recognized as a major risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Fine particles (PM2.5 ) and a coarser fraction (PM>2.5 ) sampled at an urban site in Dakar (HLM), characterized by high road traffic emissions, were compared with particles sampled at a rural area, Toubab Dialaw located about 40 km from Dakar. The physicochemical characteristics of samples revealed that PMs differ for their physical (surface area) and chemical properties (in terms of CHN, metals, ions, paraffins, VOCs and PAHs) that were 65-75% higher in urban samples...
November 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Laure Alexandre-Heymann, Marie Dubert, Dapa A Diallo, Saliou Diop, Aissata Tolo, Suzanne Belinga, Ibrahima Sanogo, Ibrahima Diagne, Guillaume Wamba, Kouakou Boidy, Indou Deme Ly, Ismaël Kamara, Youssouf Traore, Lucile Offredo, Xavier Jouven, Brigitte Ranque
Growth failure (GF) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) tends to decline in high-income countries, but data are lacking in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a cross-sectional study nested in the CADRE (Cœur, Artères et DREpanocytose) cohort in Mali, Senegal, Cameroon, Gabon and the Ivory Coast. SCD patients and healthy controls aged 5-21 years old were recruited (n = 2583). Frequency of GF, defined as a height, weight or body mass index below the 5th percentile on World health Organization growth charts, was calculated...
November 22, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Babacar Thioye, Diederik van Tuinen, Aboubacry Kane, Sergio Mania de Faria, Cheikh Ndiaye, Robin Duponnois, Samba Ndao Sylla, Amadou Mustapha Bâ
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a major role as biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Nevertheless, it is still poorly documented whether inoculated AMF can successfully establish in field soils as exotic AMF and improve plant growth and productivity. Further, the fate of an exogenous inoculum is still poorly understood. Here, we pre-inoculated two cultivars (Tasset and Gola) of the fruit tree Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube) with the exotic AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis isolate IR27 before transplantation in the field...
November 21, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Maher Gtari, David R Benson, Imen Nouioui, Jeffery O Dawson, Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari
It has been 40 years since the first meeting dedicated to Frankia and actinorhizal plants, which was held at Petersham, Massachusetts (reported in Torrey and Tjepkema, 1979). Since then biennial meetings have been organised and held in different venues around the globe (Table 1). The most recent meeting, the "19th International Meeting on Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants", organised in Hammamet, Tunisia from 17th to 19th of March, 2018, gathered scientists from Algeria, Argentina, Belgium, China, Egypt, France, India, Portugal, Senegal, Sweden, UK, USA and Tunisia...
November 20, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Zakaria Bengaly, Sèna Hervé Vitouley, Martin Bienvenu Somda, André Zongo, Assiongbon Têko-Agbo, Giuliano Cecchi, Yahaya Adam, Issa Sidibé, Balé Bayala, Adrien Marie Gaston Belem, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Vincent Delespaux
BACKGROUND: Diminazene diaceturate (DA) and isometamidium chloride hydrochloride (ISM) are with homidium bromide, the main molecules used to treat African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT). These drugs can be purchased from official suppliers but also from unofficial sources like local food markets or street vendors. The sub-standard quality of some of these trypanocides is jeopardizing the efficacy of treatment of sick livestock, leading thus to economic losses for the low-resource farmers and is contributing to the emergence and spread of drug resistance...
November 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Laura G Hooper, Yakou Dieye, Assane Ndiaye, Aldiouma Diallo, Coralynn S Sack, Vincent S Fan, Kathleen M Neuzil, Justin R Ortiz
Nearly half the world's population burns solid fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting. The incomplete combustion of these fuels is associated with detrimental health and environmental effects. The design and distribution of improved cookstoves that increase combustion efficiency and reduce indoor air pollution are a global priority. However, promoting exclusive and sustainable use of the improved stoves has proved challenging. In 2012, we conducted a survey in a community in rural Senegal to describe stove ownership and preferences for different stove technologies...
2018: PloS One
Mama Moussa Diaw, Mamoudou Ndiaye, Niccolò Riccardi, Riccardo Ungaro, Riccardo Alagna, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Luigi Codecasa, Claudio Viscoli, Laura Ambra Nicolini, Giorgio Besozzi
Background: Since 2013 StopTB Italia Onlus supports the Senegalese National Tuberculosis Programme by improving diagnostic capability with technological interventions, ameliorating educational programs for health care personnel, rising awareness among civil society and providing economical support for patients during treatment. The purpose of our study was to assess the preliminary results of an interventional cooperation project in a peripheral health care facility in Senegal. Methods: An observational, retrospective, pre-post study was conducted to compare Tuberculosis (TB) retention in care and outcome between a one-year period before and a four-year period after...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Sidy Akhmed Dia, Azhar Salim Mohamed, Fatou Sy Gaye, El Hadj Oumar Ndoye, Mame Coumba Gaye Fall, Mouhamed Nanibolio Soumah, Mor Ndiaye
Introduction: Work-related injuries have an impact on social security system of the country, on the victims as well as on their relatives. The objective is the aim of our study was to describe the different characteristics of work-related injuries reported to the Social Security Fund (CSS) in Dakar as well as the socioprofessional course of the victims. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study over a period of 5 years, from 2002 to 2006. Data were collected from 133 cases out of 9 308 reported to the CSS...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Adama Diouf, Theodosia Adom, Abdel Aouidet, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Noorjehan I Joonas, Cornelia U Loechl, Germana H Leyna, Dorcus Mbithe, Thabisile Moleah, Andries Monyeki, Hilde Liisa Nashandi, Serge Ma Somda, John J Reilly
Objective: To compare the World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI)-for-age definition of obesity against measured body fatness in African children. Methods: In a prospective multicentre study over 2013 to 2017, we recruited 1516 participants aged 8 to 11 years old from urban areas of eight countries (Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Senegal, Tunisia and United Republic of Tanzania). We measured height and weight and calculated BMI-for-age using WHO standards...
November 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Elizabeth McElwee, Jenny A Cresswell, Christian Yao, Macaire Bakeu, Francesca L Cavallaro, Diane Duclos, Caroline A Lynch, Lucy Paintain
BACKGROUND: A family planning (FP) supply chain intervention was introduced in Senegal in 2012 to reduce contraceptive stock-outs. Labour is the highest cost in low- and middle-income country supply chains. In this paper, we (1) understand time use of personnel working in the FP supply chain at health facilities in Senegal, (2) estimate the validity of self-administered timesheets (STs) relative to continuous observations (COs), and (3) describe the cost of data collection for each method...
November 19, 2018: Human Resources for Health
Ousmane Diouf, Astou Gueye-Gaye, Moussa Sarr, Abdou Salam Mbengue, Christopher S Murrill, Jacob Dee, Papa Ousmane Diaw, Ndeye Fatou Ngom-Faye, Pape Amadou Niang Diallo, Carlos Suarez, Massaer Gueye, Aminata Mboup, Coumba Toure-Kane, Souleymane Mboup
BACKGROUND: With the expansion of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) services in Senegal, there is growing interest in using PMTCT program data in lieu of conducting unlinked anonymous testing (UAT)-based ANC Sentinel Surveillance. For this reason, an evaluation was conducted in 2011-2012 to identify the gaps that need to be addressed while transitioning to using PMTCT program data for surveillance. METHODS: We conducted analyses to assess HIV prevalence rates and agreements between Sentinel Surveillance and PMTCT HIV test results...
November 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jane Cover, Maymouna Ba, Jennifer Kidwell Drake, Marėme Dia Ndiaye
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare the 12-month continuation rate for women who self-injected DMPA-SC (subcutaneous depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate) with that for women receiving DMPA-IM (intramuscular depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate) from a provider. This research contributes to the broader goal of identifying solutions to support women to use contraception for their full desired duration. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were clients from 13 clinics in the Dakar and Thiés regions of Senegal who had decided to use injectable contraception prior to enrollment...
November 12, 2018: Contraception
L Boudaya, L Neifar, L Euzet
The spiral intestines of a total of 16 round fantail stingrays Taeniurops grabata from the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia were examined for cestodes. A new genus is erected in the Anthocephaliidae (Rhinebothridea) as Alveobothrium gen. n., with Alveobothrium grabatum sp. n. as its type species; the new genus differs from the other genera in the order in that its members possess bothridia with an apical sucker, marginal loculi and multiple staggered rows of facial loculi. Alveobothrium zarzisense sp. n. is also described...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
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