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Risk pregnancies

A M de Mestre, B V Rose, Y M Chang, D C Wathes, K L P Verheyen
Early pregnancy loss (EPL) between days 15-65 after breeding has been shown to occur in 7.9% of equine pregnancies with substantial economical, welfare and safety implications. Whilst maternal age has been recognised as an important risk factor in relation to the incidence of EPL, few other risk factors have been conclusively identified. Further, multivariable data analysis of risk factors for EPL is sparse. A prospective cohort investigation of thoroughbred broodmares in the United Kingdom was conducted over the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons...
October 9, 2018: Theriogenology
Faruk Uguz, Goksen Yuksel, Ozge Sahmelikoglu Onur, Cagatay Karsidag, Kazim Gezginc, Nazile Arpaci
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to compare neonatal outcomes including gestational age, birth weight and hospitalization of newborns of pregnant women with treated with antidepressants and untreated panic disorder. METHODS: The study sample included 146 pregnant women (44 patients with panic disorder treated with antidepressants, 52 patients with untreated panic disorder, and 50 healthy controls). Panic disorder was diagnosed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition...
October 9, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Sara Jafarzadeh, Majid Ahmadi, Sanam Dolati, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Shadi Eghbal-Fard, Amin Kamrani, Behboud Behrad, Leila Roshangar, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Bahman Yousefi, Mahdi Mehdipour, Laya Farzadi, Mehdi Yousefi
Exhausted T cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells have been recently proposed to be new risk factors for recurrent miscarriage (RM). Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) treatment reported to modulate various immune cells. In this study, the effects of IVIG on the frequency and function of exhausted T cells, exhausted Tregs, and Treg cells, as well as pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained RM (URM), were investigated. Ninety-four pregnant women with RM were enrolled. At the time of positive pregnancy, blood samples were drawn...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jessica Liauw, Geir W Jacobsen, Tricia L Larose, Jennifer A Hutcheon
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that short interpregnancy interval (the interval between delivery and estimated last menstrual period of a subsequent pregnancy) is associated with small for gestational age birth. It is controversial if this association is causal, as few studies have accounted for likely confounding factors such as unintended pregnancy. We examined the association between interpregnancy interval and infant birthweight, adjusting for pregnancy intention and other socio-economic and obstetrical risk factors...
October 16, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Brian T Bateman, Uffe Heide-Jørgensen, Kristjana Einarsdóttir, Anders Engeland, Kari Furu, Mika Gissler, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Helle Kieler, Anna-Maria Lahesmaa-Korpinen, Helen Mogun, Mette Nørgaard, Johan Reutfors, Randi Selmer, Krista F Huybrechts, Helga Zoega
Background: β-Blockers are a class of antihypertensive medications that are commonly used in pregnancy. Objective: To estimate the risks for major congenital malformations associated with first-trimester exposure to β-blockers. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Health registries in the 5 Nordic countries and the U.S. Medicaid database. Patients: Pregnant women with a diagnosis of hypertension and their offspring...
October 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Andrew G Herzog, Hannah B Mandle, Devon B MacEachern
Importance: If unintended pregnancy is common among women with epilepsy and is associated with increased risk of spontaneous fetal loss (SFL), it is important to develop guidelines for safe and effective contraception for this community. Objective: To assess whether planned pregnancy is a determinant of SFL in women with epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Epilepsy Birth Control Registry conducted this web-based, retrospective survey between 2010 and 2014...
October 15, 2018: JAMA Neurology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: to investigate whether specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones are associated with risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) DESIGN:: Seven observational studies across eight European countries of pregnancies in HIV-positive women METHODS:: Individual-level data were pooled on singleton pregnancies conceived off-ART in which a single combination ART regimen was initiated ≥2 weeks before delivery, and ending in a live birth in 2008-2014...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Neal L Benowitz, Christie A Flanagan, Timothy K Thomas, Kathryn R Koller, Abbie W Wolfe, Caroline C Renner, Christine Hughes, Paul A Decker, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Neil J Murphy, Christi Patten
OBJECTIVE: Foetuses and neonates of women who use tobacco are exposed to nicotine and tobacco-derived carcinogens. We determined the relationship between urine biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure postpartum and in the neonates of Alaska Native (AN) women, comparing smokers and smokeless tobacco (ST) users, including iqmik, a homemade ST product. METHODS: AN women, including 36 smokers, 9 commercial ST and 16 iqmik users their neonates participated. Urine from the woman at the time of delivery and her neonate's first urine were analysed for cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3) pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL), a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Lucie Gavin-Plagne, Loris Commin, Pierre Bruyère, Samuel Buff, Thierry Joly
Animal-derived products are widely used in sperm cryopreservation for their cryoprotective properties. These components, however, tend to be replaced because of sanitary risks. STEMALPHA.CRYO3 (Ref. 5617; Stem Alpha, Saint-Genis-l'Argentière, France), called "CRYO3," is a chemically defined preservation medium currently used for freezing human tissue and adult stem cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a CRYO3-based medium on ram sperm freezing regarding in vitro parameters and in vivo fertility...
October 16, 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
David S Gregory, Velyn Wu, Preyasha Tuladhar
Women often see their primary care physicians for common acute conditions during pregnancy. These conditions may be caused by pregnancy (obstetric problems) or worsened by pregnancy (obstetrically aggravated problems), or they may require special consideration during pregnancy because of maternal or fetal risks (nonobstetric problems). Primary care physicians should know the differential diagnosis for common conditions during pregnancy and recognize the important findings of obstetric and urgent nonobstetric problems...
November 1, 2018: American Family Physician
Abbas Basiri, Behnam Shakiba, Niloufar Rostaminejad
A healthy 37 - year - old woman referred to our clinic with one - year history of recurrent urinary tract infection, dysuria and frequency. Her past medical history informed us that an IUD (Copper TCu380A) had been inserted 11 years ago. Eleven months after the IUD insertion she had become pregnant, unexpectedly. At that time, she had undergone gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasound study. However, the IUD had not been found, and the gynecologist had made the diagnosis of spontaneous fall out of the IUD...
September 20, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
M T Ferguson, A T Dennis
Peri-operative anaemia is a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and postpartum haemorrhage remains a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Caesarean section is an operation incurring moderate risk of bleeding, and rates are rising globally. Recent international consensus guidelines recommend targeting a pre-operative haemoglobin > 130 g.l-1 for all patients having surgery with moderate-to-high risk of bleeding, regardless of sex...
October 16, 2018: Anaesthesia
Tanja A J Houweling, David van Klaveren, Sushmita Das, Kishwar Azad, Prasanta Tripathy, Dharma Manandhar, Melissa Neuman, Erik de Jonge, Jasper V Been, Ewout Steyerberg, Anthony Costello
Background: In poor settings, where many births and neonatal deaths occur at home, prediction models of neonatal mortality in the general population can aid public-health policy-making. No such models are available in the international literature. We developed and validated a prediction model for neonatal mortality in the general population in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Methods: Using data (49 632 live births, 1742 neonatal deaths) from rural and urban surveillance sites in South Asia, we developed regression models to predict the risk of neonatal death with characteristics known at (i) the start of pregnancy, (ii) start of delivery and (iii) 5 minutes post partum...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Isabel A Morgan, Cheryl L Robbins, Kathleen C Basile
Exposure to violence can harm women's overall health and well-being. Data suggest that one in three women in the United States experience some form of violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime. In this commentary, we describe the implications of intimate partner violence (IPV) on women's health, specifically for women of reproductive age. We use a life-course perspective to describe the compounded impact of IPV on preconception health. Preconception health generally refers to the overall health and well-being of women (and men) before pregnancy...
October 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Nejeh Ben Halima, Ahmed Sghaier, Houssem Thabet, Yossra Mesaouadi, Houssem Ragmoun
Pregnancy is correlated with a significant increase in the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) given the physiological changes in fibrinolysis and mechanical stress induced by the pregnant uterus. Our goal is to demonstrate through four cases of massive bilateral PE occurred during pregnancy, the possibility of thrombolysis in pregnant women. We report the observation of four pregnant patients, between 28 and 38 years old and whose term varies between nine and 36 last menstrual period, hospitalized for serious PE complicated by cardiorespiratory arrest in one case and haemodynamic instability in other cases...
January 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Gunn-Helen Moen, Marissa LeBlanc, Christine Sommer, Rashmi B Prasad, Tove Lekva, Kjersti R Normann, Elisabeth Qvigstad, Leif Groop, Kåre I Birkeland, David M Evans, Kathrine F Frøslie
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse health outcomes in mother and child, but the genetic aetiology is scarcely studied. Our aims were to (1) assess the overlapping genetic aetiology between the pregnant and non-pregnant population and (2) assess the importance of genome-wide polygenic contributions to glucose traits during pregnancy, by exploring whether genetic risk scores (GRSs) for fasting glucose (FG), 2-h glucose (2hG), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and BMI in non-pregnant individuals were associated with glucose measures in pregnant women...
September 18, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Mehdi Koushki, Nasrin Amiri Dash Atan, Hossein Omidi-Ardali, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani
Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. The evidence has suggested that microRNAs (miRs) are associated with pre-eclampsia pathogenesis; however, these results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the association between miR-210 expression and PE risk. Methods: Previous studies were selected using PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), and Scientific Information Database (SID)...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Gina S Ogilvie, Felicia Phan, Heather N Pedersen, Simon R Dobson, Monika Naus, Elizabeth M Saewyc
BACKGROUND: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is delivered widely through school-based immunization programs. Some groups have expressed concern that HPV vaccination programs will result in an increase in sexual risk-taking behaviours among adolescents. We aimed to evaluate population-level changes in sexual behaviours before and after implementation of the school-based HPV vaccination program in British Columbia. METHODS: In 2008, a school-based HPV vaccination program for girls was introduced in British Columbia...
October 15, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Nitika Pant Pai, Jana Daher, H R Prashanth, Achal Shetty, Rani Diana Sahni, Rajesh Kannangai, Priya Abraham, Rita Isaac
OBJECTIVES: In rural pregnant Indian women, multiple missed antenatal screening opportunities due to inadequate public health facility-based screening result in undiagnosed HIV and sexually transmitted bloodborne infections (STBBIs) and conditions (anaemia). Untreated infections complicate pregnancy management, precipitate adverse outcomes and risk mother-to-child transmission. Additionally, a shortage of trained doctors, rural women's preference for home delivery and health illiteracy affect health service delivery...
October 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Hagar Rahel Haviv, Joanne Said, Ben Willem Mol
Infants born in the late preterm period and via non-labour caesarean section in the early term period are at increased risk of respiratory morbidity when compared to their term-born counterparts. The morbidity in these infants is less frequent and severe than in early preterm infants. Antenatal corticosteroids reduce respiratory morbidity in these populations; however, the magnitude of the reduction appears to be small and predominantly in the self-limiting condition of transient tachypnoea of the neonate. The smaller benefit, along with possible harmful effects of corticosteroids, raises a question about the role of antenatal corticosteroids in this population...
October 4, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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