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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29942920/suspected-testosterone-producing-tumor-in-a-patient-taking-biotin-supplements
#1
Heather M Stieglitz, Nichole Korpi-Steiner, Brooke Katzman, Jennifer E Mersereau, Maya Styner
A perimenopausal woman presented with palpitations, hirsutism, and inability to lose weight. Laboratory tests revealed an unusual endocrine hormonal profile including pituitary hormones (TSH, ACTH, and prolactin) below reference intervals and gonadal (testosterone) and adrenal (cortisol) hormones above reference intervals. Ultimately, after a comprehensive workup including a scheduled surgical procedure, abnormal laboratories were determined due to biotin interference. Biotin (vitamin B7) is a water-soluble vitamin and essential cofactor for the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, and amino acids...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687797/impact-of-substrate-stiffness-on-dermal-papilla-aggregates-in-microgels
#2
Justin J Y Tan, Jie Kai Tee, Keat Onn Chou, Shi Ya Au Yong, Jing Pan, Han Kiat Ho, Paul C L Ho, Lifeng Kang
Interaction between cells and the extracellular environment plays a vital role in cellular development. The mechanical property of a 3-dimensional (3D) culture can be modified to mimic in vivo conditions. Dermal papilla (DP) cells are shown to gradually lose their inductivity in hair cycle development in a 2-dimensional culture. They are shown to partially restore their inductivity when transferred into a 3D microenvironment. In this study, a microarray fabricated from three different concentrations of poly-ethylene-glycol-diacrylate 3500, namely 5%, 10% and 15% w/v, yielded increasing substrate stiffness...
May 29, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602151/usefulness-of-hair-analysis-and-psychological-tests-for-identification-of-alcohol-and-drugs-of-abuse-consumption-in-driving-license-regranting
#3
Elena Lendoiro, Ana de Castro, Cristian Jiménez-Morigosa, Xosé A Gomez-Fraguela, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Angelines Cruz
The implementation of the points-based driving license helps to change the drivers' behavior and is related to a reduction of traffic accidents and fatalities. In Spain, when a driver loses all points, the driving license is revoked, so the driver must enroll on a Driver Awareness and Re-education (DARE) course. However, at the moment offenders are not submitted to any test to confirm absence of alcohol or drugs of abuse consumption, even when 9% of Spanish drivers lose their driving license for driving under the influence (DUI)...
May 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589644/congenital-atrichia-with-papular-lesions-a-rare-cause-of-irreversible-childhood-alopecia
#4
Tasleem Arif, Mohammad Adil, Syed Suhail Amin
Congenital atrichia with papular lesions (APL) is a disease characterized by the complete absence of hair from the whole body occurring within a few months of birth and the presence of papules distributed over the body. A 9-year-old boy presented with sparse hair over his body and with a history of losing his hair soon after birth. Multiple skin-colored papules were observed over the scalp. A biopsy from a papule showed keratinous cysts in the dermis and the absence of hair follicles. A diagnosis of congenital APL was made after vitamin D-dependent rickets was excluded...
March 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584689/extracellular-matrix-as-a-regulator-of-epidermal-stem-cell-fate
#5
REVIEW
Elina Chermnykh, Ekaterina Kalabusheva, Ekaterina Vorotelyak
Epidermal stem cells reside within the specific anatomic location, called niche, which is a microenvironment that interacts with stem cells to regulate their fate. Regulation of many important processes, including maintenance of stem cell quiescence, self-renewal, and homeostasis, as well as the regulation of division and differentiation, are common functions of the stem cell niche. As it was shown in multiple studies, extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes a lot to stem cell niches in various tissues, including that of skin...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033351/mouse-cutaneous-melanoma-induced-by-mutant-braf-arises-from-expansion-and-dedifferentiation-of-mature-pigmented-melanocytes
#6
Corinna Köhler, David Nittner, Florian Rambow, Enrico Radaelli, Fabio Stanchi, Niels Vandamme, Arianna Baggiolini, Lukas Sommer, Geert Berx, Joost J van den Oord, Holger Gerhardt, Cedric Blanpain, Jean-Christophe Marine
To identify the cells at the origin of melanoma, we combined single-cell lineage-tracing and transcriptomics approaches with time-lapse imaging. A mouse model that recapitulates key histopathological features of human melanomagenesis was created by inducing a BRafV600E-driven melanomagenic program in tail interfollicular melanocytes. Most targeted mature, melanin-producing melanocytes expanded clonally within the epidermis before losing their differentiated features through transcriptional reprogramming and eventually invading the dermis...
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030818/identifying-quiescent-stem-cells-in-hair-follicles
#7
Christine N Rodriguez, Hoang Nguyen
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are noted for their relative quiescence and therefore can be distinguished from other cells by their differential history of cell division. Replicating cells can be labeled by pulsing the animals repeatedly with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) or tritiated thymidine ([3 H]TdR), thymidine analogs that get incorporated into DNA during DNA synthesis. Because dividing cells dilute the label after each cell division, frequently dividing cells will lose the label over time while slow cycling cells will retain the label and thus are termed label retaining cells (LRCs)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893539/functional-analysis-of-a-sox10-gene-mutation-associated-with-waardenburg-syndrome-ii
#8
Xue-Ping Wang, Zi-Qi Hao, Ya-Lan Liu, Ling-Yun Mei, Chu-Feng He, Zhi-Jie Niu, Jie Sun, Yu-Lin Zhao, Yong Feng
Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal dominant inherited non-syndromic type of hereditary hearing loss characterized by varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four subtypes (WS1-WS4) based on additional symptoms. WS2 is characterized by the absence of additional symptoms. Recently, we identified a SOX10 missense mutation c.422T > C (p.L141P) associated with WS2. We performed functional assays and found the mutant loses DNA-binding capacity, shows aberrant cytoplasmic and nuclear localization, and fails to interact with PAX3...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875267/kingdom-chromista-and-its-eight-phyla-a-new-synthesis-emphasising-periplastid-protein-targeting-cytoskeletal-and-periplastid-evolution-and-ancient-divergences
#9
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
In 1981 I established kingdom Chromista, distinguished from Plantae because of its more complex chloroplast-associated membrane topology and rigid tubular multipartite ciliary hairs. Plantae originated by converting a cyanobacterium to chloroplasts with Toc/Tic translocons; most evolved cell walls early, thereby losing phagotrophy. Chromists originated by enslaving a phagocytosed red alga, surrounding plastids by two extra membranes, placing them within the endomembrane system, necessitating novel protein import machineries...
January 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870992/cell-migration-intercalation-and-growth-regulate-mammalian-cochlear-extension
#10
Elizabeth Carroll Driver, Amy Northrop, Matthew W Kelley
Developmental remodeling of the sensory epithelium of the cochlea is required for the formation of an elongated, tonotopically organized auditory organ, but the cellular processes that mediate these events are largely unknown. We used both morphological assessments of cellular rearrangements and time-lapse imaging to visualize cochlear remodeling in mouse. Analysis of cell redistribution showed that the cochlea extends through a combination of radial intercalation and cell growth. Live imaging demonstrated that concomitant cellular intercalation results in a brief period of epithelial convergence, although subsequent changes in cell size lead to medial-lateral spreading...
October 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683402/different-roles-of-glutathione-in-copper-and-zinc-chelation-in-brassica-napus-roots
#11
Ilya E Zlobin, Alexander V Kartashov, George V Shpakovski
We investigated the specific features of copper and zinc excess action on the roots of canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. Copper rapidly accumulated in canola root cells and reached saturation during several hours of treatment, whereas the root zinc content increased relatively slowly. Excessive copper and zinc entry inside the cell resulted in significant cell damage, as evidenced by alterations in plasmalemma permeability and decreases in cellular enzymatic activity. Zinc excess specifically damaged root hair cells, which correlated with a pronounced elevation of their labile zinc level...
September 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551734/alopecia-areata-an-update-on-treatment-options-for-children
#12
REVIEW
Lauren Peloquin, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Pediatric alopecia areata is a spectrum of autoimmune non-scarring alopecia in which some patients lose small patches of hair from their scalp but others lose more or all of the hair from the scalp and body, including eyebrows and eyelashes. Few studies have looked at therapies for this disorder in children, so much of the data are derived from adult literature and describe off-label use of medication. Generally, topical therapies consisting of topical steroids and topical irritating compounds/contact sensitizers are used...
October 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442778/as-a-carrier-transporter-for-hair-follicle-reconstitution-platelet-rich-plasma-promotes-proliferation-and-induction-of-mouse-dermal-papilla-cells
#13
Shun-E Xiao, Yong Miao, Jin Wang, Wei Jiang, Zhe-Xiang Fan, Xiao-Min Liu, Zhi-Qi Hu
Morphogenesis of hair follicles during development and in hair reconstitution assays involves complex interactions between epithelial cells and dermal papilla cells (DPCs). DPCs may be a source of cells for hair regeneration in alopecia patients. Reconstitution of engineered hair follicles requires in vitro culture of trichogenic cells, a three-dimensional scaffolds, and biomolecular signals. However, DPCs tend to lose their biological activity when cultured as trichogenic cells, and scaffolds currently used for hair follicle regeneration lack biological efficiency and biocompatibility...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330720/attenuation-of-uvr-induced-vitamin-d-3-synthesis-in-a-mouse-model-deleted-for-keratinocyte-lathosterol-5-desaturase
#14
Anastasia M Makarova, Saloni Pasta, Gordon Watson, Cedric Shackleton, Ervin H Epstein
The lower risk of some internal cancers at lower latitudes has been linked to greater sun exposure and consequent higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-produced vitamin D3 (D3 ). To separate the experimental effects of sunlight and of all forms of D3 , a mouse in which UVR does not produce D3 would be useful. To this end we have generated mice carrying a modified allele of sterol C5-desaturase (Sc5d), the gene encoding the enzyme that converts lathosterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), such that Sc5d expression can be inactivated using the Cre/lox site-specific recombination system...
July 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115465/targeted-crispr-disruption-reveals-a-role-for-rnase-mrp-rna-in-human-preribosomal-rna-processing
#15
Katherine C Goldfarb, Thomas R Cech
MRP RNA is an abundant, essential noncoding RNA whose functions have been proposed in yeast but are incompletely understood in humans. Mutations in the genomic locus for MRP RNA cause pleiotropic human diseases, including cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH). Here we applied CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to disrupt the endogenous human MRP RNA locus, thereby attaining what has eluded RNAi and RNase H experiments: elimination of MRP RNA in the majority of cells. The resulting accumulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor-analyzed by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), Northern blots, and RNA sequencing-implicates MRP RNA in pre-rRNA processing...
January 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099467/senescent-atrophic-epidermis-retains-lrig1-stem-cells-and-loses-wnt-signaling-a-phenotype-shared-with-cd44ko-mice
#16
Laurent Barnes, Jean-Hilaire Saurat, Gürkan Kaya
Lrig1 is known to repress the epidermal growth through its inhibitory activity on EGFR, while CD44 promotes it. We analyzed the expression of these molecules in senescent atrophic human epidermis and in the epidermis of CD44KO mice. In normal human epidermis, Lrig1+ cells form clusters located in the basal layer in which CD44 expression is downregulated and Lef1 expression reflects an active Wnt signaling. In senescent atrophic human epidermis, we found retention of Lrig1high+ cells all along the basal layer, forming no clusters, with decrease of CD44 and lef1 expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030585/organ-of-corti-and-stria-vascularis-is-there-an-interdependence-for-survival
#17
Huizhan Liu, Yi Li, Lei Chen, Qian Zhang, Ning Pan, David H Nichols, Weiping J Zhang, Bernd Fritzsch, David Z Z He
Cochlear hair cells and the stria vascularis are critical for normal hearing. Hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, whereas the stria is responsible for generating the endocochlear potential (EP), which is the driving force for hair cell mechanotransduction. We questioned whether hair cells and the stria interdepend for survival by using two mouse models. Atoh1 conditional knockout mice, which lose all hair cells within four weeks after birth, were used to determine whether the absence of hair cells would affect function and survival of stria...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907131/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-comparison-of-early-and-late-passage-human-dermal-papilla-cell-secretome-in-relation-to-inducing-hair-follicle-regeneration
#18
Huan Zhang, Ning-Xia Zhu, Keng Huang, Bo-Zhi Cai, Yang Zeng, Yan-Ming Xu, Yang Liu, Yan-Ping Yuan, Chang-Min Lin
Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem that lacks effective therapy. Recently, research has focused on early-passage dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which have hair inducing activity both in vivo and in vitro. Our previous study indicated that factors secreted from early-passage DPCs contribute to hair follicle (HF) regeneration. To identify which factors are responsible for HF regeneration and why late-passage DPCs lose this potential, we collected 48-h-culture medium (CM) from both of passage 3 and 9 DPCs, and subcutaneously injected the DPC-CM into NU/NU mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625564/characterization-of-ovine-dermal-papilla-cell-aggregation
#19
Agnes Rosarina Prita Sari, Nicholas Wolfgang Rufaut, Leslie Norman Jones, Rodney Daniel Sinclair
CONTEXT: The dermal papilla (DP) is a condensation of mesenchymal cells at the proximal end of the hair follicle, which determines hair shaft size and regulates matrix cell proliferation and differentiation. DP cells have the ability to regenerate new hair follicles. These cells tend to aggregate both in vitro and in vivo. This tendency is associated with the ability of papilla cells to induce hair growth. However, human papilla cells lose their hair-inducing activity in later passage number...
July 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431249/hair-induction-by-cultured-mesenchymal-cells-using-sphere-formation
#20
Kazuo Kishi, Ruka Hayashi
Isolated dermal cells possess the capacity to induce hair growth. The cells cannot be expanded while they retain the capacity for hair induction, and lose their potential immediately after cultivation. Sphere-forming multipotent cells derived from the dermis (skin-derived precursors [SKPs]) possess hair-inducing activity. These observations provide two possibilities for the determination of the capacity for hair induction: capacity is dependent on either identity as a dermal cell or on the process of sphere formation...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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