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Behavioral pharmacology

Enhui Pan, Zirun Zhao, James O McNamara
Hippocampal mossy fiber axons simultaneously activate CA3 pyramidal cells and stratum lucidum interneurons (SLIN), the latter providing feedforward inhibition to control CA3 pyramidal cell excitability. Filopodial extensions of giant boutons of mossy fibers provide excitatory synaptic input to the SLIN. These filopodia undergo extraordinary structural plasticity causally linked to executing memory tasks, leading us to seek the mechanisms by which activity regulates these synapses. High frequency stimulation of the mossy fibers induces LTD of their calcium permeable-AMPA receptor synapses with SLINs; previous work localized site of induction to be postsynaptic and site of expression to be presynaptic...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Wenqi Gao, Wei Wang, Gang Liu, Jing Zhang, Jian Yang, Zhifang Deng
Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, was previously reported to possess multiple pharmacological activities. Whether allicin protected against chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) induced depressive-like behaviors remained unknown. Thus, our present study for the first time investigated the potential antidepressant effects and the mechanisms of allicin on the CSDS mice model. Thirty minutes before social defeat stress, allicin (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) was treated by intraperitoneal injection...
December 4, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Jennifer Svaldi, Florian Schmitz, Julia Baur, Andrea S Hartmann, Tanja Legenbauer, Charlotte Thaler, Jörn von Wietersheim, Martina de Zwaan, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa (BN), a mental disorder that causes significant impairment, can be treated with psychological, pharmacological, nutrition-based and self-help interventions. We conducted a pre-registered meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of these interventions in up to 19 different interventions. METHODS: Database search terms were combined for BN and RCTs from database inception to March 2017. Abstinence from binge eating episodes, compensatory behaviors, the absence of a BN diagnosis and reduction of symptom severity were considered as primary outcome variables, reduction of self-reported eating pathology and depression served as secondary outcome variables...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Alex Gomelsky, Stavros Athanasiou, Myung-Soo Choo, Michel Cosson, Roger R Dmochowski, Cristiano M Gomes, Ash Monga, Charles W Nager, Roy Ng, Eric S Rovner, Peter Sand, Hikaru Tomoe
Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition worldwide and causes a tremendous impact on a woman's quality of life. While conservative and non-surgical therapies are options for treatment, surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is common. Options include colposuspension, slings (pubovaginal and midurethral), and periurethral bulking. While evidence supports each of these options in the treatment of SUI, each is associated with various rates of success and unique adverse event profiles. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is initially treated with behavioral modification and pharmacologic means, with surgery reserved for those with refractory symptoms or significant complications from medication use...
December 4, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Linden Spital, Robert Chang, Anupama Goyal
OBJECTIVES: The increasing behavioral acuity and complexity of hospitalized patients overwhelms providers' capacity to effectively manage their behaviors. Hospitals must train their providers in how to cope with these behaviors to provide high-quality care. In addition to improved patient care, increased capacity to manage these challenging patients may improve resilience and reduce the risk and rates of provider burnout. We created a novel service to address this need via point-of-care resources...
December 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Pei Lin, Yi Dai, Zhihong Yao, Zifei Qin, Liangliang He, Qiyi Wang, Zhuochun Wei, Yezi Zhang, Xinsheng Yao
Qingre Xiaoyanning capsule is a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription which was consisted of Sarcandrae Herba (also named Caoshanhu in China) water extract for the frequent trea™ent of inflammation and immunity related diseases. Until now, the in vivo bioactive components of Qingre Xiaoyanning capsule have not yet been fully addressed. In this study, a total of 42 xenobiotics including 20 prototypes and 22 metabolites were identified in rats after oral administration of Qingre Xiaoyanning capsule using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Illana Kemmerich Martins, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Cynthia Camila Ziech, Lúcia Vinadé, Valter Menezes Barbosa Filho, Irwin Alencar Menezes, Jeferson Franco, Thaís Posser
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative and progressive illness characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a widespread model for induction of molecular and behavioral alterations similar to Parkinson and has contributed for testing of compounds with neuroprotective potential. The Brazilian plant Anacardium microcarpum is used in folk medicine for treatment of several illnesses; however, the knowledge about toxicology and biological effects for this plant is very rare...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Maurizio Bussotti, Marinella Sommaruga
Background: Anxiety and depression are frequent disorders in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but despite this only less than one-fourth of them is treated. Our aim was to review the studies regarding the prevalence and the impact of anxiety and depression and to propose management challenges. Methods: A literature review regarding 1) anxiety and depression studies in PAH patients and caregivers, 2) psychological interventions, 3) slow breathing approach, and 4) pharmacological approach was performed, based on evidence of effectiveness through a search of the most well-known databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, PsychINFO [2004-2018])...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Lilit Aslanyan, Hiu H Lee, Vaibhav V Ekhar, Raddy L Ramos, Luis R Martinez
The prevalence of methamphetamine (METH) use is estimated at ∼35 million people worldwide, with over 10 million users in the United States. Chronic METH abuse and dependence expose the users to participate in risky behaviors that may result in the acquisition of HIV and AIDS-related infections. Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungus that causes cryptococcosis, an opportunistic infection that has recently been associated with drug users. METH enhances C. neoformans pulmonary infection, facilitating its dissemination and penetration to the central nervous system in mice...
December 3, 2018: Infection and Immunity
L Hunakova, M Zvarik, K Majerova, M Mestanik, V Bella, I Tonhajzerova
Vagal activity of patients with metastatic or recurrent breast cancer can predict their survival and can be altered by behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical interventions. Tumor oxygenation is important in defining the cellular metabolic microenvironment of human malignancies, O2-depleted areas coincide with nutrient and energy deprivation and with a hostile metabolic microenvironment. In our work we simultaneously measured two oxygen-sensitive parameters in breast cancer patients, blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and transcutaneous O2 partial pressure (tcpO2) in breast tissue...
October 13, 2018: Neoplasma
Ana Canseco-Alba, Norman Schanz, Branden Sanabria, Juan Zhao, Zhicheng Lin, Qing-Rong Liu, Emmanuel S Onaivi
Activation of the endocannabinoid system modulate dopaminergic pathways that are involved in the effects of psychostimulants including amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine and other drugs of abuse. Genetic deletion or pharmacological activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptor is involved in the modulation of the effects of psychostimulants and their rewarding properties. Here we report on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants in DAT-Cnr2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice with selective deletion of type 2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons...
November 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Suzanne N Landi, Sarah Radke, Stephanie M Engel, Kim Boggess, Til Stürmer, Anna S Howe, Michele Jonsson Funk
Importance: Metformin is an emerging option for treating gestational diabetes (GDM). However, because metformin crosses the placenta, patients and clinicians are concerned with its long-term effect on child health. Objective: To estimate the association of treating GDM with metformin vs insulin with child growth and development. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study of New Zealand women treated with metformin or insulin for GDM from 2005 to 2012 and their children...
December 3, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Maxwell Oluwole Akanbi, Allison Jane Carroll, Chad Achenbach, Linda Catherine O'Dwyer, Neil Jordan, Brian Hitsman, Lucy Ann Bilaver, Megan Colleen McHugh, Robert Murphy
AIMS: To summarize evidence for the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials SETTING: LMICs as defined by the World Bank PARTICIPANTS: Adult current cigarette smokers residing in LMICs INTERVENTIONS: Behavioral and/or pharmacotherapy smoking cessation interventions. MEASUREMENTS: PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE (, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley), PsycINFO (Ebsco), SciELO, WHO Global Index Medicus and Scopus were searched from inception through 4/4/2018...
December 2, 2018: Addiction
Miriam E Bocarsly
Purpose of review: Obesity in the United States has been on a constant rise since the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began tracking it over 50 years ago. Despite focused attention on this epidemic, pharmacological treatments aimed at obesity are lacking. Here, we briefly give perspective on the central and peripheral mechanisms underlying feeding behaviors and describe the existing pharmacological treatments for obesity. With this lens, I suggest future targets for the treatment of obesity...
June 2018: Current Addiction Reports
Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The psychological and psychiatric literature has seldom appreciated the clinical fact that fears of ghosts and kindred supernatural worries may be a cause of intense discomfort, poor sleep, and socio-occupational impairment. In the present article, this claim is illustrated by the clinical features of six patients who developed intense anxiety when they had to sleep alone at night. The fears were first noticed in childhood and persisted into adolescence and adulthood. At these times, they were overwhelmed by images of ghosts and haunted houses often experiencing a vivid impression that an immaterial being not perceivable by the ordinary senses was hovering around...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Salvatore Corbisiero, Hannes Bitto, Patricia Newark, Beatrice Abt-Mörstedt, Marina Elsässer, Jacqueline Buchli-Kammermann, Sven Künne, Elisabeth Nyberg, Maria Hofecker-Fallahpour, Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz
In the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) the importance of psychological interventions in combination with pharmacotherapy is widely accepted in contemporary clinical routine. The natural course of the disorder seems to justify additional psychological interventions because even in patients who are highly compliant to pharmacotherapy full remission is not always achieved. The aim of the present study was to analyze the contribution of psychotherapy to the treatment of adult ADHD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
G C Sartor, A M Malvezzi, A Kumar, N S Andrade, H J Wiedner, S J Vilca, K J Janczura, A Bagheri, H Al-Ali, S K Powell, P T Brown, C H Volmar, T C Foster, Z Zeier, C Wahlestedt
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may have therapeutic utility in multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify BRD4, a BET bromodomain reader of acetyl-lysine histones, as an essential component involved in potentiated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and memory following HDAC inhibition. In in vitro studies, we reveal that pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 reversed the increase in BDNF mRNA induced by the class I/IIb HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Seyed Raheleh Ahmadian, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman, Mahdi Pouramir, Farzin Sadeghi
Arbutin as a natural soluble glycosylated phenol possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of arbutin supplementation on seizures behavior, memory performance, glial activation, release of inflammatory factors and neuroprotection in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling model. Chemical kindling was induced by repetitive injections of PTZ at subconvulsive doses (36 mg/kg). Arbutin at doses of 25 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally (i...
November 29, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Bo Jiang, Hao Wang, Jin-Liang Wang, Ying-Jie Wang, Qing Zhu, Cheng-Niu Wang, Lu Song, Ting-Ting Gao, Yuan Wang, Wei-Zhong Zhu, Guo-Liang Meng, Feng Wu, Chao Huang, Yong Ling, Wei Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
BACKGROUND: Developing novel pharmacological targets beyond monoaminergic systems is now a popular strategy for finding new ways to treat depression. Salt-inducible kinase (SIK) is a kinase that regulates the nuclear translocation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC) by phosphorylation. Here, we hypothesize that dysfunction of the central SIK-CRTC system may contribute to the pathogenesis of depression. METHODS: Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) models of depression, various behavioral tests, viral-mediated gene transfer, Western blotting, coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry were used in this study (for in vivo studies, n = 10; for in vitro studies, n = 5)...
October 18, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Isabella Berardelli, Massimo Pasquini, Antonella Conte, Matteo Bologna, Alfredo Berardelli, Giovanni Fabbrini
This paper reviews studies that have assessed the treatment of psychiatric disturbances in dystonia, tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's disease and essential tremor. Areas covered: We searched for papers in English in Pubmed using the following keywords: blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, arm dystonia, laryngeal dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's chorea, essential tremor, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, psychosis, apathy...
December 1, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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