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Behavioral pharmacology

Lucas De Lavallaz, Carlos G Musso
INTRODUCTION: Chronobiology studies the phenomenon of rhythmicity in living organisms. The circadian rhythms are genetically determined and regulated by external synchronizers (the daylight cycle). Several biological processes involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs are subjected to circadian variations. Chronopharmacology studies how biological rhythms influence pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicity, and determines whether time-of-day administration modifies the pharmacological characteristics of the drug...
October 15, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Giancarlo Colombo, Gian Luigi Gessa
This paper summarizes the several lines of experimental evidence demonstrating the ability of the prototypic GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, to suppress multiple alcohol-related behaviors in laboratory rodents and non-human primates exposed to validated experimental models of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Specifically, treatment with baclofen has repeatedly been reported to suppress alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, alcohol drinking (including binge- and relapse-like drinking), operant oral alcohol self-administration, alcohol seeking, and reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats and mice...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Daniel S Quintana, Lars T Westlye, Dag Alnæs, Tobias Kaufmann, Ramy A Mahmoud, Knut T Smerud, Per G Djupesland, Ole A Andreassen
Little is known about how intranasally administered oxytocin reaches the brain and modulates social behavior and cognition. Pupil dilation is a sensitive index of attentional allocation and effort, and inter-individual variability in pupil diameter during performance of social-cognitive tasks may provide a better assessment of pharmacological effects on the brain than behavioral measures. Here, we leverage the close relationship between pupil and neural activity to inform our understanding of nose-to-brain oxytocin routes and possible dose-response relationships...
October 16, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Patrick A Brouwer, Waleed Brinjikji, Simon F De Meyer
Cerebral ischemic stroke treatment may change significantly now that clots are actually physically removed from the patient using thrombectomy. This allows for an analysis of the content of the clots as well as the correlation of the imaging findings and the clot behavior and morphology. This article illustrates how the interaction of different clots varies in the clinical setting and how analysis of clot composition, as well as the search for new pharmacologic targets, can lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy resistance, in turn providing possibilities for a better approach in the treatment...
November 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Malavika Srikanth, Wee Siong Chew, Tatsuma Hind, Siew Mon Lim, Nicholas Wei Jie Hay, Jasmine Hui Min Lee, Rich Rivera, Jerold Chun, Wei-Yi Ong, Deron R Herr
Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPA1 ) is one of six G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Previous studies have shown that LPA1 signaling plays a major role in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. It has also been shown that the inhibition of phospholipase A2 , an enzyme upstream of LPA synthesis, reduces mechanical allodynia in experimental inflammatory orofacial pain. This suggests that the LPA-LPA1 axis may mediate inflammatory pain in addition to its known role in neuropathic pain, but this activity has not been reported...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Giacomo Grassi, Stefano Pallanti
Only 40-60% of obsessive-compulsive patients respond to first line treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Several second-line treatments have been investigated in the last two decades, and most of them seem to work, at least in a subset of patients. However, since there is still a lack of treatment predictors, the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still empirical and non-evidence based. Areas covered: In this paper, we review current and up-and-coming pharmacotherapy for OCD in adults, focusing on two emerging fields of research, inflammation and glutamate systems, since they have attracted the greatest attention in recent years in OCD pharmacological research...
October 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Katharina Kircanski, Michal E Clayton, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Purpose of review: Chronic, severe irritability is a common presenting problem in children and adolescents. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) was added to the DSM-5 in recognition of this public health need. Currently there are no well-established, evidence-based pharmacological or psychosocial treatments specifically for DMDD. Here, we focus on psychosocial interventions. In addition to reviewing published research, we present preliminary, open trial data on a novel exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting severe irritability, as is present in DMDD...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Yohko Maki, Takashi Sakurai, Jiro Okochi, Haruyasu Yamaguchi, Kenji Toba
The goal of dementia treatment is to improve the quality of life for both people with dementia and their families. Rehabilitation as a non-pharmacological approach, coordinated with pharmacological treatment, aims to allow patients to live better by slowing the progression, and relieving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. In dementia, the manifestation of symptoms caused by neurological impairment is modified by various factors; thus, multidimensional assessment and approaches are effective based on the concept of the International Classification of Functioning, which emphasizes the healthy components of every person's functioning...
October 15, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Gaurav Kumar Gulati, Bruce J Hinds
Smoking tobacco continues to be a worldwide major cause of premature death. Although combined behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions can increase the smoking cessation rate to nearly 25%, the combined approach is generally economically unattainable, and the low success rate leaves large populations at risk. Reviewed are treatments following primarily the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), based on an addiction disease model with reduced dopamine receptors...
2018: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Napaphak Jaipakdee, Ekapol Limpongsa, Bung-Orn Sripanidkulchai, Pawinee Piyachaturawat
Curcuma comosa (C. comosa) is a Thai medicinal herb that provides numerous pharmacologic activities due to its estrogen-like action. This study aimed to investigate the use of liquisolid technique to prepare tablets containing oleoresin-like crude extract of C. comosa, and to improve the dissolution profiles of its major compounds, diarylheptanoids (DAs). Free flowing powders of C comosa extract were obtained by adsorption onto solid carriers, microcrystalline cellulose, with colloidal silica as coating material...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Iftach Sagy, Jonathan Abres, Ariel Winnick, Alan Jotkowitz
Placebos have been used extensively by vast numbers of physicians, in a majority of clinical trials. Placebo effects involve behavioral, psychological and genetic factors, and have been subject to ethical controversies stemming from the use of deception in treating patients. The patient-physician encounter, endogenous pharmacological pathways, personality traits and genetic diversity have all been reported to be key players in placebo responses. In the last decade, a new methodological paradigm of placebo research has emerged, using open label placebos to investigate their effects which showed promising results for various common medical conditions...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Vítor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Mariel Mendez, Adam Bisaga, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
OBJECTIVES: Stimulant Use Disorders (SUDs) are an emergent public health concern in the United States and worldwide. However, there is still a lack of consensus for best-approaches regarding treatment of SUD. Recent trials have evaluated combinations of medications and psychosocial treatments to enhance efficacy. Contingency Management (CM) is a behavioral intervention that has shown effectiveness in treating SUDs. Our aim was to review studies using a combined methods approach such as CM and medications for the treatment of SUD...
October 4, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Richard A Bryant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the current evidence pertaining to the course of acute and chronic posttraumatic stress, the diagnosis of acute stress disorder (ASD), and treatment of acute stress disorder and prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RECENT FINDINGS: Although acute stress disorder was introduced partly to predict subsequent PTSD, longitudinal studies indicate that ASD is not an accurate predictor of PTSD...
October 13, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Sara Haidar-Elatrache, Marlisa Wolf, Noelle Andrea V Fabie, Shashi Sahai
After reviewing the various etiologies that can contribute to a presentation of aggressive behavior in a child (see part 1), a physician should conduct a thorough history and physical examination. The history should be obtained from the patient and caregivers, both together and separately in adolescents. A good physical examination starts with assessment and interpretation of vital signs, followed by a head-to-toe examination focusing on the skin, eyes, and thyroid, and then a neurologic examination. The testing and observation should be tailored to the individual patient, including laboratory results, imaging, and specialist consultation...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Weiwei Xue, Tingting Fu, Guoxun Zheng, Gao Tu, Yang Zhang, Fengyuan Yang, Lin Tao, Lixia Yao, Feng Zhu
BACKGROUND: The human monoamine transporters (hMATs) primary including hSERT, hNET and hDAT are important targets for the treatment of depression and other behavioral disorders with more than availability of 30 approved drugs. OBJECTIVE: This paper is to review the recent progress in the binding mode and inhibitory mechanism of hMATs inhibitors with the central or allosteric binding sites, for the benefit of future hMATs inhibitor design and discovery. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and the selectivity for hit/lead compounds to hMATs that evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments will be highlighted...
October 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Rolando Espinosa, Patricia Clark, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, María de Los Ángeles Aguilera-Barreiro, Mario Flores, Pilar Diez, Salomón Jasqui, María Del Pilar De la Peña, Federico Cisneros-Dreinhofer, Pilar Lavielle, Víctor Mercado
In Mexico, osteoporosis is a public health problem. In this document, the Mexican Association for Bone and Mineral Metabolism defines its position on calcium, vitamin D supplement use, and physical activity as an effective, safe, and cost-effective initiatives to prevent low bone mass. INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, osteoporosis is a public health problem that is expected to increase in the decades ahead. Generally, modifiable risk factors for bone health are related with lifestyles, especially nutrition and physical activity...
October 10, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Scott H Waltman, David Shearer, Bret A Moore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-traumatic nightmares (PTN) are a common and enduring problem for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other clinical presentations. PTN cause significant distress, are associated with large costs, and are an independent risk factor for suicide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for PTN exist. A previous review in this journal demonstrated that Prazosin, an alpha blocker, was a preferred pharmacological treatment for PTN and imagery rescripting therapy (IRT) was a preferred non-pharmacological treatment...
October 11, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
B Merle, C Dupraz, J Haesebaert, L Barraud, M Aussedat, C Motteau, V Simon, A M Schott, M Flori
We conducted a qualitative study with French men and women in order to provide insight into individuals' experiences, behaviors, and perceptions about osteoporosis (OP) and OP care. The data showed that both sexes, but especially men, were unfamiliar with OP, did not always feel concerned, and mistrusted pharmacological treatments. INTRODUCTION: To engage actively in osteoporosis (OP) prevention, people need to have basic knowledge about the disease. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore knowledge and representations of OP care and prevention among both men and women...
October 10, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Brenda M Gannon, Michael H Baumann, Donna Walther, Cristian Jimenez-Morigosa, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
Synthetic cathinones are common constituents of abused "bath salts" preparations and represent a large family of structurally related compounds that function as cocaine-like inhibitors or amphetamine-like substrates of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET), and serotonin (SERT) transporters. Preclinical evidence suggests that some cathinones (e.g., MDPV and α-PVP) are more effective reinforcers than prototypical stimulant drugs of abuse, such as cocaine or methamphetamine. Although the reinforcing potency of these cathinones is related to their potency to inhibit DAT, less is known about the pharmacological determinants of their unusually high reinforcing effectiveness...
November 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Lucas Melo Neves, Carla Silva-Batista, Raquel Marquesini, Telma Fátima da Cunha, Elisa Dimateo, Luciana Nascimento, Acácio Moreira-Neto, Angelo Corrêa de Lima Miliatto, Sheila das Chagas Mendes, Flavia Saad, Jamile Sanches Codogno, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Valeria Juday, Beny Lafer, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depression disorder presents increased rates of cognitive decline, reduced hippocampal volume, poor sleep quality, hypertension, obesity, suicidal ideation and behavior, and decreased functionality. Although continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) improves some of the aforementioned symptoms, comorbidities, and conditions, recent studies have suggested that performing aerobic exercise with motor complexity (AEMC) may be more beneficial for cognitive decline, hippocampal volume, and functionality...
October 10, 2018: Trials
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