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Behavioral pharmacology

Fernanda Severo Sabedra Sousa, Paloma Taborda Birmann, Renata Balaguez, Diego Alves, César Augusto Brüning, Lucielli Savegnago
α-(phenylselanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) is an organoselenium compound that presents antidepressive-like and antinociceptive effect in animal models. In this study, we evaluate the potential pharmacological effects of PSAP on acute stress restriction (ARS)-induced depressive and anxiogenic-like behavior associated with hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in male adult Swiss mice (25-35 g). The ARS is an unavoidable stress situation that was applied for a period of 4 h using an individual rodent restraint...
August 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jian-Feng Liu, Jingwei Tian, Jun-Xu Li
Drug addiction is an aberrant memory that shares the same memory processes as other memories. Brief exposure to drug-associated cues could result in reconsolidation, a hypothetical process during which original memory could be updated. In contrast, longer exposure times to drug-associated cues could trigger extinction, a process that decreases the conditioned responding. In this review, we discuss the pharmacological and non-pharmacological manipulations on the reconsolidation and extinction that could be used to interfere with drug reward memories...
August 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Gianluca Serafini, Giulia Adavastro, Giovanna Canepa, Domenico De Berardis, Alessandro Valchera, Maurizio Pompili, Henry Nasrallah, Mario Amore
Although several pharmacological options to treat depression are currently available, approximately one third of patients who receive antidepressant medications do not respond adequately or achieve a complete remission. Thus, novel strategies are needed to successfully address those who did not respond, or partially respond, to available antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Research findings revealed that the opioid system is significantly involved in the regulation of mood and incentives salience and may be an appropriate target for novel therapeutic agents...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xu-Hui Li, Hui-Hui Miao, Min Zhuo
Since the discovery of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus, many studies have demonstrated that NMDAR dependent LTP exists throughout central synapses, including those involved in sensory transmission and perception. NMDAR LTP has been reported in spinal cord dorsal horn synapses, anterior cingulate cortex and insular cortex. Behavioral, genetic and pharmacological studies show that inhibiting or reducing NMDAR LTP produced analgesic effects in animal models of chronic pain...
August 14, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ziyi Wu, Ping Zhao
Before birth and early in life, the developing brain is particularly sensitive to environmental and pharmacological influences. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that an association exists between exposure to anesthesia during a vulnerable period of brain development and subsequent poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Epigenetics, broadly defined as the regulation of gene expression without alterations of DNA sequence, has become a field of tremendous interest in neuroscience...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Molly M Hyer, Linda L Phillips, Gretchen N Neigh
Notable sex-differences exist between neural structures that regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors such as reproduction and parenting. While anatomical differences have been well-characterized, advancements in neuroimaging and pharmacology techniques have allowed researchers to identify differences between males and females down to the level of the synapse. Disparate mechanisms at the synaptic level contribute to sex-specific neuroplasticity that is reflected in sex-dependent behaviors. Many of these synaptic differences are driven by the endocrine system and its impact on molecular signaling and physiology...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Kyohei Kin, Takao Yasuhara, Masahiro Kameda, Yousuke Tomita, Michiari Umakoshi, Ken Kuwahara, Ittetsu Kin, Naoya Kidani, Jun Morimoto, Mihoko Okazaki, Tatsuya Sasaki, Naoki Tajiri, Cesario V Borlongan, Isao Date
Despite the advances in pharmacological therapies, only the half of depressed patients respond to currently available treatment. Thus, the need for further investigation and development of effective therapies, especially those designed for treatment-resistant depression, has been sorely needed. Although antidepressant effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported, the potential benefit of this cell therapy on treatment-resistant depression is unknown. Cell encapsulation may enhance the survival rate of grafted cells, but the therapeutic effects and mechanisms mediating encapsulation of MSCs remain unexplored...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Melissa M M Andrews, Sarah Peruzzaro, Shelby Raupp, Jordin Wilks, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and currently only has one FDA approved pharmacological treatment (tissue plasminogen activator), which is only administered to a fraction of stroke patients due to contraindications. New treatments are desperately needed but most treatments fail in clinical trials, even after showing benefit in animal models of stroke. To increase the translatability of animal stroke research to humans, sensitive functional measures for both the acute and chronic stages in animal models of stroke are needed...
August 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Eric C Zimmerman, Anthony A Grace
The thalamus has long been recognized for its role in relaying sensory information from the periphery, a function accomplished by its "first-order" nuclei. However, a second category of thalamic nuclei, termed "higher-order" nuclei, have been shown instead to mediate communication between cortical areas. The nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus (RE) is a higher-order nucleus known to act as a conduit of reciprocal communication between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Noël Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. No curative treatments are available for ASD. Pharmacological treatments do not address the core ASD behaviors, but target comorbid symptoms. Dysregulation of the core neurodevelopmental pathways is associated with the clinical presentation of ASD, and the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway is one of the major pathways involved. The canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway participates in the development of the central nervous system, and its dysregulation involves developmental cognitive disorders...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Hashini M Batugedara, Donovan Argueta, Jessica C Jang, Dihong Lu, Marissa Macchietto, Jaspreet Kaur, Shaokui Ge, Adler R Dillman, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Meera G Nair
Helminths have co-evolved with their hosts resulting in the development of specialized host immune mechanisms and parasite-specific regulatory products. Identification of new pathways that regulate helminth infection could provide a better understanding of host-helminth interaction and may identify new therapeutic targets for helminth infection. Here we identify the endocannabinoid system as a new mechanism that influences host immunity to helminths. Endocannabinoids are lipid-derived signaling molecules that control important physiologic processes such as feeding behavior and metabolism...
August 13, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Fatemeh Babaei, Mohammadreza Mirzababaei, Marjan Nassiri-Asl
Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is found in vegetables and fruits. It is one of the major flavonoids that is part of human diets. Quercetin has several pharmacological effects in the nervous system as a neuroprotective agent. In this review, we summarize the research on quercetin and its role in memory in both animals and humans. Articles were chosen from the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. In this review, we describe and summarize the importance of quercetin's presence in the body, particularly in the brain; its kinetics, including its absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion; its behavioral effects; and some of the possible mechanisms of action of quercetin on memory in different animal models...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Maude Beaudoin-Gobert, Elise Météreau, Sandra Duperrier, Stéphane Thobois, Léon Tremblay, Véronique Sgambato
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic and serotonergic degenerations alter pharmacological neurotransmission and structural markers in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alteration of diffusion measures in key brain regions depict MPTP/MDMA lesions in the monkey model of PD. Whether dopatherapy impacts such diffusion measures remains an open question. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of L-DOPA treatment on diffusion alterations, PET imaging and immunohistochemical markers in MPTP/MDMA-intoxicated monkeys...
August 10, 2018: NeuroImage
W Baylor Steele, Rachel A Mole, Bryan W Brooks
Fish models and behaviors are increasingly used in the biomedical sciences; however, fish have long been the subject of ecological, physiological and toxicological studies. Using automated digital tracking platforms, recent efforts in neuropharmacology are leveraging larval fish locomotor behaviors to identify potential therapeutic targets for novel small molecules. Similar to these efforts, research in the environmental sciences and comparative pharmacology and toxicology is examining various behaviors of fish models as diagnostic tools in tiered evaluation of contaminants and real-time monitoring of surface waters for contaminant threats...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Antonio Del Casale, Serena Sorice, Alessio Padovano, Maurizio Simmaco, Stefano Ferracuti, Dorian A Lamis, Chiara Rapinesi, Gabriele Sani, Paolo Girardi, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with affective and cognitive symptoms causing personal distress and reduced global functioning. These have considerable societal costs due to healthcare service utilization. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of pharmacological interventions in OCD and clinical guidelines, providing a comprehensive overview of this field. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with drug treatment of OCD, with a specific focus on clinical guidelines, treatments with antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, off-label medications, and pharmacogenomics...
August 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Aline Isabel da Silva, Glauber Rudá F Braz, Severina Cássia de A Silva, Anderson Apolonio da S Pedroza, Nelson Correia de Lima-Júnior, Tércya Lúcidi de A Silva, Claudia Jacques Lagranha
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a regulatory role in coordinating the neural circuits regulating energy balance, with differences in both 5-HT availability at the synapse and the activity of 5-HT receptors mediating anorectic (via POMC/CART activation) and orexigenic (via NPY/AgRP activation) responses. In conditions of overweight and obesity the control of energy balance is clearly deregulated, and serotonergic modulation appears to make a significant contribution to weight gain. Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that increases 5-HT availability in the synaptic cleft may thus have potential effects on energy balance...
August 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ihori Kobayashi, Mary Katherine Howell
After exposure to traumatic stress, women are at greater risk than men for developing symptoms of some psychiatric disorders, including insomnia and nightmares. Sleep disturbance is one of the most refractory symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Women were included in a few studies that examined efficacy of psychological or pharmacologic interventions for trauma-related sleep disturbances. Studies demonstrated preliminary evidence for efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, imagery rehearsal therapy, and combinations of these techniques in treating insomnia and nightmares in trauma-exposed women...
September 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Moussa A Chalah, Samar S Ayache
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) stands among the most frequent psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective for treating depression, yet its neural mechanisms of action are not well elucidated. The objective of this work is to assess the available neuroimaging studies exploring CBT's effects in adult patients with MDD. Methods: Computerized databases were consulted till April 2018 and a research was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines in order to identify original research articles published at any time in English and French languages on this topic...
August 9, 2018: Brain Sciences
Ajay Manhapra, Anirban Chakraborty, Albert J Arias
: Topiramate is a non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsant medication with multi-faceted pharmacologic action. It has emerged as an efficacious pharmacotherapeutic option for the treatment of addiction, especially alcohol use disorder (AUD). We present a broad narrative review of the putative mechanism of action and clinical utility of topiramate with regard to AUD and other substance use disorders. Collective evidence suggests topiramate is an effective treatment option in AUD, with notable efficacy in reducing harmful drinking patterns in AUD...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Giordano DʼUrso, Antonio Mantovani, Sara Patti, Elena Toscano, Andrea de Bartolomeis
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders share the basic clinical feature of anxiety, which probably explains their common response to similar pharmacological and psychological interventions. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has proved effective in reducing the symptoms of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. It was also used in healthy subjects to modulate neuropsychological processes that are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety...
August 8, 2018: Journal of ECT
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