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Lyme Or Borrelia

Cameron J Osborne, Paul R Crosbie, Tricia A Van Laar
Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a potentially serious vector-borne disease endemic to the western United States. Vector surveillance is compromised by the nidicolous life history of the three Ornithodoros species that transmit TBRF to people in this region. Large-scale stationary trapping methods were developed to survey a wide geographical range of Ornithodoros spp. which are known to vector relapsing fever Borrelia spp. in California. Ninety-six Ornithodoros parkeri were collected from four locations in the foothills of Fresno and Madera Counties...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Matheus Dias Cordeiro, Michele Bahia, Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos, Marcio Barizon Cepeda, Alexandro Guterres, Adivaldo Henrique Fonseca
This study aimed to perform a morphological, molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Borrelia theileri obtained from infected Rhipicephalus microplus in Brazil. Fifty engorged R. microplus females from cattle in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, were analyzed for spirochetes by hemolymph smear. Macerated eggs and positive ticks, as well as blood from the bovine infested by these ticks, were analyzed the glpQ, flaB and hpt genes by PCR. The PCR products were purified and sequenced for analysis and construction of a phylogenetic tree...
October 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Caroline Millins, Eleanor R Dickinson, Petra Isakovic, Lucy Gilbert, Agnieszka Wojciechowska, Victoria Paterson, Feng Tao, Martin Jahn, Elizabeth Kilbride, Richard Birtles, Paul Johnson, Roman Biek
BACKGROUND: Landscape structure can affect pathogen prevalence and persistence with consequences for human and animal health. Few studies have examined how reservoir host species traits may interact with landscape structure to alter pathogen communities and dynamics. Using a landscape of islands and mainland sites we investigated how natural landscape fragmentation affects the prevalence and persistence of the zoonotic tick-borne pathogen complex Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis...
December 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Agustín Estrada-Peña, Sally Cutler, Aleksandar Potkonjak, Muriel Vassier-Tussaut, Wim Van Bortel, Hervé Zeller, Natalia Fernández-Ruiz, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
BACKGROUND: The bacteria of the group Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis in humans, transmitted by bites of ticks. Improvement of control measures requires a solid framework of the environmental traits driving its prevalence in ticks. METHODS: We updated a previous meta-analysis of the reported prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in questing nymphs of Ixodes ricinus with a literature search from January 2010-June 2017. This resulted in 195 new papers providing the prevalence of Bb for 926 geo-referenced records...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Katarina Boršič, Rok Blagus, Tjaša Cerar, Franc Strle, Daša Stupica
Infected elderly people often present with signs and symptoms that differ from those in younger adults, but data on the association between patient age and presentation of early Lyme borreliosis (LB) are limited. In this study, the association between patient age (18⁻44 years, young vs. 45⁻64 years, middle-aged vs. ≥ 65 years, elderly) and disease course, microbiologic characteristics, and the long-term outcome of treatment was investigated prospectively in 1220 adult patients with early LB manifesting as erythema migrans (EM) at a single-center university hospital...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Nadine A Vogt, Jan M Sargeant, Melissa C MacKinnon, Ali M Versluis
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis, a tick-borne disease, is endemic to some parts of North America and is an emerging disease in other parts of the world. Vaccination is an increasingly common, although controversial, method used in the prevention of Lyme disease in dogs; the reported efficacies of Borrelia burgdorferi vaccines in dogs are highly variable, ranging from 50% to 100%. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of vaccines for prevention of Lyme disease in dogs in North America...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
M Casey Gaunt, Anthony P Carr, Susan M Taylor
Whole blood samples were collected from 515 dogs in the practice region surrounding Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada between 2008 and 2010 and evaluated for seroprevalence of vector-borne diseases. Of 515 samples, 12 (2.3%) were positive, with 7 (1.4%) positive for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. These prevalences are higher than those previously reported for this region.
October 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
John Patrik Matthias Burkhard, Kurt Lädrach, Tateyuki Iizuka, Stefan Gerber
Lyme borreliosis is a prevalent disease with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. However, only a few pertinent references are found in the dental literature. Considering the diversity of differential diagnoses, borreliosis-associated orofacial pain may be a challenge for treatment providers and patients alike. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the importance of a sound, structured medical history and assessment to identify severe cases early and to start interdisciplinary therapy if indicated...
December 10, 2018: Swiss Dental Journal
Alaa Badawi, Paul Arora, Darren Brenner
INTRODUCTION: Lyme disease-also known as Lyme borreliosis (LB)-is the most common vector-borne disease in North America and Europe. It may result in substantial morbidity, primarily from persistent Lyme arthritis (LA) that-although treatable-can develop into antibiotic-refractory LA (A-RLA). The aim of this study is to systematically review and evaluate a range of biomarkers for their potential predictive value in the development of A-RLA. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies examining biomarkers among patients with A-RLA from MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE and Web of Science databases and identified a total of 26 studies for qualitative analysis...
November 30, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Geoffrey E Lynn, Nicole E Breuner, Lars Eisen, Andrias Hojgaard, Adam J Replogle, Rebecca J Eisen
The hard tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, has recently gained attention as a cause of human illness, but fundamental aspects of its enzootic maintenance are still poorly understood. Challenges to experimental studies with B. miyamotoi-infected vector ticks include low prevalence of infection in field-collected ticks and seemingly inefficient horizontal transmission from infected immunocompetent rodents to feeding ticks. To reliably produce large numbers of B. miyamotoi-infected ticks in support of experimental studies, we developed an animal model where immunocompromised Mus musculus SCID mice were used as a source of B...
November 27, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ricardo G Maggi, Marcée Toliver, Toni Richardson, Thomas Mather, Edward B Breitschwerdt
The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of Borrelia and Bartonella species in Ixodes spp. ticks collected from 16 USA states. Genus PCR amplification and sequence analysis of Bartonella and Borrelia 16SsRNA-23SsRNA intergenic regions were performed on DNA extracted from 929 questing adult ticks (671 Ixodes scapularis, 155 Ixodes affinis, and 103 Ixodes pacificus). Overall, 129/929 (13.9%) Ixodes ticks were PCR positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, 48/929 for B. bissettiae whereas 23/929 (2...
November 27, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Jiayou Liu, Jan Drexel, Blaine Andrews, Matt Eberts, Ed Breitschwerdt, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar
Vector-borne agents comprise medically important infections affecting dogs throughout much of the world. Sensitive detection of antibodies directed at tick-borne disease-causing organisms in dogs is diagnostically important for veterinarians, pets and their owners, and epidemiologically important for public health surveillance. The SNAP 4Dx Plus Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) identifies antibodies to or infection with multiple tick-borne pathogens and canine heartworm antigen in a single assay...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Carolyn L Hodo, Jessica Y Rodriguez, Rachel Curtis-Robles, Italo B Zecca, Karen F Snowden, Kevin J Cummings, Sarah A Hamer
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases have an adverse impact on health of dogs, and infected dogs can be sentinels for human infection. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, an agent of Chagas disease, causes fatal heart disease in dogs across the southern United States but has been neglected from wide-scale prevalence studies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of exposure to T. cruzi, Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and infection with Dirofilaria immitis among dogs in shelters across Texas and to identify risk factors for T...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Travis J Bourret, William K Boyle, Amanda Zalud, Jesus G Valenzuela, Fabiano Oliveira, Job E Lopez
The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae possesses a complex life cycle in its soft-bodied tick vector, Ornithodoros turicata. Spirochetes enter the tick midgut during a bloodmeal, and during the following weeks spirochetes disseminate throughout O. turicata. A population persists in the salivary glands allowing for rapid transmission to mammalian hosts during tick feeding. Little is known about the physiological environment within the salivary glands acini in which B. turicatae persists. In this study, we examined the salivary gland transcriptome of O...
November 29, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
M Ogrzewalska, C Machado, T Rozental, D Forneas, L E Cunha, E R S de Lemos
Knowledge about ticks (Acari) and screening of ticks parasitizing various hosts are necessary to understand the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. The objective of this study was to investigate tick infestations on snakes (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes) arriving at the serpentarium at the Institute Vital Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. Some of the identified ticks were individually tested for the presence of bacteria of the genera Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), Borrelia (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Coxiella (Legionellales: Coxiellaceae), Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae), Ehrlichia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Apicomplexa protozoa of the genera Babesia (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) and Hepatozoon (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae)...
November 28, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Jani Jukka Sormunen, Tero Klemola, Jari Hänninen, Satu Mäkelä, Ilppo Vuorinen, Ritva Penttinen, Ilari Eerikki Sääksjärvi, Eero Juhani Vesterinen
Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) are among the most common vectors of zoonotic pathogens worldwide. While research on tick-borne pathogens is abundant, few studies have thoroughly investigated small-scale spatial differences in their occurrence. Here, we used long-term cloth-dragging data of Ixodes ricinus and its associated, known and putative pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp., and tick-borne encephalitis virus, TBEV) from a small, well-studied island in southwestern Finland to analyze potential temporal and spatial differences in pathogen prevalence and diversity between and within different biotopes...
November 28, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Sandra Díaz-Sánchez, Angélica Hernández-Jarguín, Alessandra Torina, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, Valeria Blanda, Santo Caracappa, Christian Gortazar, José de la Fuente
Exploring the microbial diversity of ticks is crucial to understand geographical dispersion and pathogen transmission. Tick microbes participate in many biological processes implicated in the acquisition, maintenance, and transmission of pathogens, and actively promote host phenotypic changes, and adaptation to new environments. The microbial community of Ixodes ventalloi still remains unexplored. In this study, the bacterial microbiota of wild-caught I. ventalloi was characterized using shotgun-metagenomic sequencing in samples from unfed adults collected during December 2013-January 2014 in two locations from Sicily, Italy...
November 19, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
William K Boyle, Ashley M Groshong, Dan Drecktrah, Julie A Boylan, Frank C Gherardini, Jon S Blevins, D Scott Samuels, Travis J Bourret
The pathogenic spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi senses and responds to changes in the environment, including changes in nutrient availability, throughout its enzootic cycle in Ixodes ticks and vertebrate hosts. This study examined the role of DnaK suppressor protein (DksA) in the transcriptional response of B. burgdorferi to starvation. Wild-type and dksA mutant B. burgdorferi strains were subjected to starvation by shifting cultures grown in rich complete medium, BSK II, to a defined mammalian tissue culture medium, RPMI 1640, for 6 h under microaerobic conditions (5% CO2 , 3% O2 )...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Yang Wang, Rianne Esquivel, Seleeke Flingai, Zachary A Schiller, Aurélie Kern, Sangya Agarwal, Jacqueline Chu, Ami Patel, Katherine Sullivan, Megan C Wise, Kate E Broderick, Linden Hu, David B Weiner, Mark S Klempner
We recently developed anti-OspA human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) that are effective in preventing Borrelia transmission from ticks in a murine model. Here, we investigated a novel approach of DNA-mediated gene transfer of HuMAbs that provide protection against Lyme disease. Plasmid DNA-encoded anti-OspA HuMAbs inoculated in mice achieved a serum antibody concentration of >6 μg/mL. Among mice injected with DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies, 75%-77% were protected against an acute challenge by Borrelia-infected ticks...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Igor Dumic, Edson Severnini
Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne disease in North America. It is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis. The life cycle of the LD vector, I. scapularis , usually takes two to three years to complete and goes through three stages, all of which are dependent on environmental factors. Increases in daily average temperatures, a manifestation of climate change, might have contributed to an increase in tick abundance via higher rates of tick survival...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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