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Diversity of Sexual Development

J C Andersen, C P Camp, M J Davis, N P Havill, J S Elkinton
Populations of the recently described black oak gall wasp, Zapatella davisae Buffington (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), have been identified as the cause of extensive tree damage and mortality to black oaks, Quercus velutina Lamarck (Fagales: Fagaceae), in the northeastern United States. Relatively little is known, however, about the distribution, phylogenetic placement, and lifecycle of this important tree pest. Therefore, we conducted next-generation sequencing using the Ion Torrent™ PGM (ThermoFisher Scientific, Inc...
November 29, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
David A Klein, Scott L Paradise, Emily T Goodwin
Persons whose experienced or expressed gender differs from their sex assigned at birth may identify as transgender. Transgender and gender-diverse persons may have gender dysphoria (i.e., distress related to this incongruence) and often face substantial health care disparities and barriers to care. Gender identity is distinct from sexual orientation, sex development, and external gender expression. Each construct is culturally variable and exists along continuums rather than as dichotomous entities. Training staff in culturally sensitive terminology and transgender topics (e...
December 1, 2018: American Family Physician
Katherine Kortes-Miller, Kimberley Wilson, Arne Stinchcombe
OBJECTIVES: Educational interventions have the potential to equip healthcare providers to support diverse aging populations. The purpose of this research was to identify educational gaps hindering the provision of person-centered care to older adults who identify as LGBT. METHODS: Three focus groups were conducted in urban centers in northern, southern, and eastern Ontario with healthcare professionals and frontline staff. Semi-structured focus group discussion guides were developed based on the literature identifying some of the knowledge gaps, attitudes, challenges, and barriers around providing care for older LGBT adults...
November 19, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
M Ojeda-López, W Chen, C E Eagle, G Gutiérrez, W L Jia, S S Swilaiman, Z Huang, H-S Park, J-H Yu, D Cánovas, P S Dyer
Aspergillus nidulans has long-been used as a model organism to gain insights into the genetic basis of asexual and sexual developmental processes both in other members of the genus Aspergillus , and filamentous fungi in general. Paradigms have been established concerning the regulatory mechanisms of conidial development. However, recent studies have shown considerable genome divergence in the fungal kingdom, questioning the general applicability of findings from Aspergillus , and certain longstanding evolutionary theories have been questioned...
September 2018: Studies in Mycology
Nicholas A Wood, Krystal Chung, Amanda Blocker, Nathalia Rodrigues de Almeida, Martin Conda-Sheridan, Derek J Fisher, Scot P Ouellette
Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium that differentiates between two distinct functional and morphological forms during its developmental cycle: elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). EBs are non-dividing, small electron dense forms that infect host cells. RBs are larger, non-infectious replicative forms that develop within a membrane-bound vesicle, termed an inclusion. Given the unique properties of each developmental form of this bacterium, we hypothesized that the Clp protease system plays an integral role in proteomic turnover by degrading specific proteins from one developmental form or the other...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Maëva Cherif-Feildel, Clothilde Heude Berthelin, Beatrice Adeline, Guillaume Rivière, Pascal Favrel, Kristell Kellner
Insulin Related Peptides (IRPs) belong to the insulin superfamily and possess a typical structure with two chains, B and A, linked by disulphide bonds. As the sequence conservation is usually low between members, IRPs are classified according to the number and position of their disulphide bonds. In molluscan species, the first IRPs identified, named Molluscan Insulin-related Peptides (MIPs), exhibit four disulphide bonds. The genomic and transcriptomic data screening in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusc, Bivalvia) allowed us to identify six IRP sequences belonging to three structural groups...
October 30, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ronald E Blanton
Molecular epidemiology uses the distribution and organization of a pathogen's DNA to understand the distribution and determinants of disease. Since the biology of DNA for eukaryotic pathogens differs substantially from that of bacteria, the analytic approach to their molecular epidemiology can also differ. While many of the genotyping techniques presented earlier in this series, "Advances in Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases," can be applied to eukaryotes, the output must be interpreted in the light of how DNA is distributed from one generation to the next...
November 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Michael D Pelts, David L Albright, Justin McDaniel, Kelli Godfrey
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the health status of the diverse population of student service members and veterans (SSM/V) enrolling in higher education in great numbers. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in physical health characteristics by sexual orientation among a national sample of SSM/V. METHODS: Using secondary data, a series of maximum likelihood (ML) logistic regression models were estimated to explore physical health characteristics by sexual orientation in a sample of SSM/V...
October 26, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Craig W Duffy, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Mahamadou Diakite, Gordon A Awandare, Hampate Ba, Sarah J Tarr, Lee Murray, Lindsay B Stewart, Umberto D'Alessandro, Thomas D Otto, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
Parasites infect hosts in widely varying environments, encountering diverse challenges for adaptation. To identify malaria parasite genes under locally divergent selection across a large endemic region with a wide spectrum of transmission intensity, genome sequences were obtained from 284 clinical Plasmodium falciparum infections from four newly sampled locations in Senegal, The Gambia, Mali and Guinea. Combining these with previous data from seven other sites in West Africa enabled a multi-population analysis to identify discrete loci under varying local selection...
October 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wulf H Utian, Jeffrey W Janata, Sheryl A Kingsberg, Mark Schluchter, James C Hamilton
OBJECTIVE: Quality of life (QOL) is an outcome variable requiring measurement in clinical care or pivotal regulatory trial research. Current menopause QOL measures are mostly life phase or disease symptom inventories or scores. Believing that QOL should refer more to "sense of well-being," we have developed the Utian QOL scale (UQOL) that is strongly based on perception of sense of well-being as distinct from menopausal symptoms. DESIGN: A pool of items sampling various aspects of well-being was developed...
November 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Fadi E El-Rami, Ryszard A Zielke, Teodora Wi, Aleksandra E Sikora, Magnus Unemo
The sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea (causative agent: Neisseria gonorrhoeae ) remains an urgent public health threat globally due to its reproductive health repercussions, high incidence, widespread antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and absence of a vaccine. To mine gonorrhea antigens and enhance our understanding of gonococcal AMR at the proteome level, we performed the first large-scale proteomic profiling of a diverse panel (n=15) of gonococcal strains, including the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) reference strains...
October 23, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Amanda M Pollitt, Andrew L Brimhall, Melanie E Brewster, Lori E Ross
Bisexuality has been critically understudied despite decades of research demonstrating pronounced disparities among bisexual populations. To better understand the state of bisexual research in the field of LGBTQ psychology, we conducted a content analysis of abstracts published in the Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity ( PSOGD ). Of 223 articles published in PSOGD , less than 1% were focused on bisexual populations. Many studies used "bisexuality" in their titles or as a keyword even when they contained little to no focus on bisexuality...
June 2018: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
(no author information available yet)
There is a critical need to improve the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education and care of adolescent and young adult (AYA) males around the globe, as SRH is a basic human right for all AYAs. This special attention toward the SRH of AYA males is warranted given the fact that they often have difficulty accessing SRH services and education relative to their female counterparts and have higher rates of sexual risk behaviors than females. To promote AYA males' SRH and the health of their sexual partners and children, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) recommends that leaders in research, policy, public health, and clinical practice develop and implement evidence-based, comprehensive SRH education that supports AYA males at school, within communities and families, and through healthcare services that are developmentally appropriate, gender affirming, inclusive of, and informed by AYA males...
November 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Olga Nagy, Isabelle Nuez, Rosina Savisaar, Alexandre E Peluffo, Amir Yassin, Michael Lang, David L Stern, Daniel R Matute, Jean R David, Virginie Courtier-Orgogozo
Diverse traits often covary between species [1-3]. The possibility that a single mutation could contribute to the evolution of several characters between species [3] is rarely investigated as relatively few cases are dissected at the nucleotide level. Drosophila santomea has evolved additional sex comb sensory teeth on its legs and has lost two sensory bristles on its genitalia. We present evidence that a single nucleotide substitution in an enhancer of the scute gene contributes to both changes. The mutation alters a binding site for the Hox protein Abdominal-B in the developing genitalia, leading to bristle loss, and for another factor in the developing leg, leading to bristle gain...
November 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Lois Bayigga, David P Kateete, Deborah J Anderson, Musa Sekikubo, Damalie Nakanjako
The vaginal microbial community ("microbiota") is a key component of the reproductive health of women, providing protection against urogenital infections. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by bacterial overgrowth and a shift away from a lactobacillus-dominated profile towards increased percentages of strict anaerobic species. BV is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as an increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections , pre-term births and pelvic inflammatory disease...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Dacotah Melicher, Kathy F Y Su, Rudolf Meier, Julia H Bowsher
BACKGROUND: The males of some sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera) have abdominal appendages that are remarkable in several ways. They are sexually dimorphic, have a complex evolutionary history of gain and loss, and can be jointed and thus highly mobile. The sternite brushes are used extensively in complex courtship behaviors that differ considerably between species and during mating. The abdominal appendages have a novel developmental pathway developing from histoblast nests rather than imaginal discs...
October 10, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jonathan Adams, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Childhood physical and sexual abuse victims are at increased risk for developing depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Prior findings suggest abuse onset, duration, and severity moderate relationships between victimization and psychopathology. However, because these abuse characteristics are highly intercorrelated, their unique, individual effects on mental health outcomes remain unclear. To address this gap, the present study examined relationships between physical and sexual abuse characteristics and mental health outcomes and whether these relationships differed by sex...
October 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Hannia Liliana Almonacid-Mendoza, María Victoria Humbert, Aiste Dijokaite, David W Cleary, Yiwen Soo, Miao-Chiu Hung, Christian M Orr, Moritz M Machelett, Ivo Tews, Myron Christodoulides
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus [Ng]) is the causative organism of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea, and no effective vaccine exists currently. In this study, the structure, biological properties, and vaccine potential of the Ng-adhesin complex protein (Ng-ACP) are presented. The crystal structure of recombinant Ng-ACP (rNg-ACP) protein was solved at 1.65 Å. Diversity and conservation of Ng-ACP were examined in different Neisseria species and gonococcal isolates ( database) in silico , and protein expression among 50 gonococcal strains in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Food and Drug Administration (CDCP/FDA) AR Isolate Bank was examined by Western blotting...
October 10, 2018: MSphere
Julia Grassl, Shannon Holt, Naomi Cremen, Marianne Peso, Dorothee Hahne, Boris Baer
Declines in native insect pollinator populations and substantial losses in managed honey bees have been reported on a global scale and become a widespread concern because of the importance of these insects for human food production and ecosystem stability. Several potential factors have been studied as possible causes of declining pollinator health, such as parasites and pathogens, exposure to agricultural pesticides, habitat loss and/or climate change. More recently, a combination of these factors rather than a single cause have been blamed for observed pollinator losses, but field studies of such interactions are challenging, especially in the presence of confounding environmental stressors...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Guanghua Huang, Qian Huang, Yujia Wei, Yue Wang, Han Du
Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing both superficial and life-threatening systemic infections in immunocompromised people. The conserved Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway plays a key role in regulating multiple traits important for the virulence of C. albicans such as cell growth, yeast-hyphae transition, white-opaque switching, sexual reproduction, and biofilm development. Diverse external signals influence cell physiology by activating this signaling pathway. The key components of the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway include two Ras GTPases (Ras1 and Ras2), an adenylyl cyclase (Cyr1, also known as Cdc35), two cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (Pde1 and Pde2), and the catalytic (Tpk1 and Tpk2) and regulatory (Bcy1) subunits of PKA kinase...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
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