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Diversity of Sexual Development

Lois Bayigga, David P Kateete, Deborah J Anderson, Musa Sekikubo, Damalie Nakanjako
The vaginal microbial community ("microbiota") is a key component of the reproductive health of women, providing protection against urogenital infections. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by bacterial overgrowth and a shift away from a lactobacillus-dominated profile towards increased percentages of strict anaerobic species. BV is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as an increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections , pre-term births and pelvic inflammatory disease...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Dacotah Melicher, Kathy F Y Su, Rudolf Meier, Julia H Bowsher
BACKGROUND: The males of some sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera) have abdominal appendages that are remarkable in several ways. They are sexually dimorphic, have a complex evolutionary history of gain and loss, and can be jointed and thus highly mobile. The sternite brushes are used extensively in complex courtship behaviors that differ considerably between species and during mating. The abdominal appendages have a novel developmental pathway developing from histoblast nests rather than imaginal discs...
October 10, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jonathan Adams, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Childhood physical and sexual abuse victims are at increased risk for developing depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Prior findings suggest abuse onset, duration, and severity moderate relationships between victimization and psychopathology. However, because these abuse characteristics are highly intercorrelated, their unique, individual effects on mental health outcomes remain unclear. To address this gap, the present study examined relationships between physical and sexual abuse characteristics and mental health outcomes and whether these relationships differed by sex...
October 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Hannia Liliana Almonacid-Mendoza, María Victoria Humbert, Aiste Dijokaite, David W Cleary, Yiwen Soo, Miao-Chiu Hung, Christian M Orr, Moritz M Machelett, Ivo Tews, Myron Christodoulides
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus [Ng]) is the causative organism of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea, and no effective vaccine exists currently. In this study, the structure, biological properties, and vaccine potential of the Ng-adhesin complex protein (Ng-ACP) are presented. The crystal structure of recombinant Ng-ACP (rNg-ACP) protein was solved at 1.65 Å. Diversity and conservation of Ng-ACP were examined in different Neisseria species and gonococcal isolates ( database) in silico , and protein expression among 50 gonococcal strains in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Food and Drug Administration (CDCP/FDA) AR Isolate Bank was examined by Western blotting...
October 10, 2018: MSphere
Julia Grassl, Shannon Holt, Naomi Cremen, Marianne Peso, Dorothee Hahne, Boris Baer
Declines in native insect pollinator populations and substantial losses in managed honey bees have been reported on a global scale and become a widespread concern because of the importance of these insects for human food production and ecosystem stability. Several potential factors have been studied as possible causes of declining pollinator health, such as parasites and pathogens, exposure to agricultural pesticides, habitat loss and/or climate change. More recently, a combination of these factors rather than a single cause have been blamed for observed pollinator losses, but field studies of such interactions are challenging, especially in the presence of confounding environmental stressors...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Guanghua Huang, Qian Huang, Yujia Wei, Yue Wang, Han Du
Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing both superficial and life-threatening systemic infections in immunocompromised people. The conserved Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway plays a key role in regulating multiple traits important for the virulence of C. albicans such as cell growth, yeast-hyphae transition, white-opaque switching, sexual reproduction, and biofilm development. Diverse external signals influence cell physiology by activating this signaling pathway. The key components of the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway include two Ras GTPases (Ras1 and Ras2), an adenylyl cyclase (Cyr1, also known as Cdc35), two cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (Pde1 and Pde2), and the catalytic (Tpk1 and Tpk2) and regulatory (Bcy1) subunits of PKA kinase...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Elizabeth S Rubin, Jordan Rullo, Perry Tsai, Shannon Criniti, Joycelyn Elders, Jacqueline M Thielen, Sharon J Parish
INTRODUCTION: This article discusses a blueprint for a sexual health communication curriculum to facilitate undergraduate medical student acquisition of sexual history taking skills and includes recommendations for important elements of a thorough sexual history script for undergraduate medical students. AIM: To outline the fundamentals, objectives, content, timing, and teaching methods of a gold standard curriculum in sexual health communication. METHODS: Consensus expert opinion was documented at the 2012, 2014, and 2016 Summits in Medical Education in Sexual Health...
October 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Sarah L Whiteley, Vera Weisbecker, Arthur Georges, Arnault Roger Gaston Gauthier, Darryl L Whitehead, Clare E Holleley
Vertebrate sex differentiation follows a conserved suite of developmental events: the bipotential gonads differentiate and shortly thereafter sex specific traits become dimorphic. However, this may not apply to squamates, a diverse vertebrate lineage comprising of many species with thermosensitive sexual development. Of the three species with data on the relative timing of gonad differentiation and genital dimorphism, the females of two (Niveoscincus ocellatus and Barisia imbricata) exhibit a phase of temporary pseudohermaphroditism or TPH (gonads have differentiated well before genital dimorphism)...
October 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jin Cheng, Pei-Pei Dang, Zhe Zhao, Liang-Chen Yuan, Zhi-Hua Zhou, Daniel Wolf, Yi-Bo Luo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A high proportion of species native to China from the genus Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) have been used as folk medicine for more than 2300 years. The fresh or dried stem of many Dendrobium species are regarded as "superior grade" tonic in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), for their traditional properties of nourishing the kidney, moisturizing the lung, benefiting the stomach, promoting the production of body fluids and clearing heat. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to provide comprehensive and updated information on the diversity of Dendrobium species used in TCM and the development of the Dendrobium industry...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Stephen Bell, Elissa Kennedy, Kirsten Black, Andrew Vallely, Lisa Vallely, Glen Mola, John Kaldor, Mary Bagita, Caroline Ninnes, William Pomat, Angela Kelly-Hanku
Despite persistent international attention, adolescent pregnancy remains a major public health concern in low- and middle-income countries, like Papua New Guinea (PNG), where health inequities related to social and cultural norms, gender power imbalance, education and socio-economic deprivation affect young and unmarried women in particular. In PNG - where there is high adolescent fertility, high early childbearing and high maternal mortality ratio, and evidence of high rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion among young women - adolescent pregnancy is a policy priority...
September 27, 2018: Reproductive Health Matters
Caitlyn B de Kanter, Timothy A Roberts, Sorana Raiciulescu, Syed M Ali, James J Arnold, Catherine Witkop, David A Klein
Introduction: Incomplete or inadequate provision of contraceptive services to servicewomen can have a profound impact on military health, readiness, and financial outcomes. This study examined the reproductive health practices and perceptions among family medicine physicians caring for servicewomen. Materials and Methods: We conducted an anonymous survey of 568 registered attendees at the March, 2018 Uniformed Services Academy of Family Physicians annual meeting...
September 25, 2018: Military Medicine
J A Campbell, C E Mendez, E Garacci, R J Walker, N Wagner, L E Egede
BACKGROUND: ACEs have a dose-response relationship with diabetes. The relationship between ACEs and pre-diabetes is not well known and may represent an effective area for prevention efforts. METHODS: Data from 1054 participants from two waves of the longitudinal MIDUS study were used. Multivariate general linear regression models assessed the relationship between ACEs and biomarker outcomes. Correlation tests and mediation models investigated the relationship between ACE and pre-diabetes...
November 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
A Enrique Caballero
Type 2 diabetes affects racial/ethnic minorities at an alarming rate in the US and in many countries around the world. The quality of health care provided to these groups is often suboptimal, resulting in worse patient-related outcomes when compared to those in mainstream populations. Understanding the complex biological elements that influence the development and course of the disease in high-risk populations is extremely important but often insufficient to implement effective prevention and treatment plans...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Michael J Delves, Celia Miguel-Blanco, Holly Matthews, Irene Molina, Andrea Ruecker, Sabrina Yahiya, Ursula Straschil, Matthew Abraham, María Luisa León, Oliver J Fischer, Ainoa Rueda-Zubiaurre, Jochen R Brandt, Álvaro Cortés, Anna Barnard, Matthew J Fuchter, Félix Calderón, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Robert E Sinden, Esperanza Herreros, Francisco J Gamo, Jake Baum
Spread of parasite resistance to artemisinin threatens current frontline antimalarial therapies, highlighting the need for new drugs with alternative modes of action. Since only 0.2-1% of asexual parasites differentiate into sexual, transmission-competent forms, targeting this natural bottleneck provides a tangible route to interrupt disease transmission and mitigate resistance selection. Here we present a high-throughput screen of gametogenesis against a ~70,000 compound diversity library, identifying seventeen drug-like molecules that target transmission...
September 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Mathilde Couderc
This article considers a stage in the clinical trial process seldom documented in social sciences: recruitment of healthy volunteers for an HIV preventive vaccine trial through a media campaign. It analyzes one of the consequences of participating in such a clinical trial: the development of vaccine-induced seropositivity (VISP) and how this biomedical notion is mobilized both in recruitment procedures' normative discourses and from the volunteers' points of view, and its consequences on their decision to participate...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ulrike Boehmer, Melissa A Clark, Emily M Lord, Lisa Fredman
Background and Objectives: Insufficient research attention has been paid to the diversity of informal caregivers, including sexual and gender minority caregivers. This study examined health effects of caregiving separately from sexual orientation or gender identity status, while stratifying by gender among cisgender adults. We hypothesized that compared with heterosexual cisgender noncaregivers, heterosexual caregivers and lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB), and transgender (T) noncaregivers would report poorer health outcomes (i...
September 12, 2018: Gerontologist
P-E Theveniaud, N Zafar, A El Hajj, A Germain, L Brunaud, P Eschwege, J Hubert, L Bresler
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the mid term functional results of patients treated for RUF and to determine an optimal treatment strategy to improve their quality of life. Recto-urinary Fistula (RUF) is a rare complication following prostate cancer treatment, and can have a major impact on patients' quality of life. There is a lack of consensus concerning the best approach and different techniques have been proposed: endoscopic, transrectal, perineal and transperitoneal (open, laparoscopic or robotic)...
September 10, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
X W Wang, F Y Yang, M Meijer, B Kraak, B D Sun, Y L Jiang, Y M Wu, F Y Bai, K A Seifert, P W Crous, R A Samson, J Houbraken
The traditional concept of the genus Humicola includes species that produce pigmented, thick-walled and single-celled spores laterally or terminally on hyphae or minimally differentiated conidiophores. More than 50 species have been described in the genus. Species commonly occur in soil, indoor environments, and compost habitats. The taxonomy of Humicola and morphologically similar genera is poorly understood in modern terms. Based on a four-locus phylogeny, the morphological concept of Humicola proved to be polyphyletic...
June 2019: Studies in Mycology
Courtney S Streur, Christine L Schafer, Valerie P Garcia, Daniela A Wittmann
INTRODUCTION: Although pediatric urologists have taken responsibility for initiating discussions on sexual and reproductive health with spina bifida patients, research shows that very few girls and women with spina bifida have ever discussed this topic with any physician. AIM: We sought to better understand pediatric urologists' gaps in knowledge and training needs in the sexual and reproductive health education of women with spina bifida with the goal of creating a tool kit to equip providers to have these discussions...
October 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
T E Schwasinger-Schmidt, M Macaluso
This chapter addresses the following FDA-approved medications for the treatment of major depressive disorder available for use in the United States including bupropion, mirtazapine, trazodone, vortioxetine, and vilazodone. These medications do not belong to one of the previously featured classes of antidepressants discussed in the preceding chapters. Each medication featured in this chapter has a unique structure and properties that target diverse receptors in the central nervous system. These diverse targets are distinct from other classes of medications used to treat major depressive disorder...
September 8, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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