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Diversity of Sexual Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118495/prevalence-and-correlates-of-hazardous-alcohol-consumption-and-binge-drinking-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-in-san-francisco
#1
Glenn-Milo Santos, Christopher Rowe, Jaclyn Hern, John E Walker, Arsheen Ali, Marcial Ornelaz, Maximo Prescott, Phillip Coffin, Willi McFarland, H Fisher Raymond
OBJECTIVES: To describe heavy alcohol use patterns and correlates in a diverse sample of MSM. METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to enroll 252 alcohol-using MSM in San Francisco from March 2015-July 2017. We examined heavy alcohol use patterns and conducted RDS-adjusted multivariable analyses to characterize correlates of hazardous alcohol consumption and binge drinking. RESULTS: RDS-adjusted prevalence of weekly and at least weekly binge drinking was 24...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117610/growth-and-cranial-development-in-the-andean-frogs-of-the-genus-telmatobius-anura-telmatobiidae-exploring-the-relation-of-heterochrony-and-skeletal-diversity
#2
J Sebastián Barrionuevo
Andean frogs of the genus Telmatobius occur at high elevations, they have an aquatic mode of life and large tadpoles. There are more than 60 species that closely resemble one another and have low values of genetic divergence. However, the skeleton, particularly the cranium, is interspecifically variable with respect to the different levels of development of some elements. Heterochrony is considered to have played a prominent role in generating phenotypic variation, especially among closely related species. Herein, the developmental origins of the adult cranial configuration of two species of Telmatobius are explored...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087172/azithromycin-resistance-through-interspecific-acquisition-of-an-epistasis-dependent-efflux-pump-component-and-transcriptional-regulator-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#3
Crista B Wadsworth, Brian J Arnold, Mohamad R Abdul Sater, Yonatan H Grad
Mosaic interspecifically acquired alleles of the multiple transferable resistance ( mtr ) efflux pump operon correlate with increased resistance to azithromycin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in epidemiological studies. However, whether and how these alleles cause resistance is unclear. Here, we use population genomics, transformations, and transcriptional analyses to dissect the relationship between variant mtr alleles and azithromycin resistance. We find that the locus encompassing the mtrR transcriptional repressor and the mtrCDE pump is a hot spot of interspecific recombination introducing alleles from Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica into N...
August 7, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085111/malignant-and-nonmalignant-complications-of-the-rectal-stump-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Joren R Ten Hove, Jonathan M K Bogaerts, Michiel T J Bak, Miangela M Laclé, Vincent Meij, Lauranne A A P Derikx, Frank Hoentjen, Nofel Mahmmod, Sebastiaan A van Tuyl, Bas Oldenburg
Background: Patients with refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might require a subtotal colectomy with construction of an ileostomy. Due to the risk of nerve damage and pelvic sepsis, the diverted rectum is often left in situ. Evidence on long-term complications of this rectal stump is limited, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In addition to the risk of development of neoplasia, diversion proctitis is a frequently reported rectal stump associated complication...
August 1, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081821/evolution-of-almond-genetic-diversity-and-farmer-practices-in-lebanon-impacts-of-the-diffusion-of-a-graft-propagated-cultivar-in-a-traditional-system-based-on-seed-propagation
#5
Bariaa Hamadeh, Lamis Chalak, Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Laure Benoit, Hélène I Joly
BACKGROUND: Under cultivation, many outcrossing fruit tree species have switched from sexual reproduction to vegetative propagation. Traditional production systems have persisted, where cultivar propagation is based on a mixed reproductive system. For millenia, almond, Prunus dulcis, has been propagated by seeds. Almond grafting remained of little importance until recently. In Lebanon, both sexual and clonal reproductions are used for almond propagation. We used 15 microsatellite markers to investigate the effect of introducing graft-propagated cultivars and associated practices, on the structure of the genetic diversity among and within the two main Lebanese cultivars...
August 6, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078566/olfactory-landmark-based-communication-in-interacting-drosophila
#6
Damien Mercier, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Kazumi Ohta, Hokto Kazama
To communicate with conspecifics, animals deploy various strategies to release pheromones, chemical signals modulating social and sexual behaviors [1-5]. Importantly, a single pheromone induces different behaviors depending on the context and exposure dynamics [6-8]. Therefore, to comprehend the ethological role of pheromones, it is essential to characterize how neurons in the recipients respond to temporally and spatially fluctuating chemical signals emitted by donors during natural interactions. In Drosophila melanogaster, the male pheromone 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) [9] activates specific olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) [10, 11] to regulate diverse social and sexual behaviors in recipients [12-15]...
July 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057280/the-2018-revision-to-the-process-of-care-model-for-evaluation-of-erectile-dysfunction
#7
REVIEW
John P Mulhall, Annamaria Giraldi, Geoff Hackett, Wayne J G Hellstrom, Emmanuele A Jannini, Eusebio Rubio-Aurioles, Landon Trost, Tarek A Hassan
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition that may affect men of all ages; in 1999, a Process of Care Model was developed to provide clinicians with recommendations regarding the evaluation and management of ED. AIM: To reflect the evolution of the study of ED since 1999, this update to the process of care model presents health care providers with a tool kit to facilitate patient interactions, comprehensive evaluation, and counseling for ED. METHODS: A cross-disciplinary panel of international experts met to propose updates to the 1999 process of care model from a global perspective...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057278/the-2018-revision-to-the-process-of-care-model-for-management-of-erectile-dysfunction
#8
John P Mulhall, Annamaria Giraldi, Geoff Hackett, Wayne J G Hellstrom, Emmanuele A Jannini, Eusebio Rubio-Aurioles, Landon Trost, Tarek A Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition the treatment of which over the years has expanded from specialty care settings to various other clinical settings. A Process of Care Model was developed in 1999 to provide primary care physicians with guidance in the diagnosis and management of ED. AIM: This update to the Process of Care Model aims to reflect current ED management practices, because the study of ED has changed since 1999. METHODS: Updates to the Process of Care Model were developed during a meeting of international experts from diverse disciplines...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051852/lower-bumblebee-colony-reproductive-success-in-agricultural-compared-with-urban-environments
#9
Ash E Samuelson, Richard J Gill, Mark J F Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater
Urbanization represents a rapidly growing driver of land-use change. While it is clear that urbanization impacts species abundance and diversity, direct effects of urban land use on animal reproductive success are rarely documented. Here, we show that urban land use is linked to long-term colony reproductive output in a key pollinator. We reared colonies from wild-caught bumblebee ( Bombus terrestris ) queens, placed them at sites characterized by varying degrees of urbanization from inner city to rural farmland and monitored the production of sexual offspring across the entire colony cycle ...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050677/a-decentralised-multidisciplinary-model-of-care-facilitates-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-in-regional-australia
#10
EDITORIAL
Andrew Lee, Josh Hanson, Penny Fox, Greg Spice, Darren Russell, Peter Boyd
Objectives: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has excellent cure rates and minimal side effects. Despite the high burden of disease, strategies to ultimately eradicate HCV are being developed. However, the delivery of care in regional settings is challenging and the efficacy of decentralised models of care is incompletely defined. Methods: A prospective cohort study of patients whose treatment was initiated or supervised by Cairns Hospital, a tertiary hospital which provides services to a culturally diverse population across a 380,748 km2 area in regional Australia...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044845/-free-testing-and-prep-without-outing-myself-to-parents-motivation-to-participate-in-oral-and-injectable-prep-clinical-trials-among-adolescent-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Celia B Fisher, Adam L Fried, Leah Ibrahim Puri, Kathryn Macapagal, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Adolescent men who have sex with men (AMSM) account for disproportionately high numbers of new HIV diagnoses. Non-adherence to daily use limiting the effectiveness of oral PrEP (Truvada) has led to current trials with adult MSM testing Cabotegravir, a long-term injectable medication. Once comparative studies with young adult MSM have established relative safety and efficacy of these medications, there will be a need for such comparative trials involving adolescents. Trends in state laws and IRB protocol review indicate that many of these studies will permit youth to provide independent consent for participation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032185/sex-and-the-flower-developmental-aspects-of-sex-chromosome-evolution
#12
Roman Hobza, Vojtech Hudzieczek, Zdenek Kubat, Radim Cegan, Boris Vyskot, Eduard Kejnovsky, Bohuslav Janousek
Background: The evolution of dioecious plants is occasionally accompanied by the establishment of sex chromosomes: both XY and ZW systems have been found in plants. Structural studies of sex chromosomes are now being followed up by functional studies that are gradually shedding light on the specific genetic and epigenetic processes that shape the development of separate sexes in plants. Scope: This review describes sex determination diversity in plants and the genetic background of dioecy, summarizes recent progress in the investigation of both classical and emerging model dioecious plants and discusses novel findings...
July 18, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029728/dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-and-its-sulfate-dhea-s-in-mammalian-reproduction-known-roles-and-novel-paradigms
#13
Bindu N Chimote, Natchandra M Chimote
Steroid hormones form an integral part of normal development in mammalian organisms. Cholesterol is the parent compound from which all steroid hormones are synthesized. The product pregnenolone formed from cholesterol serves as precursor for mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its derived sexual hormones. DHEA assumes the prohormone status of a predominant endogenous precursor and a metabolic intermediate in ovarian follicular steroidogenesis. DHEA supplementation has been used to enhance ovarian reserve...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024965/multi-locus-sequence-typing-of-treponema-pallidum-subsp-pallidum-present-in-clinical-samples-from-france-infecting-treponemes-are-genetically-diverse-and-belong-to-18-allelic-profiles
#14
Petra Pospíšilová, Philippe Alain Grange, Linda Grillová, Lenka Mikalová, Pervenche Martinet, Michel Janier, Annie Vermersch, Nadjet Benhaddou, Pascal Del Giudice, Isabelle Alcaraz, François Truchetet, Nicolas Dupin, David Šmajs
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of sexually transmitted syphilis, detected in clinical samples from France, was subjected to molecular typing using the recently developed Multilocus Sequence Typing system. The samples (n = 133) used in this study were collected from 2010-2016 from patients with diagnosed primary or secondary syphilis attending outpatient centers or hospitals in several locations in France. Altogether, 18 different allelic profiles were found among the fully typed samples (n = 112)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017717/sexual-health-knowledge-of-u-s-medical-students-a-national-survey
#15
Christina Warner, Samantha Carlson, Renee Crichlow, Michael W Ross
BACKGROUND: Sexual health is a critical component of overall wellness; however, only half of U.S. medical schools currently require formal instruction in sexuality. AIM: This study sought to quantify the sexual health knowledge of undergraduate medical students using a novel survey tool evaluating 6 domains: sexual function and dysfunction; fertility and reproduction; sexuality across the lifespan; sexual minority health; society, culture, and behavior; as well as safety and prevention...
August 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016477/speek-effect-evaluation-of-a-ghanaian-school-based-and-peer-led-sexual-education-programme
#16
John K Krugu, Fraukje E F Mevissen, Gerard Van Breukelen, Robert A C Ruiter
In sub-Saharan Africa, theory and evidenced-based interventions that are systematically designed and using sound evaluation methods to report on effectiveness are limited. A sex education programme called SPEEK was developed, implemented and evaluated in Ghana using the Intervention Mapping approach. SPEEK aimed at delaying sexual initiation, reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and preventing pregnancy, targeting junior high school students in a West African rural setting. The final programme included 11 (interactive) lessons using a diverse range of theory-based methods...
August 1, 2018: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009425/the-state-of-sex-research-in-mft-and-family-studies-literature-a-seventeen-year-content-analysis
#17
Adam C Jones, Natalie C Johnson, Sydney Wenglein, Sara T Elshershaby
The ability to conceptualize and treat sexual problems has been widely accepted as a crucial skill to master the MFT training. However, clients' sexual relationships are often ignored by clinicians because of a lack of experience or training, or personal discomfort. In this content analysis, we review sex and sex therapy research within MFT and family studies journals since the turn of the century. Of the 13,919 articles published within the 15 journals, 137 focused on sexuality or sex therapy. The articles were divided into five themes: sexual and relational health, sexual diversity, treatment and contributors of sexual dysfunction, sex therapy practices, and sexual education and development...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007571/uv-chromosomes-and-haploid-sexual-systems
#18
REVIEW
Susana Margarida Coelho, Josselin Gueno, Agnieszka Paulina Lipinska, Jeremy Mark Cock, James G Umen
The evolution of sex determination continues to pose major questions in biology. Sex-determination mechanisms control reproductive cell differentiation and development of sexual characteristics in all organisms, from algae to animals and plants. While the underlying processes defining sex (meiosis and recombination) are conserved, sex-determination mechanisms are highly labile. In particular, a flow of new discoveries has highlighted several fascinating features of the previously understudied haploid UV sex determination and related mating systems found in diverse photosynthetic taxa including green algae, bryophytes, and brown algae...
July 11, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003511/physical-and-mental-health-inequalities-among-aging-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-canadians-cross-sectional-results-from-the-canadian-longitudinal-study-on-aging-clsa
#19
Arne Stinchcombe, Kimberley Wilson, Katherine Kortes-Miller, Lori Chambers, Bruce Weaver
OBJECTIVE: International estimates suggest the presence of health inequalities among older sexual minorities (i.e., individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and are 65 years old or above). In this study, we investigated the presence of health inequalities among aging lesbian and bisexual females, as well as aging gay and bisexual males in Canada. METHODS: We used baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) Tracking and Comprehensive cohorts to cross-sectionally compare self-reported physical and mental health indicators by sex and sexual orientation...
July 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992368/female-chemical-signalling-underlying-reproduction-in-mammals
#20
REVIEW
Holly A Coombes, Paula Stockley, Jane L Hurst
Chemical communication plays many key roles in mammalian reproduction, although attention has focused particularly on male scent signalling. Here, we review evidence that female chemical signals also play important roles in sexual attraction, in mediating reproductive competition and cooperation between females, and in maternal care, all central to female reproductive success. Female odours function not only to advertise sexual receptivity and location, they can also have important physiological priming effects on male development and sperm production...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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