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Medicinal Plants Review

Alfred Maroyi
Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. is a plant species regarded as an important fruit tree and medicinal plant in sub-Saharan Africa. This study critically reviewed the nutritional value, phytochemistry, medicinal uses, and pharmacological properties of V. madagascariensis . Relevant information on food and medicinal uses of the species was collected from electronic databases such as ISI Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, OATD, Scopus, OpenThesis, PubMed, and Google Scholar, and preelectronic literatures were obtained from the university library covering the period 1966 to 2018...
2018: Scientifica
Arezoo Rajabian, Maryam Rameshrad, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Ginseng, Panax ginseng, has been used for various diseases and proven its great efficacy in managing central nervous system diseases. Area covered: This article covers the therapeutic potential of patents on ginseng and its active constituents to develop therapies for neurodegenerative and neurological disorders, since 2010. The literature review was provided using multiple search engines including Google Patent, Espacenet and US Patent in the field of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive, and neurological disorders...
December 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Ben-Mei Zhang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Ping Xin, Qiu-Hong Wang, He Bu, Hai-Xue Kuang
The genus Ephedra of the Ephedraceae family contains more than 60 species of nonflowering seed plants distributed throughout Asia, America, Europe, and North Africa. These Ephedra species have medicinal, ecological, and economic value. This review aims to summarize the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Ephedra species to unveil opportunities for future research. Comprehensive information on the Ephedra species was collected by electronic search (e.g., GoogleScholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, and Web of Science) and phytochemical books...
November 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Chao Zhao, Chengfeng Yang, Sydney Tang Chi Wai, Yanbo Zhang, Maria P Portillo, Paolo Paoli, Yijing Wu, Wai San Cheang, Bin Liu, Christian Carpéné, Jianbo Xiao, Hui Cao
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent disease and becoming a serious public health threat worldwide. It is a severe endocrine metabolic disorder that has the ability to induce serious complications in all kinds of organs. Although mechanisms of anti-diabetics have been described before, we focus here on the cellular and physiological mechanisms involved in the modulation of insulin and glucose blood levels. As obesity and inflammation are intimately associated with the development of T2DM, their possible relationships are also described...
December 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Da-Cheng Hao, Pei-Gen Xiao, Chang Liu
Around 70-80% of drugs used in traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) come from Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the majority of which are plants. The biological and medicinal culture diversity on Qinghai Tibet Plateau are amazing and constitute a less tapped resource for innovative drug research and development. Meanwhile, the problem of the exhausting Tibetan medicine resources is worrying. Here, the latest awareness, as well as the gaps of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant issues in drug development and clinical usage of TTM compounds, was systematically reviewed and highlighted...
November 30, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Anuradha Thakur, Yoon Sun Chun, Natasha October, Hyun Ok Yang, Vinesh Maharaj
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Twenty South African medicinal plant species were selected by conducting a literature review based on the relevant information of their reported traditional medicinal uses and scientific reports against Alzheimer's disease, dementia, anxiety, mental illness, depression, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, headache, epilepsy, convulsion, hysteria, and sedative effects. AIM OF STUDY: The goal of this study was to investigate the biological activity of the traditionally used medicinal plant extracts against Alzheimer's disease by in vitro screening of the extracts to determine their potential to decrease levels of Aβ42 protein...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anastasios Toumpanakis, Triece Turnbull, Isaura Alba-Barba
Diet interventions have suggested an association between plant-based diets and improvements in psychological well-being, quality of life and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) control in populations with diabetes. The aims of this review are to systematically analyze the available literature on plant-based diet interventions targeting diabetes in adults and to clearly define the benefits on well-being of such interventions. This is a systematic review of controlled trials. A computerized systematic literature search was conducted in the following electronic databases: Allied and Complementary Medicine, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, E-Journals, Excerpta Medica Database, MEDLINE, Health Management Information Consortium, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed, SocINDEX and Web of Science...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Sandeep B Subramanya, Balaji Venkataraman, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran, Sameer N Goyal, Chandragouda R Patil, Shreesh Ojha
Acetaminophen (APAP), which is also known as paracetamol or N -acetyl- p -aminophenol is a safe and potent drug for fever, pain and inflammation when used at its normal therapeutic doses. It is available as over-the-counter drug and used by all the age groups. The overdose results in acute liver failure that often requires liver transplantation. Current clinical therapy for APAP-induced liver toxicity is the administration of N -acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a sulphydryl compound an approved drug which acts by replenishing cellular glutathione (GSH) stores in the liver...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yu Li, Jian-Guo Jiang
Anthraquinone compounds with the anthraquinone ring structure are widely found in traditional Chinese medicines and they are attracting a lot of attention due to their good pharmacological activity. Diversities of anthraquinones depend on their chemical structures, such as the number of anthraquinone rings and the substituents; what's more, the difference in chemical structure determines the difference in physiological activity. Based on results of previous studies, this review summarizes several natural anthraquinones identified from Chinese herbal medicines and their physiological activities including anti-cancer, anti-pathogenic microorganisms, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, anti-osteoporosis, anti-depression, and anti-constipation...
November 28, 2018: Food & Function
Flavio Francini, Guillermo R Schinella, José-Luis Ríos
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by permanent hyperglycemia, whose development can be prevented or delayed by using therapeutic agents and implementing lifestyle changes. Some therapeutic alternatives include regulation of glycemia through modulation of different mediators and enzymes, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a highly relevant cellular energy sensor for metabolic homeostasis regulation, with particular relevance in the modulation of liver and muscle insulin sensitivity...
November 28, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Onur Hasturk, David L Kaplan
Unlike unicellular organisms and plant cells surrounded with a cell wall, naked plasma membranes of mammalian cells make them more susceptible to environmental stresses encountered during in vitro biofabrication and in vivo cell therapy applications. Recent advances in micro- and nanoencapsulation of single mammalian cells provide an effective strategy to isolate cells from their surroundings and protect them against harsh environmental conditions. Microemulsification and droplet-based microfluidics have enabled researchers to encapsulate single cells within a variety of microscale hydrogel materials with a range of biochemical and mechanical properties and functionalities including enhanced cell-matrix interactions or on-demand degradation...
November 24, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Lian-Ying Liao, Yi-Fan He, Li Li, Hong Meng, Yin-Mao Dong, Fan Yi, Pei-Gen Xiao
Modern studies have shown that adaptogens can non-specifically enhance the resistance of human body under a wide range of external stress conditions with a multi-targeted and multi-channel network-like manner, especially by affect the immune-neuro-endocrine system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This review article draws the attention to the relationships of adaptogens, tonics from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and ginseng-like herbs worldwide, which all have similar plant sources and clinical applications...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Andréia C F Salgueiro, Vanderlei Folmer, Felipa E M Bassante, Márcia H S Cardoso, Hemerson S da Rosa, Gustavo O Puntel
BACKGROUND: There are several ways to identify medicinal power of phytoconstituents, such as in silico evaluations. Furthermore, ethnopharmacological researches are important alternatives for the identification of plants with medicinal potential. Significantly, medicinal plants are widely used by persons with Diabetes mellitus (DM) to treat manifestations of this syndrome. OBJECTIVES: i) to investigate the use of medicinal plants for individuals with DM and their health profile; ii) to evaluate in silico possible antidiabetic activities for main phytoconstituents of the commonly used plants...
December 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Duangjai Tungmunnithum, Darawan Pinthong, Christophe Hano
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. has been used as an important ingredient for traditional medicines since ancient times, especially in Asian countries. Nowadays, many new or unknown phytochemical compounds from N. nucifera are still being discovered. Most of the current research about pharmacological activity focus on nuciferine, many other alkaloids, phenolic compounds, etc. However, there is no current review emphasizing on flavonoids, which is one of the potent secondary metabolites of this species and its pharmacological activities...
November 23, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Fatai Oladunni Balogun, Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
South Africa contains 9% of the world's higher plants, and despite its rich biodiversity, it has one of the highest prevalence of hypertension in Africa. This review provides information on medicinal plants embraced in South Africa for hypertension management, with the aim of reporting pharmacological information on the indigenous use of these plants as antihypertensives. This review not only focuses on the activity of antihypertensive medicinal plants but also reports some of its phytochemical constituents and other ethnopharmacological and therapeutic properties...
November 26, 2018: Planta Medica
L Cong, Y Zhao, A I Pogue, W J Lukiw
Both plants and animals have adopted a common strategy of using ~18-25-nucleotide small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), known as microRNAs (miRNAs), to transmit DNA-based epigenetic information. miRNAs (i) shape the total transcriptional output of individual cells; (ii) regulate and fine-tune gene expression profiles of cell clusters, and (iii) modulate cell phenotype in response to environmental stimuli and stressors. These miRNAs, the smallest known carriers of gene-encoded post-transcriptional regulatory information, not only regulate cellular function in healthy cells but also act as important mediators in the development of plant and animal diseases...
September 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Zefeng Zhao, Xirui He, Wei Han, Xufei Chen, Peiliang Liu, Xue Zhao, Xing Wang, Lixin Zhang, Shaoping Wu, Xiaohui Zheng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried fruit of Tetradium ruticarpum is frequently utilized as a common traditional medicine in China, Japan and Korea. It has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases such as headache, menorrhalgia, dermatophytosis, celialgia, emesis and aphtha and so on. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: Despite the wide biological activities of Tetradium plants, there is no current review summarizing medicinal properties of the genus of plants; thus, this review aims to systematically summarize studies on botanical characteristics, traditional uses, phytochemical ingredients, quality control, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological activities and toxicity of Tetradium species to demonstrate their therapeutic capacity...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Chetna Bakshi, Allison M Barrett
BACKGROUND: As medicinal and recreational marijuana use broadens across the United States, knowledge of its effects on the body will become increasingly important to all health care providers, including surgeons. DATA SOURCES: We performed a literature review of Pubmed for articles discussing the basic science related to cannabinoids, as well as articles regarding cannabinoid medications, and cannabis use in surgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: The primary components in the cannabis plant, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), have been made available in numerous forms and formulations to treat multiple medical conditions, and recreational access to marijuana is increasing...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Richa Sood, Dimple Sethi Chopra
BACKGROUND: Since ancient times, potential of plants in research and medicine have found pronounced applications, due to better therapeutic value. To meet the mounting demands for commercial nanoparticles, novel eco-friendly methods of synthesis has led to a remarkable progress via unfolding a green synthesis protocol towards metallic nanoparticles synthesis. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: This review highlights the biological synthesis of various metallic nanoparticles as safe, cost effective process, where the phytochemicals present in extract such as flavonoid, phenols, terpenoids act as capping, reducing and stabilizing agents...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira-Júnior, Christiane Adrielly Alves Ferraz, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Camila Souza Araújo, Layanne Feitosa da Silva Oliveira, Laurent Picot, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Pedro José Rolim-Neto, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
BACKGROUND: Cnidoscolus is a genus belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family, distributed in South American countries, such as Mexico and Brazil, which includes several species widely used in folk medicine. However, the genus is not sufficiently exploited from a chemical and pharmacological point of view. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: This paper aims to present a systematic review of known pharmacological and chemical aspects from Cnidoscolus, an important genus for South America research groups on medicinal plants...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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