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Medicinal Plants Review

Zeinab Nazarian-Samani, Robert D E Sewell, Zahra Lorigooini, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review describes evidence concerning medicinal plants that, in addition to exerting hypoglycemic effects, decrease accompanying complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). RECENT FINDINGS: Studies on the antidiabetic mechanisms of medicinal plants have shown that most of them produce hypoglycemic activity by stimulating insulin secretion, augmenting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), inhibiting α-amylase or α-glucosidase, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, free radical scavenging plus antioxidant activity (against reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)), up-regulating or elevating translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), and preventing development of insulin resistance...
August 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Leng Wei Khoo, Siew Audrey Kow, Ming Tatt Lee, Chin Ping Tan, Khozirah Shaari, Chau Ling Tham, Faridah Abas
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau (Acanthaceae), commonly known as Sabah snake grass, is a vegetable and a well-known herb that is considered an alternative medicine for insect bites, skin rashes, herpes infection, inflammation, and cancer and for health benefits. Current review aims to provide a well-tabulated repository of the phytochemical screening, identification and quantification, and the pharmacological information of C. nutans according to the experimental design and the plant preparation methods which make it outstanding compared to existing reviews...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Aicha Hennia, Maria Graça Miguel, Said Nemmiche
Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) and Myrtus nivellei Batt. & Trab. (Saharan myrtle) have been used in folk medicine for alleviating some ailments. M. communis is largely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, whereas M. nivellei is confined in specific zones of the central Saharan mountains. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry and leaf extracts isolated from myrtle are deeply documented, whereas those isolated from Saharan myrtle extracts are less studied. In both species, the major groups of constituents include gallic acid derivatives, flavonols, flavonol derivatives, and hydroxybenzoic acids...
August 11, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Bachir Benarba, Atanasio Pandiella
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the world. Although recent advances in chemotherapy have improved management and survival of colorectal cancer patients, side effects and resistance to chemotherapy have shown the limitations of current chemotherapy and led to the search for alternative treatments. In this context, medicinal plants provide a large number of molecules with proven cytotoxic and apoptogenic activities against several types of cancers including colorectal cancer. These molecules belong to various phytochemical families and trigger different signaling pathways...
August 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Irina Pereira, Patrícia Severino, Ana C Santos, Amélia M Silva, Eliana B Souto
The medicinal properties of essential oils from aromatic plants are known since antiquity. Currently, the technological innovation enabled the reinvention of the ancient plant knowledge leading to the identification and extraction of organic compounds present in essential oils. These organic compounds belong mainly to the terpene group and are accountable for the wide range of bioactive properties attributed to essential oils. Linalool (C10 H18 O), so-called 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, is a monoterpene alcohol broadly present as a major constituent of plant essential oils, particularly lavender and coriander...
August 3, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xinxin Zhang, Guanqun Zhan, Ming Jin, Hui Zhang, Jun Dang, Yan Zhang, Zengjun Guo, Yoichiro Ito
BACKGROUND: Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, commonly known as Qinjiao (in Chinese), is dried roots of medicinal plants that belong to Gentianaceae family and Gentiana genus. It has medically been used for the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, stroke, facial paralysis, and scapulohumeral periarthritis in China since ancient times. PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and constructive overview of Qinjiao mainly containing Gentiana macrophylla Pall...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Maria Carla Marcotullio, Massimo Curini, Judith X Becerra
The genus Bursera belongs to the family Burseraceae and has been used in traditional Mexican medicine for treating various pathophysiological disorders. The most representative phytochemicals isolated from this genus are terpenoids and lignans. Lignans are phenolic metabolites known for their antioxidant, apoptotic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-protozoal properties. Though the genus includes more than 100 species, we have attempted to summarize the biological activities of the 34 lignans isolated from selected Mexican Bursera plants...
August 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Massimo Bortolotti, Andrea Bolognesi, Letizia Polito
Bougainvillea ( Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.) is a plant widely used in folk medicine and many extracts from different tissues of this plant have been employed against several pathologies. The observation that leaf extracts of Bougainvillea possess antiviral properties led to the purification and characterization of a protein, named bouganin, which exhibits typical characteristics of type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs). Beyond that, bouganin has some peculiarities, such as a higher activity on DNA with respect to ribosomal RNA, low systemic toxicity, and immunological properties quite different than other RIPs...
August 8, 2018: Toxins
Tarmo Nuutinen
Cannabaceae plants Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus lupulus L. are rich in terpenes - both are typically comprised of terpenes as up to 3-5% of the dry-mass of the female inflorescence. Terpenes of cannabis and hops are typically simple mono- and sesquiterpenes derived from two and three isoprene units, respectively. Some terpenes are relatively well known for their potential in biomedicine and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, while others are yet to be studied in detail. The current, comprehensive review presents terpenes found in cannabis and hops...
August 4, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
T G Sahana, P D Rekha
Wound is a growing healthcare challenge affecting several million worldwide. Lifestyle disorders such as diabetes increases the risk of wound complications. Effective management of wound is often difficult due to the complexity in the healing process. Addition to the conventional wound care practices, the bioactive polymers are gaining increased importance in wound care. Biopolymers are naturally occurring biomolecules synthesized by microbes, plants and animals with highest degree of biocompatibility. The bioactive properties such as antimicrobial, immune-modulatory, cell proliferative and angiogenic of the polymers create a microenvironment favorable for the healing process...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Paweł Kafarski, Michał Talma
Urease is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme found in plants, some bacteria, and fungi. Bacterial enzyme is of special importance since it has been demonstrated as a potent virulence factor for some species. Especially it is central to Helicobacter pylori metabolism and virulence being necessary for its colonization of the gastric mucosa, and is a potent immunogen that elicits a vigorous immune response. Therefore, it is not surprising that efforts to design, synthesize and evaluate of new inhibitors of urease are and active field of medicinal chemistry...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Birendra Kumar Paikra, Hemant Kumar J Dhongade, Bina Gidwani
Moringa oleifera Lam . or munga is one of the most important plant widely cultivated in India. It belongs to family Moringaceae. This plant is widely used as nutritional herb and contains valuable pharmacological action like anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti- fertility, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, CNS activity, anti-allergic, wound healing, analgesic, and antipyretic activity, Moringa oleifera Lam . The plant is also known as Horse - radish tree, Drumstick tree...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Pushpendra Singh, Mohammad Yasir, Risha Hazarika, Sunisha Sugunan, Rahul Shrivastava
Objectives: Medicinal plants are vital sources of bioactive compounds that are useful for the treatment of patients with snake bites or are indirectly applicable for boosting the effects of conventional serum therapy. These plants are being used traditionally by local healers and tribes for the treatment of patients with snake bites and therefore can be used as an alternative against snake envenomation. Scientifically, using the secondary metabolites of plants to neutralize venom enzymes has an extra benefit of being based on traditional knowledge; also, the use of such metabolites for the treatment of patients with snake bites is cheaper and the treatment can be started sooner...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Hamid Mollazadeh, Amir R Afshari, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Nigella sativa ( N. sativa , family Ranunculaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used for centuries throughout the world as a natural remedy. A wide range of chemical compounds found in N. sativa expresses its vast therapeutic effects. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main component (up to 50%) in the essential oil of N. sativa . Also, pinene (up to 15%), p-cymene (40%), thymohydroquinone (THQ), thymol (THY), and dithymoquinone (DTQ) are other pharmacologically active compounds of its oil. Other terpenoid compounds, such as carvacrol, carvone, 4-terpineol, limonenes, and citronellol, are also found in small quantities in its oil...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Michelle M C Buckner, Maria Laura Ciusa, Laura J V Piddock
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem hindering treatment of bacterial infections, rendering many aspects of modern medicine less effective. AMR genes (ARGs), are frequently located on plasmids, which are self-replicating elements of DNA. They are often transmissible between bacteria, and some have spread globally. Novel strategies to combat AMR are needed, and plasmid curing and anti-plasmid approaches could reduce ARG prevalence, and sensitize bacteria to antibiotics. We discuss the use of curing agents as laboratory tools including chemicals (e...
July 30, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Santosh G Lavhale, Raviraj M Kalunke, Ashok P Giri
The 4-coumarate-CoA ligases (4CL) contribute in channelizing flux of different phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways. Expression of 4CL is optimized at developmental stages and in response to environmental triggers such as biotic and abiotic stresses. The enzyme is valuable in metabolic pathway engineering for curcuminoids, resveratrol, biofuel production and nutritional improvement. Vigorous analysis of regulation at functional and expression level is obligatory to attain efficient commercial production of candidate metabolites using 4CL...
August 4, 2018: Planta
Shi-Gang Zheng, Ya-Dong Hu, Ruo-Xi Zhao, Shou Yan, Xue-Qin Zhang, Ting-Mei Zhao, Ze Chun
This review summarizes current knowledge of chromosome characterization, genetic mapping, genomic sequencing, quality formation, floral transition, propagation, and identification in Dendrobium. The widely distributed Dendrobium has been studied for a long history, due to its important economic values in both medicine and ornamental. In recent years, some species of Dendrobium and other orchids had been reported on genomic sequences, using the next-generation sequencing technology. And the chloroplast genomes of many Dendrobium species were also revealed...
July 31, 2018: Planta
Wilson R Tavares, Ana M L Seca
Background: Plants and their derived natural compounds possess various biological and therapeutic properties, which turns them into an increasing topic of interest and research. Juniperus genus is diverse in species, with several traditional medicines reported, and rich in natural compounds with potential for development of new drugs. Methods: The research for this review were based in the Scopus and Web of Science databases using terms combining Juniperus , secondary metabolites names, and biological activities...
July 31, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Yinxian Shi, Aye Mya Mon, Yu Zhang, Yao Fu, Chen Wang, Xuefei Yang, Yuhua Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A new field of enthnopharmacology has opened, where pharmacological studies draw their attention from the conventional only-medicine approach towards the dietary dimension. The uses of Ficus species in the human diet have been extensively documented by ethnobotanical field surveyors. Overlap commonly exist between the dietary and medicinal selection of Ficus species but not for choices of the plant parts and development stages, which leave a large space for ethnopharmacological study...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Saikat Gantait, Maiada M El-Dawayati, Jitendriya Panigrahi, Catherine Labrooy, Sandeep Kumar Verma
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important fruit trees that contribute a major part to the economy of Middle East and North African countries. It is quintessentially called "tree of life" owing to its resilience to adverse climatic conditions, along with manifold nutritional-cum-medicinal attributes that comes from its fruits and other plant parts. Being a tree with such immense utility, it has gained substantial attention of tree breeders for its genetic advancement via in vitro biotechnological interventions...
July 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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