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Medicinal Plants Review

Tjaša Ekar, Samo Kreft
Due to the growing trend of returning to nature and the fear of adverse reactions from conventional medicines, people are increasingly resorting to the use of herbal preparations. Because of long-term use and natural origin these preparations give a sense of security. But herbal formulations also possess undesirable effects and, among other dangers, present a risk connected with deliberate addition of synthetic compounds, deliberate or unintentional replacement of the plant species or simply a risk of mislabeling...
October 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Denita Biyanda Utami, Ardi Findyartini
BACKGROUND: diabetes has become a major public health concern with an estimated 180 million cases worldwide. Nutritional changes are one of the key aspects in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diets and improvements in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus, however the relationship is not well established. The aim of this report is to perform a critical appraisal to analyze whether plant-based diet reduces the HbA1c level compared to conventional diet...
July 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Madamanchi Geethangili, Shih-Torng Ding
The genus Phyllanthus (L.) is one of the most important groups of plants belonging to the Phyllantaceae family. Phyllanthus urinaria (L.) is an annual perennial herbal species found in tropical Asia, America, China, and the Indian Ocean islands. P. urinaria is used in folk medicine as a cure to treat jaundice, diabetes, malaria, and liver diseases. This review provides traditional knowledge, phytochemistry, and biological activities of P. urinaria . The literature reviewed for this article was obtained from the Web of Science, SciFinder, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar journal papers published prior to December 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Priyanka Chandel, Ravindra K Rawal, Rupinder Kaur
From ancient times, natural products have been continuously used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of various ailments. Many drugs from the natural origin are available in the market as potent medicines. Over expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme is associated with various physical disorders like various types of inflammations associated with cardiovascular diseases or malignancies. The COX-2 inhibitory activity of many active constituents derived from plants is well established in the literature...
October 16, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Yan-Chao Yin, Xiao-Dong Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Gao, Ting Hu, Ying Liu
Chalcone isomerase (CHI) is the second rate-limiting and the first reported enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids. It catalyzes the intramolecular cyclization reaction, converting the bicyclic chalcone into tricyclic (2S)-flavanone. In this paper, we obtained and analyzed 916 DNA sequences, 1310 mRNA sequences, and 2403 amino acid sequences of CHI registered in NCBI by Jan 2018. The full length of CHI DNA sequences ranges from 218 to 3758 bp, CHI mRNA sequences ranges from 265 to 1436 bp, and CHI amino acid sequences ranges from 35 to 465 amino acid residues...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Jiang-Jiang Qin, Xin Li, Courtney Hunt, Wei Wang, Hui Wang, Ruiwen Zhang
The p53 tumor suppressor plays a major role in controlling the initiation and development of cancer by regulating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, and DNA repair. The MDM2 oncogene is a major negative regulator of p53 that inhibits the activity of p53 and reduces its protein stability. MDM2, p53, and the p53-MDM2 pathway represent well-documented targets for preventing and/or treating cancer. Natural products, especially those from medicinal and food plants, are a rich source for the discovery and development of novel therapeutic and preventive agents against human cancers...
September 2018: Genes & Diseases
Tania Paul, Abhijit Mondal, Tarun Kanti Bandyopadhyay
BACKGROUND: L-ASNase (L-asparagine aminohydrolase EC is used for the conversion of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia and also it was found as an agent of chemotherapeutic property. It is known as an anti-cancer agent and recently it has received an immense attention. The various microorganisms have ability to secrete the L-ASNase. It is famous world-wide as anti-tumour medicine for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphosarcoma. L-ASNase helps in deamination of Asparagine and Glutamine...
October 12, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Joanna Drogosz, Anna Janecka
Sesquiterpene lactones, secondary metabolites of plants, present in a large number of species mostly from the Asteracea family, were used in the traditional medicine of many countries for the treatment of various pathological conditions. They exert a broad range of activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties. The best known sesquiterpene lactones which are already used as drugs or are in clinical trials are artemisinin, thapsigargin and parthenolide. Yet another sesquiterpene lactone, helenalin, an active component of Arnica montana, known for its strong anti-inflammatory activity, has been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat minor injuries...
October 12, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Xufeng Tao, Lianhong Yin, Lina Xu, Jinyong Peng
Currently, the numbers of patients with cancer, fibrosis, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, stroke and osteoporosis are increasing fast and fast. It's critical necessary to discovery lead compounds for new drug development. Dioscin, one active compound in some medicinal plants, has anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, hypolipidemic, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-allergic effects. In recent years, dioscin has reached more and more attention with its potent effects to treat liver, kidney, brain, stomach and intestine damages, and metabolic diseases including diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, hyperuricemia as well as its anti-cancer activities through adjusting multiple targets and multiple signals...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Balraj Singh Gill, Richa Mehra, Navgeet, Sanjeev Kumar
Natural products are rich in several potent bioactive compounds, targeting complex network of proteins involved in various diseases. Vitex negundo (VN), commonly known as "chaste tree", is an ethnobotanically important plant with enormous medicinal properties. Different species of Vitex vary in chemical composition, thus producing different phytochemicals. Several bioactive compounds have been extracted from leaves, seeds, roots in form of volatile oils, flavonoids, lignans, iridoids, terpenes, and steroids...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Joanna Głazowska, Marcin M Kamiński, Marian Kamiński
The review presents general principles for choosing optimal conditions for ecdysteroid separation, identification and isolation using HPLC / TLC techniques in RP, NP-HILIC or NP modes. Analytics of ecdyteroids pose a still insufficiently resolved problem. Plant-derived ecdysteroids are a point of interest of pharmaceutical industry and sport medicine due to their postulated adaptogenic and anabolic properties. In insects, ecdysteroids regulate larval transformation. Maral root (Rhaponticum carthamoides, Leuzea carthamoides), traditional Siberian folk-medicine plant used as stimulant to boost overall health and fitness, is a particularly rich source of a wide variety of phytoecdysteroids...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Nivedita Singh, Ashwinee Kumar Shreshtha, M S Thakur, Sanjukta Patra
Medicinal plants have been the basis for discovery of various important marketed drugs. Xanthine is one such lead molecule. Xanthines in various forms (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, etc) are abode in tea, coffee, cocoa, chocolate etc. giving them popular recognition. These compounds are best known for their diverse pharmaceutical applications as cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibition, antagonization of adenosine receptor, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities...
October 2018: Heliyon
Huan-You Lin, Tzu-Cheng Chang, Shang-Tzen Chang
In the present review article, the phytochemical, antioxidant and pharmacological studies are congregated and summarized concerning the current knowledge of the phenolic compounds of a traditional medical plant Acacia confusa in Taiwan. This plant is native to Taiwan and South-East Asia. It possesses major pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, hepatoprotective effect, xanthine oxidase inhibition, semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase inhibition, angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition, antihyperuricemic effect and anti-inflammatory activity...
October 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Zhiqing Li, Ruodan Xu, Ning Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of single-stranded non-coding RNA of about 22 nucleotides, are potent regulators of gene expression existing in both plants and animals. Recent studies showed that plant miRNAs could enter mammalian bloodstream via gastrointestinal tract, through which access a variety of tissues and cells of recipients to exert therapeutic effects. This intriguing phenomenon indicates that miRNAs of diet/plant origin may act as a new class of bioactive ingredients communicating with mammalian systems...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Junwei He, Arsalan Ahmed, Youxin Yang, Mingxi Li, Chunpeng Wan
Medicinal plants have served humans since prehistoric times to treat various ailments. Both developed and underdeveloped countries rely on traditional systems of medication using natural sources from plants. Phyllanthus is one of the largest genus in the family Phyllanthaceae, comprising over 700 well known species cosmopolitan in distribution mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Phyllanthus species are being in constant used in traditional medications to cure an array of human diseases (constipation, inhalation related, arthritis, loss of appetite, injuries, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea, running nose, common cold, malaria, blennorrhagia, colic, diabetes mellitus, dysentery, indigestion, fever, gout, gonorrheal diseases of males and females, skin itching, jaundice, hepatic disorders, leucorrhea, vaginitis, menstrual irregularities, obesity, stomach pains, and tumors), confectionaries, food industry, and in some pesticides...
October 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Francisco Javier Alvarez-Martinez, Enrique Barrajon-Catalan, Jose Antonio Encinar, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Diaz, Vicente Micol
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug-resistant bacteria such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) disseminate rapidly amongst patients in healthcare facilities and suppose an increasingly important cause of community-associated infections and associated mortality. The development of effective therapeutic options against resistant bacteria is a public health priority. Plant polyphenols are structurally diverse compounds that have been used for centuries for medicinal purposes, including infections treatment...
October 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
A B Oyenihi, C Smith
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Given the severe side effects associated with most of the conventional cancer medications, as well as the expanding body of evidence indicating secondary toxicity of these drugs, individuals with cancer are increasingly turning to natural alternatives. Similarly, the pharmaceutical industry is in search of natural products to treat cancer. An understanding of the specific active components in plant products with which anti-cancer efficacy is achieved is required for this research to move forward...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Raphaelle Sousa Borges, Brenda Lorena Sánchez Ortiz, Arlindo César Matias Pereira, Hady Keita, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plant species Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae; Synonyms: Salvia rosmarinus Schleid. and Rosmarinus angustifolius Mill.) is a herb widely used worldwide. In local and traditional medicine, its used for inflammation-related diseases. Currently, studies report anti-inflammatory activity in its essential oil (EORO). However, to better understand EORO's anti-inflammatory activity its necessary to understand its phytochemistry and the signaling pathways affected by it...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Peile Wang, Jing Yang, Zhenfeng Zhu, Xiaojian Zhang
The stems and roots of Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Wight et Arn., a traditional Chinese medicine and Dai herbal medicine, have been widely used for the treatment of asthma, trachitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, cystitis, pneumonia and drug or food poisoning. Nowadays, the extract of Marsdenia tenacissima, under the trademark of "Xiao-ai-ping", is widely used in clinic for the treatment of different cancers in China. To date, approximately 196 chemical ingredients covering steroids, triterpenes and organic acids have been identified from different parts of this plant...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Maggie Davidson, Sue Reed, Jacques Oosthuizen, Greg O'Donnell, Pragna Gaur, Martyn Cross, Gary Dennis
The legal Australian cannabis industry has been rapidly expanding due to increased awareness of the plant's therapeutic potential, as well its diverse range of applications including biofuel, textiles, building materials, food, nutritional supplement, and animal feed. The objective of this paper is to describe the current landscape of the commercial Australian cannabis industry, summarise occupational health and safety (OHS) hazards in cannabis-related working environments, and provide suggestions for safeguarding worker health and well-being in this emerging industry...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
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