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Neuronal Plasticity Review

Luis Enrique Arroyo-Garcia, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores
Apomorphine is a non-specific dopamine receptor agonist that has been used in the treatment of some diseases and mental disorders. Its use has particularly well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD). The dopaminergic agonists like apomorphine are related to oxidative processes that could induce cell damage and the functional impairment of some structures in the brain. However, most information about apomorphine in literature is focused on the improvement of the motor problems characteristic of PD, but little is known about the effects on cognitive behaviors and brain structures indirectly related to motor function...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Elodie Perrin, Laurent Venance
The striatum, the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, controls goal-directed behavior and procedural learning. Striatal projection neurons integrate glutamatergic inputs from cortex and thalamus together with neuromodulatory systems, and are subjected to plasticity. Striatal projection neurons exhibit bidirectional plasticity (LTP and LTD) when exposed to Hebbian paradigms. Importantly, correlative and even causal links between procedural learning and striatal plasticity have recently been shown. This short review summarizes the current view on striatal plasticity (with a focus on spike-timing-dependent plasticity), recent studies aiming at bridging in vivo skill acquisition and striatal plasticity, the temporal credit-assignment problem, and the gaps that remain to be filled...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
César Rennó-Costa, Ana Claudia Costa, Wilfredo Blanco, Sidarta Ribeiro
The brain stores memories by persistently changing the connectivity between neurons. Sleep is known to be critical for these changes to endure. Research on the neurobiology of sleep and the mechanisms of long-term synaptic plasticity has provided data in support of various theories of how brain activity during sleep affects long-term synaptic plasticity. The experimental findings - and therefore the theories - are apparently quite contradictory, with some evidence pointing to a role of sleep in the forgetting of irrelevant memories, whereas other results indicate that sleep supports the reinforcement of the most valuable recollections...
October 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Idris A Azeez, Federico Del Gallo, Luigia Cristino, Marina Bentivoglio
In the heterogeneous hub represented by the lateral hypothalamus, neurons containing the orexin/hypocretin peptides play a key role in vigilance state transitions and wakefulness stability, energy homeostasis, and other functions relevant for motivated behaviors. Orexin neurons, which project widely to the neuraxis, are innervated by multiple extra- and intra-hypothalamic sources. A key property of the adaptive capacity of orexin neurons is represented by daily variations of activity, which is highest in the period of the animal's activity and wakefulness...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Edwin E Reza-Zaldivar, Mercedes A Hernández-Sapiéns, Benito Minjarez, Yanet K Gutiérrez-Mercado, Ana L Márquez-Aguirre, Alejandro A Canales-Aguirre
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia affecting regions of the central nervous system that exhibit synaptic plasticity and are involved in higher brain functions such as learning and memory. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction, memory loss and behavioral disturbances of synaptic plasticity and energy metabolism. Cell therapy has emerged as an alternative treatment of AD. The use of adult stem cells, such as neural stem cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and adipose tissue, have the potential to decrease cognitive deficits, possibly by reducing neuronal loss through blocking apoptosis, increasing neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ana Isabel Seixas, Maria Manuela Azevedo, Joana Paes de Faria, Diogo Fernandes, Inês Mendes Pinto, João Bettencourt Relvas
The organization of actin filaments into a wide range of subcellular structures is a defining feature of cell shape and dynamics, important for tissue development and homeostasis. Nervous system function requires morphological and functional plasticity of neurons and glial cells, which is largely determined by the dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to intrinsic and extracellular signals. Oligodendrocytes are specialized glia that extend multiple actin-based protrusions to form the multilayered myelin membrane that spirally wraps around axons, increasing conduction speed and promoting long-term axonal integrity...
October 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Longkai He, Xiaoping Liu, Yanyan Song, Yaping Tang
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a group of common neurodevelopmental disorders whose pathogenesis remains unclear. More than 100 genes have been associated with ASDs, some of which have shown to play important roles in the development and function of synapses, a crucial step of information transmission between neurons. Studies have found abnormalities in synaptic transmission, density, and structures in the brains of autistic patients. NRXN-NLGN-SHANK pathway has been associated with synaptic function of the brain, and its primary role is to regulate synaptic formation, elimination, plasticity and maturation...
October 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Katarzyna Stachowicz
Synaptic plasticity simply put, is the activity‑dependent modification of the strength or efficacy of synaptic transmission in the network of synapses in the brain. The role of synaptic plasticity in disease is an active area of research. Changes in plasticity translate to the release of neurotransmitters at the synapse and subsequently, the way humans see the world. It is known that neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are related to pathological changes in dynamic processes in synapses, dialogue between neurons, and finally, changes in overall plasticity...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Lars Roll, Andreas Faissner
The tenascin family of glycoproteins comprises four members in vertebrates, of which tenascin-C (Tnc) and tenascin-R (Tnr) are particularly important in the context of lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). Tnc is expressed in the developing CNS, before it is down-regulated and mainly restricted to the adult neural stem cell niches. It regulates numerous processes including differentiation, adhesion, migration and neurite outgrowth. These aspects are critical in the developing organism, but also after damage...
October 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Tomoo Hirano
Cerebellar Purkinje neurons are arguably some of the most conspicuous neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system. They have characteristic planar fan-shaped dendrites which branch extensively and fill spaces almost completely with little overlap. This dendritic morphology is well suited to receiving a single or a few excitatory synaptic inputs from each of more than 100,000 parallel fibers which run orthogonally to Purkinje cell dendritic trees. In contrast, another type of excitatory input to a Purkinje neuron is provided by a single climbing fiber, which forms some hundreds to thousands of synapses with a Purkinje neuron...
December 2018: Cerebellum
W Zieglgänsberger
Substance P (SP) is a highly conserved member of the tachykinin peptide family that is widely expressed throughout the animal kingdom. The numerous members of the tachykinin peptide family are involved in a multitude of neuronal signaling pathways, mediating sensations and emotional responses (Steinhoff et al. in Physiol Rev 94:265-301, 2014). In contrast to receptors for classical transmitters, such as glutamate (Parsons et al. in Handb Exp Pharmacol 249-303, 2005), only a minority of neurons in certain brain areas express neurokinin receptors (NKRs) (Mantyh in J Clin Psychiatry 63:6-10, 2002)...
October 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Alberto Granato, Benjamin Dering
The consequences of alcohol drinking during pregnancy are dramatic and usually referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This condition is one of the main causes of intellectual disability in Western countries. The immature fetal brain exposed to ethanol undergoes massive neuron death. However, the same mechanisms leading to cell death can also be responsible for changes of developmental plasticity. As a consequence of such a maladaptive plasticity, the functional damage to central nervous system structures is amplified and leads to permanent sequelae...
September 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Damien Testa, Alain Prochiantz, Ariel A Di Nardo
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) in the brain are condensed glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix structures with heterogeneous composition yet specific organization. They typically assemble around a subset of fast-spiking interneurons that are implicated in learning and memory. Owing to their unique structural organization, PNNs have neuroprotective capacities but also participate in signal transduction and in controlling neuronal activity and plasticity. In this review, we define PNN structure in detail and describe its various biochemical and physiological functions...
October 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Franco Molteni, Giulio Gasperini, Giovanni Cannaviello, Eleonora Guanziroli
Recovery of upper and lower limbs function is essential to reach independence in daily activities in patients with upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS). Rehabilitation can provide a guide for motor recovery influencing the neurobiology of neuronal plasticity providing controlled, repetitive, and variable patterns. Increasing therapy dosage, intensity, number of repetition, execution of task-oriented exercises, and combining top-down and bottom-up approaches can promote plasticity and functional recovery. Robotic exoskeletons for upper and lower limbs, based on the principle of motor learning, have been introduced in neurorehabilitation...
September 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Maria L Arbones, Aurore Thomazeau, Akiko Nakano-Kobayashi, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Jean M Delabar
The dosage of the serine threonine kinase DYRK1A is critical in the central nervous system (CNS) during development and aging. This review analyzes the functions of this kinase by considering its interacting partners and pathways. The role of DYRK1A in controlling the differentiation of prenatal newly formed neurons is presented separately from its role at the pre- and post-synaptic levels in the adult CNS; its effects on synaptic plasticity are also discussed. Because this kinase is positioned at the crossroads of many important processes, dosage medication errors in this protein produce devastating effects arising from DYRK1A deficiency, such as in MRD7, an autism spectrum disorder, or from DYRK1A excess, such as in Down syndrome...
September 27, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Shinhyun Kim, Yinhua Zhang, Chunmei Jin, Yeunkum Lee, Yoonhee Kim, Kihoon Han
In the mammalian brain, neuronal excitatory synaptic development, function, and plasticity largely rely on dynamic, activity-dependent changes in the macromolecular protein complex called the postsynaptic density (PSD). Activity-dependent Lys48-linked polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of key proteins in the PSD have been reported. However, investigations into the functions and regulatory mechanisms of Lys63-linked polyubiquitination, the second most abundant polyubiquitin form in synapses, have recently begun...
September 26, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Syed Shadab Raza, Aurel Popa Wagner, Yawer S Hussain, Mohsin Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative disorders have a complex pathology and are characterized by a progressive loss of neuronal architecture in the brain or spinal cord. Neuroprotective agents have demonstrated promising results at the preclinical stage, but this has not been confirmed at the clinical stage. Thus far, no neuroprotective drug that can prevent neuronal degeneration in patients with neurodegenerative disorders is available. MAIN BODY: Recent studies have focused on neurorestorative measures, such as cell-based therapy, rather than neuroprotective treatment...
September 26, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Julia Mohrhardt, Maximilian Nagel, David Fleck, Yoram Ben-Shaul, Marc Spehr
In many mammalian species, the accessory olfactory system (AOS) plays a central role in guiding behavioral and physiological responses to social and reproductive interactions. Because of its relatively compact structure and its direct access to amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei, the accessory olfactory pathway provides an ideal system to study sensory control of complex mammalian behavior. During the last several years, many studies employing molecular, behavioral, and physiological approaches have significantly expanded and enhanced our understanding of this system...
September 25, 2018: Chemical Senses
Fan Wang, Hailiang Tang, Jianhong Zhu, John H Zhang
Stroke is a major disease that leads to high mortality and morbidity. Given the ageing population and the potential risk factors, the prevalence of stroke and socioeconomic burden associated with stroke are expected to increase. During the past decade, both prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for stroke have made significant progress. However, current therapies still cannot adequately improve the outcomes of stroke and may not apply to all patients. One of the significant advances in modern medicine is cell-derived neurovascular regeneration and neuronal repair...
September 25, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Przemysław Duda, Janusz Wiśniewski, Tomasz Wójtowicz, Olga Wójcicka, Michał Jaśkiewicz, Dominika Drulis-Fajdasz, Dariusz Rakus, James A McCubrey, Agnieszka Gizak
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is at the center of cellular signaling and controls various aspects of brain functions, including development of the nervous system, neuronal plasticity and onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Areas covered: In this review, recent efforts in elucidating the roles of GSK3 in neuronal plasticity and development of brain pathologies; Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and age-related neurodegeneration are described. The effect of microglia and astrocytes on development of the pathological states is also discussed...
September 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
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