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Neuronal Plasticity Review

Wulfram Gerstner, Marco Lehmann, Vasiliki Liakoni, Dane Corneil, Johanni Brea
Most elementary behaviors such as moving the arm to grasp an object or walking into the next room to explore a museum evolve on the time scale of seconds; in contrast, neuronal action potentials occur on the time scale of a few milliseconds. Learning rules of the brain must therefore bridge the gap between these two different time scales. Modern theories of synaptic plasticity have postulated that the co-activation of pre- and postsynaptic neurons sets a flag at the synapse, called an eligibility trace, that leads to a weight change only if an additional factor is present while the flag is set...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Tomáš Zeman, El-Wui Loh, Daniel Čierný, Omar Šerý
Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) has been vastly used commercially, especially as white pigment in paints, colorants, plastics, coatings, cosmetics. Certain industrial uses TiO2 in diameter <100 nm. There are three common exposure routes for TiO2 : (i) inhalation exposure, (ii) exposure via gastrointestinal tract, (iii) dermal exposure. Inhalation and gastrointestinal exposure appear to be the most probable ways of exposure, although nanoparticle (NP) penetration is limited. However, the penetration rate may increase substantially when the tissue is impaired...
September 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Maria Elvira Brocca, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura
The modulation of brain function and behavior by steroid hormones was classically associated with their secretion by peripheral endocrine glands. The discovery that the brain expresses the enzyme aromatase, which produces estradiol from testosterone, expanded this traditional concept. One of the best-studied roles of brain estradiol synthesis is the control of reproductive behavior. In addition, there is increasing evidence that estradiol from neural origin is also involved in a variety of non-reproductive functions...
August 6, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Claire Guerrier, David Holcman
Calcium diffusion in the thin 100 nm layer located between the plasma membrane and docked vesicles in the pre-synaptic terminal of neuronal cells mediates vesicular fusion and synaptic transmission. Accounting for the narrow-cusp geometry located underneath the vesicle is a key ingredient that defines the probability and the time scale of calcium diffusion to bind calcium sensors for the initiation of vesicular release. We review here the time scale, the calcium binding dynamics and the consequences for asynchronous versus synchronous release...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Wayne S Sossin, Mauro Costa-Mattioli
Translational control in neurons is crucially required for long-lasting changes in synaptic function and memory storage. The importance of protein synthesis control to brain processes is underscored by the large number of neurological disorders in which translation rates are perturbed, such as autism and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we review the general principles of neuronal translation, focusing on the particular relevance of several key regulators of nervous system translation, including eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), the mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2)...
August 6, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Silvana Valtcheva, Robert C Froemke
Motherhood in mammals involves tremendous changes throughout the body and central nervous system, which support attention and nurturing of infants. Maternal care consists of complex behaviors, such as nursing and protection of the offspring, requiring new mothers to become highly sensitive to infant needs. Long-lasting neural plasticity in various regions of the cerebral cortex may enable the perception and recognition of infant cues, important for appropriate caregiving responses. Recent findings have demonstrated that the neuropeptide oxytocin is involved in a number of physiological processes, including parturition and lactation and dynamically shaping neuronal responses to infant stimuli as well...
July 30, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Jan Bakos, Annamaria Srancikova, Tomas Havranek, Zuzana Bacova
Aberrant regulation of oxytocin signaling is associated with the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Synaptic dysfunctions in neurodevelopmental disorders are becoming increasingly known, and their pathogenic mechanisms could be a target of potential therapeutic intervention. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the role of oxytocin and its receptor in synapse structure, function, and neuron connectivity. An early alteration in oxytocin signaling may disturb neuronal maturation and may have short-term and long-term pathological consequences...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Daniel G Almeida-Filho, Claudio M Queiroz, Sidarta Ribeiro
Once viewed as a passive physiological state, sleep is a heterogeneous and complex sequence of brain states with essential effects on synaptic plasticity and neuronal functioning. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has been shown to promote calcium-dependent plasticity in principal neurons of the cerebral cortex, both during memory consolidation in adults and during post-natal development. This article reviews the plasticity mechanisms triggered by REM sleep, with a focus on the emerging role of kinases and immediate-early genes for the progressive corticalization of hippocampus-dependent memories...
July 27, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Joanna H Sliwowska, Kamil Ziarniak, Monika Dudek, Julia Matuszewska, Manuel Tena-Sempere
Acquisition of reproductive maturity involves one of the most important series of developmental events in an organism's life. The beginning of adolescence is marked by the onset of puberty. Puberty is the continuum of physical changes through which an infantile body matures into an adult capable of reproduction. This is a period of increased brain plasticity, where processes of re-wiring, neuronal proliferation and pruning are enhanced. The initiation of mammalian puberty requires an increased pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus...
July 25, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Alessandro Stefani, Rocco Cerroni, Paolo Mazzone, Claudio Liguori, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Salvatore Galati
Despite consensus on some neurophysiological hallmarks of the Parkinsonian state (such as beta) band increase) a single mechanism is unlikely to explain the efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Most experimental evidence to date correlates with an extreme degree of nigral neurodegeneration and not with different stages of PD progression. It seems inappropriate to combine substantially different patients - newly diagnosed, early fluctuators or advanced dyskinetic individuals - within the same group...
July 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Md Sahab Uddin, Md Tanvir Kabir, Abdullah Al Mamun, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim, George E Barreto, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an immutable neurodegenerative disease featured by the two hallmark brain pathologies that are the extracellular amyloid ß (Aß) and intraneuronal tau protein. People carrying the APOE4 allele are at high risk of AD concerning the ones carrying the ε3 allele, while the ε2 allele abates risk. ApoE isoforms exert a central role in controlling the transport of brain lipid, neuronal signaling, mitochondrial function, glucose metabolism, and neuroinflammation. Regardless of widespread indispensable studies, the appropriate function of APOE in AD etiology stays ambiguous...
July 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Juan Mauricio Garré, Guang Yang
Monocytes are a class of leukocytes derived from progenitors in the bone marrow and are prevalent in the blood stream. Although the main function of monocytes is to provide innate immune defenses against infection and injury, their contributions to the central nervous system (CNS) disorders are increasingly recognized. In this review article, we summarize the molecular and physiological properties of monocytes in relation to other myeloid cells. Primarily, we discuss how monocytes (or leukocytes) may affect neuronal function in diseases that are characterized by dysregulated innate immunity and cognitive dysfunction...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Elisabetta Furlanis, Peter Scheiffele
Posttranscriptional mechanisms provide powerful means to expand the coding power of genomes. In nervous systems, alternative splicing has emerged as a fundamental mechanism not only for the diversification of protein isoforms but also for the spatiotemporal control of transcripts. Thus, alternative splicing programs play instructive roles in the development of neuronal cell type-specific properties, neuronal growth, self-recognition, synapse specification, and neuronal network function. Here we discuss the most recent genome-wide efforts on mapping RNA codes and RNA-binding proteins for neuronal alternative splicing regulation...
July 20, 2018: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Stefania Sgroi, Raffaella Tonini
The functional organization of the dorsal striatum is complex, due to the diversity of neural inputs that converge in this structure and its subdivision into direct and indirect output pathways, striosomes and matrix compartments. Among the neurotransmitters that regulate the activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), opioid neuropeptides (enkephalin and dynorphin) play a neuromodulatory role in synaptic transmission and plasticity and affect striatal-based behaviors in both normal brain function and pathological states, including Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zahid Padamsey, William J Foster, Nigel J Emptage
Ca2+ is an essential trigger for most forms of synaptic plasticity. Ca2+ signaling occurs not only by Ca2+ entry via plasma membrane channels but also via Ca2+ signals generated by intracellular organelles. These organelles, by dynamically regulating the spatial and temporal extent of Ca2+ elevations within neurons, play a pivotal role in determining the downstream consequences of neural signaling on synaptic function. Here, we review the role of three major intracellular stores: the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and acidic Ca2+ stores, such as lysosomes, in neuronal Ca2+ signaling and plasticity...
July 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Nadia Nielsen Aalling, Maiken Nedergaard, Mauro DiNuzzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of the present paper is to review current literature supporting the occurrence of fundamental changes in brain energy metabolism during the transition from wakefulness to sleep. RECENT FINDINGS: Latest research in the field indicates that glucose utilization and the concentrations of several brain metabolites consistently change across the sleep-wake cycle. Lactate, a product of glycolysis that is involved in synaptic plasticity, has emerged as a good biomarker of brain state...
July 16, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Sufyan Ashhad, Rishikesh Narayanan
Glial cells and neuronal dendrites were historically assumed to be passive structures that play only supportive physiological roles, with no active contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Research spanning the past few decades has clearly established this assumption to be far from physiological realities. Whereas the discovery of active channel conductances and their localized plasticity was the turning point for dendritic structures, the demonstration that glial cells release transmitter molecules and communicate across the neuroglia syncytium through calcium wave propagation constituted path-breaking discoveries for glial cell physiology...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Olga Borodovitsyna, Neal Joshi, Daniel Chandler
Neural plasticity plays a critical role in mediating short- and long-term brain responses to environmental stimuli. A major effector of plasticity throughout many regions of the brain is stress. Activation of the locus coeruleus (LC) is a critical step in mediating the neuroendocrine and behavioral limbs of the stress response. During stressor exposure, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis promotes release of corticotropin-releasing factor in LC, where its signaling promotes a number of physiological and cellular changes...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jelena Borovac, Miquel Bosch, Kenichi Okamoto
Activity-dependent plasticity of synaptic structure and function plays an essential role in neuronal development and in cognitive functions including learning and memory. The formation, maintenance and modulation of dendritic spines are mainly controlled by the dynamics of actin filaments (F-actin) through interaction with various actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and postsynaptic signaling messengers. Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) triggers a cascade of events involving Ca2+ signaling, intracellular pathways such as cAMP and cGMP, and regulation of ABPs such as CaMKII, Cofilin, Aip1, Arp2/3, α-actinin, Profilin and Drebrin...
July 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Mathias A Böhme, Andreas T Grasskamp, Alexander M Walter
Synaptic transmission relies on the rapid fusion of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles (SVs), which happens in response to action potential (AP)-induced Ca2+ influx at active zones (AZs). A highly conserved molecular machinery cooperates at SV-release sites to mediate SV plasma membrane attachment and maturation, Ca2+ sensing, and membrane fusion. Despite this high degree of conservation, synapses - even within the same organism, organ or neuron - are highly diverse regarding the probability of APs to trigger SV fusion...
July 11, 2018: FEBS Letters
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