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Neuronal Plasticity Review

Ana Clara Liberman, Emiliano Trias, Luana da Silva Chagas, Pablo Trindade, Marissol Dos Santos Pereira, Damian Refojo, Cecilia Hedin-Pereira, Claudio A Serfaty
An extensive microglial-astrocyte-monocyte-neuronal cross talk seems to be crucial for normal brain function, development, and recovery. However, under certain conditions neuroinflammatory interactions between brain cells and neuroimmune cells influence disease outcome and brain pathology. Microglial cells express a range of functional states with dynamically pleomorphic profiles from a surveilling status of synaptic transmission to an active player in major events of development such as synaptic elimination, regeneration, and repair...
December 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Jill M Williamson, David A Lyons
Myelin sheaths speed up impulse propagation along the axons of neurons without the need for increasing axon diameter. Subsequently, myelin (which is made by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system) allows for highly complex yet compact circuitry. Cognitive processes such as learning require central nervous system plasticity throughout life, and much research has focused on the role of neuronal, in particular synaptic, plasticity as a means of altering circuit function. An increasing body of evidence suggests that myelin may also play a role in circuit plasticity and that myelin may be an adaptable structure which could be altered to regulate experience and learning...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Natalia N Nalivaeva, Anthony J Turner, Igor A Zhuravin
This review focuses on the role of prenatal hypoxia in the development of brain functions in the postnatal period and subsequent increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that prenatal hypoxia in critical periods of brain formation results in significant changes in development of cognitive functions at various stages of postnatal life which correlate with morphological changes in brain structures involved in learning and memory. Prenatal hypoxia also leads to a decrease in brain adaptive potential and plasticity due to the disturbance in the process of formation of new contacts between cells and propagation of neuronal stimuli, especially in the cortex and hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Min Zhuo
Increasing evidence consistently indicates that cortical mechanisms play important roles in chronic pain and its emotional disorders. Central synapses, especially excitatory synapses, are undergoing long-term memory-like plastic changes after peripheral injury. These changes not only occur at the single synaptic level, but also take place at cortical and subcortical circuits. Consequently, neuronal responses to peripheral sensory stimuli, or even to sensory inputs triggered by normal physiological signals such as touch and movement, are significantly potentiated or increased...
November 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Elizabeth S Smith, Dani R Smith, Charlotte Eyring, Maria Braileanu, Karen S Smith-Connor, Yew Ei Tan, Amanda Y Fowler, Gloria E Hoffman, Michael V Johnston, Sujatha Kannan, Mary E Blue
Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the x-linked gene coding for methyl-CpG-biding-protein 2 (MECP2) and that mainly affects females. Male and female transgenic mouse models of RTT have been studied extensively, and we have learned a great deal regarding RTT neuropathology and how MeCP2 deficiency may be influencing brain function and maturation. In this manuscript we review what is known concerning structural and coinciding functional and behavioral deficits in RTT and in mouse models of MeCP2 deficiency...
November 28, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Piao Luo, Shi-Feng Chu, Zhao Zhang, Cong-Yuan Xia, Nai-Hong Chen
Fractalkine (CX3C chemokine ligand 1, CX3CL1) is an essential chemokine, for regulating adhesion and chemotaxis through binding to CX3CR1, which plays a critical role in the crosstalk between glial cells and neurons by direct or indirect ways in the central nervous system (CNS). Fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis regulates microglial activation and function, neuronal survival and synaptic function by controlling the release of inflammatory cytokines and synaptic plasticity in the course of the neurological disease. The multiple functions of fractalkine/CX3CR1 make it exert neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects, which determines the pathogenesis...
November 26, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Heiko J Luhmann, Sergei Kirischuk, Werner Kilb
During early development the structure and function of the cerebral cortex is critically organized by subplate neurons (SPNs), a mostly transient population of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons located below the cortical plate. At the molecular and morphological level SPNs represent a rather diverse population of cells expressing a variety of genetic markers and revealing different axonal-dendritic morphologies. Electrophysiologically SPNs are characterized by their rather mature intrinsic membrane properties and firing patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Na-Ryum Bin, Mengjia Huang, Shuzo Sugita
Trafficking or delivery of neurotransmitter receptors on postsynaptic membranes is critical for basal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Importantly, dysfunction of such postsynaptic receptor trafficking can lead to severe brain diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability, yet underlying mechanisms remain elusive. One attractive hypothesis is that postsynaptic SNARE proteins play key roles in the delivery of receptors by mediating membrane fusion at postsynaptic neurons...
November 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Karina Sánchez-Alegría, Manuel Flores-León, Evangelina Avila-Muñoz, Nelly Rodríguez-Corona, Clorinda Arias
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling contributes to a variety of processes, mediating many aspects of cellular function, including nutrient uptake, anabolic reactions, cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Less is known regarding its critical role in neuronal physiology, neuronal metabolism, tissue homeostasis, and the control of gene expression in the central nervous system in healthy and diseased states. The aim of the present work is to review cumulative evidence regarding the participation of PI3K pathways in neuronal function, focusing on their role in neuronal metabolism and transcriptional regulation of genes involved in neuronal maintenance and plasticity or on the expression of pathological hallmarks associated with neurodegeneration...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rongrong Yang, Hui Wang, Jie Wen, Kai Ma, Dongjian Chen, Zhuo Chen, Chao Huang
Microglia, a type of glia within the brain characterized by a ramified morphology, are essential for removing neuronal debris and restricting the expansion of a lesion site. Upon moderate activation, they undergo a transformation in morphology inducing beneficial responses. However, upon strong stimulation, they mediate neuronal damage via production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The inhibition of this cascade is considered an effective strategy for neuroinflammation-associated disorder therapy. During this pathological activation microglia also undergo a shortening of process length which contributes to the pathogenesis of such disorders...
November 23, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Andrew Vogel, Raghavendra Upadhya, Ashok K Shetty
Neural stem cell (NSC) grafting in conditions such as aging, brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases promotes regeneration, plasticity and functional recovery. Recent studies have revealed that administration of NSC-derived extracellular vesicles (NSC-EVs) via non-invasive approaches can also afford therapeutic benefits. This review confers the properties and therapeutic promise of EVs secreted by NSCs. NSC-EVs enriched with specific miRNAs mediate multiple functions in physiological and pathological conditions, which include modulation of the proximate microenvironment, facilitating the entry of viruses into cells, functioning as independent metabolic units, operating as a microglial morphogen and influencing the diverse aspects of brain function in adulthood including the process of aging...
November 21, 2018: EBioMedicine
Laura Civiero, Susanna Cogo, Alice Biosa, Elisa Greggio
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a complex kinase/GTPase mutated in Parkinson's disease, has been shown to physically and functionally interact with cytoskeletal-related components in different brain cells. Neurons greatly rely on a functional cytoskeleton for many homeostatic processes such as local and long-distance vesicle transport, synaptic plasticity, and dendrites/axons growth and remodeling. Here, we will review the available data linking LRRK2 and the cytoskeleton, and discuss how this may be functionally relevant for the well-established roles of LRRK2 in intracellular trafficking pathways and outgrowth of neuronal processes in health and disease conditions...
November 22, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Norma A Labra Ruiz, Daniel Santamaría Del Ángel, Hugo Juárez Olguín, Miroslava Lindoro Silva
For many years, depressive disorder (DD) was considered a transient and natural disease of people's mood. Its etiology had been attributed mainly to biochemical alterations of the monoamines and their receptors. Nevertheless, its prevalence and considerable impact on the family and social environment of those afflicted by it have placed the disease as a global public health problem. Neuroprogression is the term used to describe the changes in several psychiatric conditions evidenced and observed in the clinical manifestations, biochemical markers, and cerebral structures of the patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which frequently overlap with neurodegenerative disorders...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Tadahiro Numakawa, Haruki Odaka, Naoki Adachi
It is well known that brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, has an important role in a variety of neuronal aspects, such as differentiation, maturation, and synaptic function in the central nervous system (CNS). BDNF stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK), phosphoinositide-3kinase (PI3K), and phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma pathways via activation of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), a high affinity receptor for BDNF. Evidence has shown significant contributions of these signaling pathways in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in in vivo and in vitro experiments...
November 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sonali Uttam, Calvin Wong, Theodore J Price, Arkady Khoutorsky
Translational control of gene expression has emerged as a key mechanism in regulating different forms of long-lasting neuronal plasticity. Maladaptive plastic reorganization of peripheral and spinal nociceptive circuits underlies many chronic pain states and relies on new gene expression. Accordingly, downregulation of mRNA translation in primary afferents and spinal dorsal horn neurons inhibits tissue injury-induced sensitization of nociceptive pathways, supporting a central role for translation dysregulation in the development of persistent pain...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Marco Travaglio, Francis J P Ebling
Animal models are valuable for the study of complex behaviours and physiology such as the control of appetite because genetic, pharmacological and surgical approaches allow the investigation of underlying mechanisms. However, the majority of such studies are carried out in just two species, laboratory mice and rats. These conventional laboratory species have been intensely selected for high growth rate and fecundity, and have a high metabolic rate and short lifespan. These aspects limit their translational relevance for human appetite control...
November 20, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Mei He, Jing-Xiang Wei, Min Mao, Guo-Yan Zhao, Jun-Jie Tang, Shuang Feng, Xiu-Min Lu, Yong-Tang Wang
The studying of synaptic plasticity, the ability of synaptic connections between neurons to be weakened or strengthened and specifically long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), is one of the most active areas of research in neuroscience. The process of synaptic connections playing a crucial role in improving cognitive processes is important to the processing of information in brain. In general, the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity was involved in a wide spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including some neurodegenerative disorders...
November 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Michael J Angilletta, Jacob P Youngblood, Lauren K Neel, John M VandenBrooks
The nervous system acts as a biological thermostat by controlling behaviors that regulate the warming and cooling of animals. We review the structures responsible for thermoregulation in three model species: roundworms (Caenorhabditis elegans), flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and rats (Rattus novegicus). We then consider additional features of the nervous system required to explain adaptive plasticity of the set-point temperature and the precision of thermoregulation. Because animals use resources such as energy, water, and oxygen to thermoregulate, the nervous system monitors the abundance of these resources and adjusts the strategy of thermoregulation accordingly...
October 25, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hechen Bao, Juan Song
Adult neurogenesis, a developmental process of generating functionally integrated neurons from neural stem cells, occurs throughout life in the hippocampus of the mammalian brain and highlights the plastic nature of the mature central nervous system. Substantial evidence suggests that new neurons participate in cognitive and affective brain functions and aberrant adult neurogenesis contributes to various brain disorders. Focusing on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we review recent findings that advance our understanding of the key properties and potential functions of adult neural stem cells...
November 14, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Valentina Di Liberto, Giuseppa Mudò, Natale Belluardo
Neuronal events are regulated by the integration of several complex signaling networks in which G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are considered key players of an intense bidirectional cross-communication in the cell, generating signaling mechanisms that, at the same time, connect and diversify the traditional signal transduction pathways activated by the single receptor. For this receptor-receptor crosstalk, the two classes of receptors form heteroreceptor complexes resulting in RTKs transactivation and in growth-promoting signals...
November 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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