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The end of the road

Nay Aung, Mihir M Sanghvi, Filip Zemrak, Aaron M Lee, Jackie A Cooper, Jose M Paiva, Ross J Thomson, Kenneth Fung, Mohammed Y Khanji, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Patricia B Munroe, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the influence of air pollutants on cardiac structure and function. We aim to investigate the relationship between chronic past exposure to traffic-related pollutants and the cardiac chamber volume, ejection fraction, and left ventricular remodeling patterns after accounting for potential confounders. Methods: Exposure to ambient air pollutants including particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide was estimated from the Land Use Regression models for the years between 2005 and 2010...
November 13, 2018: Circulation
David Latz, Erik Schiffner, Johannes Schneppendahl, Konstantin Klein, Lisa Oezel, Lars Fabian Seiler, Pascal Jungbluth, Robert Alexander Kaufmann, Joachim Windolf, Sebastian Viktor Gehrmann
BACKGROUND: One of the most important activities of daily living is operating a motor vehicle. With increasing age the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders such as knee osteoarthritis may interfere with an individual's ability to do so safely. Physicians are tasked with determining a patient's ability to drive and yet the necessary joint range of motion required for driving a car has not been characterized. METHODS: The range of motion of the right and left knees was recorded using electrogoniometers in 20 healthy subjects while driving a car on three route types (a) city streets, b) country roads and c) highways)...
November 29, 2018: Knee
Francis Aguisanda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2018: Science
Josephine Changole, Viva Combs Thorsen, Ursula Kafulafula
Introduction: Obstetric fistula (OF) is a devastating birth injury, which leaves a woman with leaking urine and/or feces accompanied by bad smell, a situation that has been likened to death itself. The condition is caused by neglected obstructed labor. Many factors underlie fistula formation, most of which are preventable. The main purpose of this study was to explore labor and childbirth experiences of women who developed OF with a focus on accessibility of care in the central region of Malawi...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Farhan Ahmad, Asma Adnane, Virginia N L Franqueira, Fatih Kurugollu, Lu Liu
Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET), a vital component of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology, relies on communication between dynamically connected vehicles and static Road Side Units (RSU) to offer various applications (e.g., collision avoidance alerts, steep-curve warnings and infotainment). VANET has a massive potential to improve traffic efficiency, and road safety by exchanging critical information between nodes (vehicles and RSU), thus reducing the likelihood of traffic accidents. However, this communication between nodes is subject to a variety of attacks, such as Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attacks which represent a major risk in VANET...
November 20, 2018: Sensors
M S Khan, Maik Rahlves, Roland Lachmayer, Bernhard Roth
Advances in illumination technology in the automotive industry are heading toward the use of coherent sources for adaptable and high-resolution head lamps as well as interior and rear-end lights. We present a cost-effective method to fabricate and design laser-based lighting systems for the rear end in automobiles and other vehicles. The design relies on using binary gratings to generate a desired intensity distribution. For cost-effective fabrication, an optical maskless UV lithography system that employs a spatial light modulator (SLM) for projection of the desired structure onto photoresist is introduced...
October 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Esther Mc Sween-Cadieux, Christian Dagenais, Valéry Ridde
INTRODUCTION: Deliberative dialogues are increasingly being used, particularly on the African continent. They are a promising interactive knowledge translation strategy that brings together and leverages the knowledge of diverse stakeholders important to the resolution of a societal issue. Following a research project carried out in Burkina Faso on road traffic injuries, a 1-day workshop in the form of a deliberative dialogue was organised in November 2015. The workshop brought together actors involved in road safety, such as researchers, police and fire brigades, health professionals, non-governmental and civil society organisations, and representatives of government structures...
November 20, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Judith Plante, Katrina Bélanger-Smith, Ariel G Spanowicz, Anthony P Clevenger, Jochen A G Jaeger
The data presented here consist of the locations of 839 roadkill points from four years (2012-2015) of roadkill surveys for small and medium-sized mammals (under 30 kg) from a four-lane highway in Quebec (Highway 175) during the months of May to October. Seventeen species or species groups were identified, all local to the area, and none of which were identified as species at risk, threatened, or endangered. The GPS coordinates of each roadkill event are given, along with the date, time of day (morning or evening), location (northbound or southbound lanes) and species (where possible)...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Ayele Geleto, Catherine Chojenta, Abdulbasit Musa, Deborah Loxton
BACKGROUND: Nearly 15% of pregnancies end in fatal perinatal obstetric complications including bleeding, infections, hypertension, obstructed labour and complications of abortion. Globally, an estimated 10.7 million women have died due to obstetric complications in the last two decades, and two thirds of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Though the majority of maternal mortalities can be prevented, different factors can hinder women's access to emergency obstetric services...
November 13, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Di Wang, Xiaosu Xu, Yongyun Zhu
In this paper, a novel algorithm based on the combination of a fading filter (FF) and an extreme learning machine (ELM) is presented for Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) integrated navigation systems. In order to increase the filtering accuracy of the model, a variable fading factor fading filter based on the fading factor is proposed. It adjusts the fading factor by the ratio of the estimated covariance before and after the moment which proves to have excellent performance in our experiment...
November 10, 2018: Sensors
R A Ajjan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Laurie Thiesse, Franziska Rudzik, Karine Spiegel, Rachel Leproult, Reto Pieren, Jean Marc Wunderli, Maria Foraster, Harris Héritier, Ikenna C Eze, Martin Meyer, Danielle Vienneau, Mark Brink, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Martin Röösli, Christian Cajochen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates an association between transportation noise exposure and a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Sleep disturbances are thought to be one of the mechanisms as it is well established that a few nights of short or poor sleep impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy good sleepers. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine the extent to which exposure to nocturnal transportation noise affects glucose metabolism, and whether it is related to noise-induced sleep alterations...
December 2018: Environment International
Torgrim Soeyland, Alan Garner, Sam Vidler, Cristian Humberto Gutierrez, Arnold Foster, Jane Kitcher
BACKGROUND: Prehospital medical teams are commonly required to administer a range of medications for urgent stabilisation and treatment. The safe preparation of medications during resuscitation requires attention, time and resources, and can be a source of medication error. In our two road and HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service) prehospital services, medication errors are mitigated by predrawing commonly used medications to set concentrations daily (Hunter Retrieval Service, HRS) or second-daily (CareFlight Sydney, CFS)...
October 20, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Darren Mylotte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2018: EuroIntervention
Erden Aktaş, Bahar Türkyılmaz Tahta
Kemalpaşa district (İzmir/Turkey), a significant area in terms of its natural and cultural characteristics alongside with its agricultural production, was selected as the specific site for the study at hand as its natural resources were endangered as a result of unplanned industrial settlement and development in the area. Therefore, the aim of the study was to ascertain the most suitable industrial sites for the area by taking natural factors into consideration, while excluding the economic ones. Within the scope of the study, a total of 13 criteria were set including wildlife development areas, protected areas, forest lands, olive groves, pastures, agricultural lands, water surfaces, streams, land capability areas, distance to residential areas, transportation (distance to roads), slopes, and erosion...
October 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
C M W Gaasterland, M C Jansen-van der Weide, E Vroom, K Leeson-Beevers, M Kaatee, R Kaczmarek, B Bartels, W L van der Pol, K C B Roes, J H van der Lee
In clinical trials, it is relevant to ask patients and/or their caregivers which aspects concerning their disease they consider important to measure when a new intervention is being investigated. Those aspects, useful as outcome measures in a trial, are of pivotal importance for the result of the trial and the subsequent decision-making. In rare diseases the choice of outcome measures may be even more important, due to the small numbers and heterogeneity of the patients that are included. We have developed a tool to involve patients in the determination of outcome measures and the choice of measurement instruments...
September 21, 2018: Health Policy
Osman Darici, Hakan Temeltas, Arthur D Kuo
Bipedal locomotion may occur over imperfect surfaces with bumps or other features that disrupt steady gait. An unexpected bump in the road is generally expected to slow down most types of locomotion. On wheels, speed may be regained quite readily with "cruise control" performed in continuous time. But legged locomotion is less straightforward, because the stance leg may be under-actuated, and the continuous-time dynamics are periodically disrupted by discrete ground contact events. Those events may also afford good control opportunities, albeit subject to the delay between discrete opportunities...
2018: PloS One
Cleo Goyvaerts, Karine Breckpot
Dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as highly potent antigen-presenting cells that are able to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses with antitumor activity. Consequently, DCs have been explored as cellular vaccines in cancer immunotherapy. To that end, DCs are modified with tumor antigens to enable presentation of antigen-derived peptides to CTLs. In this review we discuss the use of viral vectors for in situ modification of DCs, focusing on their clinical applications as anticancer vaccines. Among the viral vectors discussed are those derived from viruses belonging to the families of the Poxviridae, Adenoviridae, Retroviridae, Togaviridae, Paramyxoviridae , and Rhabdoviridae ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dorothy A Thomas, Anne Huang, Michelle C E McCarron, Joanne E Kappel, Rachel M Holden, Karen E Yeates, Bonnie R Richardson
Background: Chronic kidney disease is more prevalent among First Nations people than in non-First Nations people. Emerging research suggests that First Nations people are subject to greater disease burden than non-First Nations people. Objective: We aimed to identify the severity of chronic kidney disease and quantify the geographical challenges of obtaining kidney care by Saskatchewan's First Nations people. Design: This study is a retrospective analysis of the provincial electronic medical record clinical database from January 2012 to December 2013...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Anna Sallis, Hugo Harper, Michael Sanders
BACKGROUND: A shortage of organs available for transplantation is causing loss of life. Increasing the number of individuals on the National Health Service (NHS) Organ Donor Register (ODR) is one way to address the shortage of organs. In Great Britain, new drivers registering for their driving licence are invited to join the ODR. A further 17 million drivers renew their road tax online each year, presenting an additional opportunity to prompt drivers to join the ODR. This trial explores the effect of adding persuasive messages to a prompt to join the ODR at the end of road tax payment transactions...
September 21, 2018: Trials
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