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The end of the road

Sushil Devkota
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), and to a lesser extent, the error-free pathway known as homology-directed repair (HDR) are cellular mechanisms for recovery from double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) induced by RNA-guided programmable nuclease CRISPR/Cas. Since NHEJ is equivalent to using a duck tape to stick two pieces of metals together, the outcome of this repair mechanism is prone to error. Any out-of-frame mutations or premature stop codons resulting from NHEJ repair mechanism are extremely handy for loss-of-function studies...
August 14, 2018: BMB Reports
Yann Morère, Guy Bourhis, Kévin Cosnuau, Georges Guilmois, Emilie Rumilly, Emmanuelle Blangy
The powered wheelchair (PW) has become an essential mobility assistive technology for people with motor disabilities. A critical step involved in maximizing the end-user experience is evaluating individual functional abilities to identify driving difficulties PW users experience during their daily activities. There are certain limitations, however, associated with on-road driving assessments, such as the practical concern of safety. And while extracting quantitative parameters such as joystick control or trajectory tracking from real wheelchairs is feasible, it requires modifications to the PW hardware architecture and, in some cases, to the physical test environment...
August 7, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Christopher C Kaeding
Large registries and prospective cohorts are so expensive, time intensive, and tedious that one may wonder, "Are they worth it?" The answer lies in our core desire to do better. To continually improve the care of our patients and advance our field of orthopaedic surgery, research is required. Basic research is without doubt of great value, but essential to this advancement is quality clinical outcomes research. Without it, we are vulnerable to multiple missed turns and dead ends on our road to ever improving care of our patients...
August 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Eshrak Alfalahi, Ali Assabri, Yousef Khader
Introduction: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the leading cause of death for young people. This study aimed to present time-limited trial surveillance in two referral hospitals to describe the pattern of RTIs in Sana'a, Yemen and determine road traffic crashes (RTCs) associated factors. Methods: All RTIs presented to Emergency Departments (ED) of the two Sanaa city hospitals between August and October, 2015 were studied and described...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Jodie M Plumert, Joseph K Kearney
A key challenge for the developing perception-action system is learning how to move the self in relation to other moving objects. This often involves perceiving and acting on affordances or possibilities for action that depend on the relation between the characteristics of the individual and the properties of the environment (Gibson, 1979). This chapter overviews our program of research on perceiving and acting on dynamic affordances (i.e., possibilities for action that vary over time). Our goal is to bridge the divide between basic and applied research by using road crossing as a model system for studying how children's ability to perceive and act on dynamic affordances undergoes change with age and experience...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Cayetano von Kobbe
Cellular senescence is the final fate of most cells in response to specific stimuli, but is not the end. Indeed, it is the beginning of a singular life, with multiple side roads leading to diverse effects on the organism. Many studies have been done in the last few years to elucidate the intriguing role of senescent cells in the organism, demonstrating them as the cause of several age-related diseases. However, these cells are also positively implicated in other important pathways, such as embryogenesis and wound healing...
July 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Norma Hubele, Kathryn Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to use historical crash data to evaluate the potential benefits of both high and low speed Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) with Forward Collision Warning (FCW) systems. METHODS: Crash data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) databases were categorized to classify crashes by the speed environment, as well as to identify cases where Forward Collision Warning (FCW) systems would be applicable...
July 12, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Peter Abrams, Matthew Cooper, Jon S Odorico
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The volume of pancreas transplants performed annually in the United States (US) has steadily declined for more than a decade. In the face of this negative trend, efforts at several centers are underway to expand their pancreas transplant volumes through alterations in the structure and function of their pancreas transplant programs. We highlight these programmatic changes and emphasize the culture and characteristics of these high volume centers to serve as models for other centers to emulate...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Kei Fujiwara, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Hiroki Nagasawa, Ikuto Takeuchi, Kei Jitsuiki, Akihiko Kondo, Kazuhiko Omori, Kouhei Ishikawa, Youichi Yanagawa
INTRODUCTION: Pneumoperitoneum (PP), or air within the abdominal cavity, is frequently a harbinger of serious abdominal pathology and often represents visceral perforation. We herein report a case of combined massive intraperitoneal free air, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum but emergency laparotomy was negative. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A sixty-seven-year-old man was found unconscious on a road after being hit by a car. On arrival, he showed swelling of the head and flail chest...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Yi Zhang, Michel Andre, Dong Li, Xin Zhang, Lin Wu, Yan-Jie Zhang, Chao Ma, Chao Zou, Hong-Jun Mao
Based on the collected data of activity level in 2015, a non-road mobile source emissions inventory for Tianjin was developed following the recommended method from the Compilation Guide for a Vehicle Emissions Inventory (trial edition) released by the Ministry of Environmental Protection. In 2015, the emissions of CO, hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter (PM) and SO2 from non-road mobile sources in Tianjin were 6.15×103 t, 2.45×103 t, 2.90×104 t, 1.45×103 t, and 1.37×104 t, respectively...
November 8, 2017: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Jason B Fice, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Gunter P Siegmund
OBJECTIVE: A rotated head posture at the time of a rear-end impact is associated with a higher risk of acute and chronic whiplash injury. The objective of this study was to quantify the amplitude and duration of rotated head postures observed in drivers during naturalistic driving. METHODS: Twenty volunteers (14 males: 36 ± 12 years, 6 females: 27 ± 5 years) drove a 2010 Subaru Impreza on public roads while their 3D head angular position relative to the car was recorded using inertial measurement units...
June 26, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
D Boccia, W Rudgard, S Shrestha, K Lönnroth, P Eckhoff, J Golub, M Sanchez, E Maciel, D Rasella, P Shete, D Pedrazzoli, R Houben, S Chang, D Dowdy
BACKGROUND: Tackling the social determinants of Tuberculosis (TB) through social protection is a key element of the post-2015 End TB Strategy. However, evidence informing policies are still scarce. Mathematical modelling has the potential to contribute to fill this knowledge gap, but existing models are inadequate. The S-PROTECT consortium aimed to develop an innovative mathematical modelling approach to better understand the role of social protection to improve TB care, prevention and control...
June 26, 2018: BMC Public Health
Emmanuel Lilitsis, Sofia Xenaki, Elias Athanasakis, Eleftherios Papadakis, Pavlina Syrogianni, George Chalkiadakis, Emmanuel Chrysos
Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with road traffic collisions, suicides, and homicides accounting for the majority of injury-related deaths. Since trauma mainly affects young age groups, it is recognized as a serious social and economic threat, as annually, almost 16,000 posttrauma individuals are expected to lose their lives and many more to end up disabled. The purpose of this research is to summarize current knowledge on factors predicting outcome - specifically mortality risk - in severely injured patients...
April 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Rusdi Rusli, Mazharul Haque, Mohammad Saifuzzaman, Mark King
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes along mountainous highways may lead to injuries and fatalities more often than highways on plain topography; however, research focusing on the injury outcome of such crashes is relatively scant. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the likelihood that traffic crashes along rural mountainous highways result in injuries. METHOD: This study proposes a combination of decision tree and logistic regression techniques to model crash severity (injury vs non-injury), as the combined approach allows the specification of nonlinearities and interactions in addition to main effects...
June 22, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
R Nicholas Carleton, Stephanie Korol, Julia E Mason, Kadie Hozempa, Gregory S Anderson, Nicholas A Jones, Keith S Dobson, Andrew Szeto, Suzanne Bailey
Police agencies increasingly implement training programs to protect mental health. The Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) program was designed by the Canadian military to increase mental health resilience. A version of R2MR was adapted for municipal police by the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC). The current research was designed to assess the R2MR program, as adapted and delivered by the MHCC, in a municipal police sample. Participants were 147 Canadian police agency employees (57% women) who received a single R2MR training session...
June 18, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Shaban Gohardehi, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Reza Alizadeh-Navaei, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Afsaneh Amouei, Abdolsattar Pagheh, Mitra Sadeghi, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent infectious disease. Although most people infected by Toxoplasma gondii are asymptomatic, evidence has suggested that this disease might affect some aspects of a host's behavior and associate with schizophrenia, suicide attempt, changes in various aspects of personality, and poor neurocognitive performance. These associations may play roles in increasing the risk of a number of incidents, such as traffic accidents, among infected people. In this regard, this study aimed to provide summary estimates for the available data on the potential risk of toxoplasmosis for traffic accidents...
August 2018: Experimental Parasitology
R C Hamdy, A Kinser, T Kendall-Wilson, A Depelteau, K Whalen, J Culp
Driving is a symbol of autonomy and independence, eagerly awaited during adolescence, cherished during adulthood and reluctantly rescinded during old age. It is nevertheless an individual's privilege, not right, especially as driving may affect other drivers and pedestrians on the road. It is therefore not only the individual patient who is at stake but essentially the entire community. In this case scenario, we describe the situation that arose when a patient with multi-infarct dementia wanted to go for a drive and his son and grandson tried to convince him that he could no longer drive...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Sanjay Singh, Prakriti Shukla
Background: There is a general impression among dermatologists in India that terbinafine has been losing its effectiveness in dermatophytoses over the past few years, but there are no recent data to support this. Aims: To determine the effectiveness of terbinafine in tinea corporis, tinea cruris and tinea faciei with a pragmatic prospective cohort study. Methods: A sample size of 361 patients was calculated taking a 5% margin of error and a 95% confidence level...
June 8, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Daniele Sportillo, Alexis Paljic, Luciano Ojeda
In conditionally automated vehicles, drivers can engage in secondary activities while traveling to their destination. However, drivers are required to appropriately respond, in a limited amount of time, to a take-over request when the system reaches its functional boundaries. Interacting with the car in the proper way from the first ride is crucial for car and road safety in general. For this reason, it is necessary to train drivers in a risk-free environment by providing them the best practice to use these complex systems...
September 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Hezekiah Kehinde Adesokan, Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye, Mutolib Abiodun Sulaimon
Zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) is a significant public health disease, but has long been neglected. Information on knowledge and practices of its prevention and influencing factors amongst occupationally exposed individuals is required for designing all-inclusive, informed control programmes. We investigated knowledge and practices related to zoonotic TB prevention and associated determinants amongst herdsmen and abattoir workers in south-western, south-eastern and north-western Nigeria using semi-structured questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
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