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The end of the road

C M W Gaasterland, M C Jansen-van der Weide, E Vroom, K Leeson-Beevers, M Kaatee, R Kaczmarek, B Bartels, W L van der Pol, K C B Roes, J H van der Lee
In clinical trials, it is relevant to ask patients and/or their caregivers which aspects concerning their disease they consider important to measure when a new intervention is being investigated. Those aspects, useful as outcome measures in a trial, are of pivotal importance for the result of the trial and the subsequent decision-making. In rare diseases the choice of outcome measures may be even more important, due to the small numbers and heterogeneity of the patients that are included. We have developed a tool to involve patients in the determination of outcome measures and the choice of measurement instruments...
September 21, 2018: Health Policy
Osman Darici, Hakan Temeltas, Arthur D Kuo
Bipedal locomotion may occur over imperfect surfaces with bumps or other features that disrupt steady gait. An unexpected bump in the road is generally expected to slow down most types of locomotion. On wheels, speed may be regained quite readily with "cruise control" performed in continuous time. But legged locomotion is less straightforward, because the stance leg may be under-actuated, and the continuous-time dynamics are periodically disrupted by discrete ground contact events. Those events may also afford good control opportunities, albeit subject to the delay between discrete opportunities...
2018: PloS One
Cleo Goyvaerts, Karine Breckpot
Dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as highly potent antigen-presenting cells that are able to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses with antitumor activity. Consequently, DCs have been explored as cellular vaccines in cancer immunotherapy. To that end, DCs are modified with tumor antigens to enable presentation of antigen-derived peptides to CTLs. In this review we discuss the use of viral vectors for in situ modification of DCs, focusing on their clinical applications as anticancer vaccines. Among the viral vectors discussed are those derived from viruses belonging to the families of the Poxviridae, Adenoviridae, Retroviridae, Togaviridae, Paramyxoviridae , and Rhabdoviridae ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dorothy A Thomas, Anne Huang, Michelle C E McCarron, Joanne E Kappel, Rachel M Holden, Karen E Yeates, Bonnie R Richardson
Background: Chronic kidney disease is more prevalent among First Nations people than in non-First Nations people. Emerging research suggests that First Nations people are subject to greater disease burden than non-First Nations people. Objective: We aimed to identify the severity of chronic kidney disease and quantify the geographical challenges of obtaining kidney care by Saskatchewan's First Nations people. Design: This study is a retrospective analysis of the provincial electronic medical record clinical database from January 2012 to December 2013...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Anna Sallis, Hugo Harper, Michael Sanders
BACKGROUND: A shortage of organs available for transplantation is causing loss of life. Increasing the number of individuals on the National Health Service (NHS) Organ Donor Register (ODR) is one way to address the shortage of organs. In Great Britain, new drivers registering for their driving licence are invited to join the ODR. A further 17 million drivers renew their road tax online each year, presenting an additional opportunity to prompt drivers to join the ODR. This trial explores the effect of adding persuasive messages to a prompt to join the ODR at the end of road tax payment transactions...
September 21, 2018: Trials
Callum D Mole, Radka Jersakova, Georgios K Kountouriotis, Chris Ja Moulin, Richard M Wilkie
Control of skilled actions requires rapid information sampling and processing, which may largely be carried out subconsciously. However, individuals often need to make conscious strategic decisions that ideally would be based upon accurate knowledge of performance. Here, we determined the extent to which individuals have explicit awareness of their steering performance (conceptualised as "metacognition"). Participants steered in a virtual environment along a bending road while attempting to keep within a central demarcated target zone...
October 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Jonathan Rottenberg, Andrew R Devendorf, Todd B Kashdan, David J Disabato
We address a key issue at the intersection of emotion, psychopathology, and public health-the startling lack of attention to people who experience benign outcomes, and even flourish, after recovering from depression. A rereading of the epidemiological literature suggests that the orthodox view of depression as chronic, recurrent, and lifelong is overstated. A significant subset of people recover and thrive after depression, yet research on such individuals has been rare. To facilitate work on this topic, we present a generative research framework...
September 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Navid Ghanavati, Ahad Nazarpour, Benedetto De Vivo
This study aimed to examine the concentrations and environmental health risk of the potentially toxic metals including Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and As in street dusts and surface soils of Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan province, located in the southwest of Iran. To this end, a total of 81 street dusts and 96 surface soils were collected from Ahvaz urban areas. Toxic metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and evaluated using enrichment factors, potential ecological risk index and human health risk assessment...
September 12, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Kazem Nosrati, Arman Haddadchi, Adrian L Collins, Saeedeh Jalali, Mohammad Reza Zare
Development and land use change lead to accelerated soil erosion as a serious environmental problem in river catchments in Iran. Reliable information about the sources of sediment in catchments is therefore necessary to design effective control strategies. This study used a composite sediment source tracing procedure to determine the importance of forest road cuttings as a sediment source in a mountainous catchment located in northern Iran. A fallout radionuclide (137 Cs) and 12 geochemical tracers (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, OC, Pb, Sr and TN) were used to determine the relative contributions of three sediment source types (hillslopes, road cuttings and channel banks) to both suspended and bed sediment samples...
November 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Omer Ehsan, Usama Khalid Choudry, Atif Rana, Zahid Amin Khan
Traumatic aortic injury (TAI) or aortic transection is the second most common cause of death after blunt trauma. The conventional management approach towards a thoracic aortic injury is open thoracotomy and surgical repair; however, there is a recent increase in the trend towards the use of endovascular approach in this regard, particularly in the developed countries. We here report the cases of two young healthy male patients presenting in emergency department with thoracic aortic injury, following a road traffic accident (RTA)...
September 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Shichao Sun, Zhengyu Duan, Qi Xu
Accidents, bad weathers, traffic congestions, etc. led to the uncertainties of travel times in real-life road networks, which greatly affected the quality of individual's life and the reliability of transportation system. This paper addressed the school bus routing problem in such a stochastic and time-dependent road environment. Firstly, the problem was set based on a single-school configuration, and the students were picked up at their homes, which was in line with the current situation of school bus systems in China...
2018: PloS One
Kevin Diependaele, Heike Martensen, Markus Lerner, Andreas Schepers, Frits Bijleveld, Jacques J F Commandeur
At the end of each year, the German Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt) publishes the road safety balance of the closing year. They describe the development of accident and casualty numbers disaggregated by road user types, age groups, type of road and the consequences of the accidents. However, at the time of publishing, these series are only available for the first eight or nine months of the year. To make the balance for the whole year, the last three or four months are forecasted. The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of these forecasts through structural time-series models that include effects of meteorological conditions...
August 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
T Hugh Woo, Chun Liang Wu
If an automobile happens to crash into the back of another vehicle while travelling at high speeds, both vehicles will be seriously damaged. Consequently, it is not easy to reconstruct the initial collision state between the two vehicles or determine whether or not the risk perception of the driver is normal. The entire picture of the accident cannot be fully understood and thus clarifying the relevant legal responsibility is difficult. The trace evidence of tires, such as pattern, direction, and impression examination as well as other characteristics, can be carefully observed and used as evidence in accident reconstruction...
October 2018: Forensic Science International
Youssef El Mouali, Carlos Balsalobre
Post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria plays a major role in the adaptation of bacterial cells to the changing conditions encountered in the environment. In bacteria, most of the regulation at the level of mRNA seems to be targeting the 5'untranslated regions where accessibility to the ribosome-binding site can be modulated to alter gene expression. In recent years, the role of 3'untranslated regions has gained attention also as a site for post-transcriptional regulation. In addition to be a source of trans-encoded small RNAs, the 3'untranslated regions can be targets to modulate gene expression...
August 17, 2018: Current Genetics
Sushil Devkota
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), and to a lesser extent, the error-free pathway known as homology-directed repair (HDR) are cellular mechanisms for recovery from double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) induced by RNA-guided programmable nuclease CRISPR/Cas. Since NHEJ is equivalent to using a duck tape to stick two pieces of metals together, the outcome of this repair mechanism is prone to error. Any out-of-frame mutations or premature stop codons resulting from NHEJ repair mechanism are extremely handy for loss-of-function studies...
September 2018: BMB Reports
Yann Morère, Guy Bourhis, Kévin Cosnuau, Georges Guilmois, Emilie Rumilly, Emmanuelle Blangy
The powered wheelchair (PW) has become an essential mobility assistive technology for people with motor disabilities. A critical step involved in maximizing the end-user experience is evaluating individual functional abilities to identify driving difficulties PW users experience during their daily activities. There are certain limitations, however, associated with on-road driving assessments, such as the practical concern of safety. And while extracting quantitative parameters such as joystick control or trajectory tracking from real wheelchairs is feasible, it requires modifications to the PW hardware architecture and, in some cases, to the physical test environment...
August 7, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Christopher C Kaeding
Large registries and prospective cohorts are so expensive, time intensive, and tedious that one may wonder, "Are they worth it?" The answer lies in our core desire to do better. To continually improve the care of our patients and advance our field of orthopaedic surgery, research is required. Basic research is without doubt of great value, but essential to this advancement is quality clinical outcomes research. Without it, we are vulnerable to multiple missed turns and dead ends on our road to ever improving care of our patients...
August 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Eshrak Alfalahi, Ali Assabri, Yousef Khader
Introduction: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the leading cause of death for young people. This study aimed to present time-limited trial surveillance in two referral hospitals to describe the pattern of RTIs in Sana'a, Yemen and determine road traffic crashes (RTCs) associated factors. Methods: All RTIs presented to Emergency Departments (ED) of the two Sanaa city hospitals between August and October, 2015 were studied and described...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Jodie M Plumert, Joseph K Kearney
A key challenge for the developing perception-action system is learning how to move the self in relation to other moving objects. This often involves perceiving and acting on affordances or possibilities for action that depend on the relation between the characteristics of the individual and the properties of the environment (Gibson, 1979). This chapter overviews our program of research on perceiving and acting on dynamic affordances (i.e., possibilities for action that vary over time). Our goal is to bridge the divide between basic and applied research by using road crossing as a model system for studying how children's ability to perceive and act on dynamic affordances undergoes change with age and experience...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Cayetano von Kobbe
Cellular senescence is the final fate of most cells in response to specific stimuli, but is not the end. Indeed, it is the beginning of a singular life, with multiple side roads leading to diverse effects on the organism. Many studies have been done in the last few years to elucidate the intriguing role of senescent cells in the organism, demonstrating them as the cause of several age-related diseases. However, these cells are also positively implicated in other important pathways, such as embryogenesis and wound healing...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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