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Xiao-Hui Chen, Dong-Tai Chen, Xiong-Mei Huang, Yong-Hua Chen, Jia-Hao Pan, Xiao-Chun Zheng, Wei-An Zeng
Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a widely used sedative in anesthesia and critical care units, and it exhibits neuroprotective activity. However, the precise mechanism of Dex-exerted neuroprotection is not clear. Increased neuronal NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) contributes to oxidative stress and neuronal damage in various hypoxia-related neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated whether Dex regulated neuronal NOX2 to exert its protective effects under hypoxic conditions. Well-differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) to mimic a neuronal model of chemical hypoxia-mediated neurotoxicity...
August 15, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Ahmit Gupta, Steven R Bailey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an update on percutaneous devices to treat diastolic dysfunction, current clinical experience, and actively enrolling trials. We also discuss potential complications and limitations of devices. RECENT FINDINGS: Exertional symptoms including exertional dyspnea and exercise intolerance are common features of heart failure that are driven by left ventricular and left atrial non-compliance that results in pulmonary vascular congestion...
August 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Yanxiang Gao, Zhizhi Wang, Yayun Zhang, Yuting Liu, Shanshan Wang, Weiliang Sun, Jing Guo, Changan Yu, Yong Wang, Wei Kong, Jingang Zheng
Naringenin (NGN) is a natural flavonoid that exerts antiinflammatory, antioxidant and cardioprotective effects. The present study investigated the effects of NGN on left ventricular hypertrophy in rats with NG -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension, and sought to determine the underlying mechanism of action. The rats received the following by gavage daily for 56 days: L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day) + NGN (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day) + saline, or saline + saline. Blood pressure, heart rate and body weight were recorded...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Saranya Ravi, Traci L Parry, Monte S Willis, Pamela Lockyer, Cam Patterson, James R Bain, Robert D Stevens, Olga R Ilkayeva, Christopher B Newgard, Jonathan C Schisler
We previously reported how the loss of CHIP expression (Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-Interacting Protein) during pressure overload resulted in robust cardiac dysfunction, which was accompanied by a failure to maintain ATP levels in the face of increased energy demand. In this study, we analyzed the cardiac metabolome after seven days of pressure overload and found an increase in long-chain and medium-chain fatty acid metabolites in wild-type hearts. This response was attenuated in mice that lack expression of CHIP ( CHIP -/- )...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Carmine Zoccali, Francesca Mallamaci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Xin Jin, Song-Nang Sui, Ping Xu, Yi Xin, Xiao-Li Cao, Lu-Qiao Wan, Juan-Xia Men, Wen-Yi Lu, Rui Cui, Ming-Feng Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To establish a MDS mouse model with iron overload and to study the effect of iron overload on MDS. METHODS: The exogenous mutant gene RUNX1-S291fs was inserted into the mice bone marrow mononuclear cell's genome in mice by retrovirus and transplanted into C57BL/6 mice irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray. After 8 weeks,intraperitoneal injection of iron was performed to establish an MDS mouse model with iron overload. After 24 weeks of transplantation, the peripheral blood, bone marrow, femur, liver and spleen of mice were taken, then the morphological characteristics of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells were observed by Wright's staining; the liver, spleen and bone marrow were stained with Prussian blue to observe the iron deposition...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
John T Daugirdas
BACKGROUND: Changes in plasma volume during hemodialysis are complex and have been shown to depend on the rate of fluid removal and the degree of fluid overload. We examined changes in total protein concentration during and shortly after a dialysis treatment in archived data from the HEMO study. METHODS: During follow-up months 4 and 36 of the HEMO study, additional blood samples were obtained during a typical dialysis session at 30 and 60 min after dialysis. In 315 studies from 282 patients where complete data were available, we calculated the concentration change in total protein and compared it to the modeled change in both total body water and extracellular fluid space as derived from 2-pool urea kinetic modeling...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Qingchun Zhang, Bo Jin, Xiaofang Wang, Shan Lei, Zhaotao Shi, Jia Zhao, Qiangqiang Liu, Rufang Peng
There is a growing interest in the development of new iron chelators as novel promising therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, a series of mono(catecholamine) derivatives, 2,3-bis(hydroxy)- N -(hydroxyacyl)benzamide, containing a pendant hydroxy, have been synthesized and fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrum. The thermodynamic stability of the chelators with FeIII , MgII and ZnII ions was then investigated...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Tim Lahm, Ivor S Douglas, Stephen L Archer, Harm J Bogaard, Naomi C Chesler, Francois Haddad, Anna R Hemnes, Steven M Kawut, Jeffrey A Kline, Todd M Kolb, Stephen C Mathai, Olaf Mercier, Evangelos D Michelakis, Robert Naeije, Rubin M Tuder, Corey E Ventetuolo, Antoine Vieillard-Baron, Norbert F Voelkel, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Paul M Hassoun
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) adaptation to acute and chronic pulmonary hypertensive syndromes is a significant determinant of short- and long-term outcomes. Although remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of RV function and failure since the meeting of the NIH Working Group on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Right Heart Failure in 2005, significant gaps remain at many levels in the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of RV responses to pressure and volume overload, in the validation of diagnostic modalities, and in the development of evidence-based therapies...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Yael Einbinder, Timna Agur, Kirill Davidov, Tali Zitman-Gal, Eliezer Golan, Sydney Benchetrit
BACKGROUND: Anemia management strategies among chronic hemodialysis patients with high ferritin levels remains challenging for nephrologists. OBJECTIVES: To compare anemia management in stable hemodialysis patients with high (≥ 500 ng/ml) vs. low (< 500 ng/ml) ferritin levels. METHODS: In a single center, record review, cohort study of stable hemodialysis patients who were followed for 24 months, an anemia management policy was amended to discontinue intravenous (IV) iron therapy for stable hemodialysis patients with hemoglobin > 10 g/dl and ferritin ≥ 500 ng/ml...
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Jing Wang, Meng-Meng Lv, Odeh Zach, Ling-Yu Wang, Meng-Ying Zhou, Gui-Rong Song, Xu Zhang, Hong-Li Lin
Hyperkalemia is a life-threatening emergency in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This clinical trial investigated the efficacy and safety of calcium-polystyrene sulfonate (Ca-PS) in MHD patients with interdialytic hyperkalemia. A total of 58 hemodialysis patients with hyperkalemia (≥5.5 mol/L) were selected and administered either a 3-week Ca-PS (3 × 5 g/day) or a blank control following the model of a prospective, randomized, crossover clinical trial with a 1-week washout period. All patients were followed up for another 3 weeks for safety evaluations...
August 14, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Beydolah Shahouzehi, Hamid Reza Nasri, Yaser Masoumi-Ardakani
BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a hereditary disorder and has an economic burden on patients and the government. The most prevalent complication in these patients is iron overload which is followed by cardiomyopathy. Digoxin is considered as a treatment against heart failure in thalassaemia. The present study evaluated the effect of two digoxin concentrations on iron content and antioxidative defense in cardiac tissue of iron-overloaded rats. METHODS: The study was conducted on 48 rats which were divided into 6 groups...
March 2018: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Maria Uther, Michelle Cleveland, Rhiannon Jones
We tested brain and behavioral responses to two common messaging alerts (Outlook and Android whistle) using an oddball paradigm, where participants had to detect the two alerts among a background of white noise and occasional matched, distractor stimuli. Twenty-nine participants were tested using a behavioral target detection task and a subset of 14 were tested both with event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral oddball detection. For the ERP recordings, participants were instructed to attend to a distractor DVD in one condition and in the other, to actively attend to the stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Elaine R Frawley, Joyce E Karlinsey, Anshika Singhal, Stephen J Libby, Paschalis-Thomas Doulias, Harry Ischiropoulos, Ferric C Fang
Nitric oxide (NO·) produced by mammalian cells exerts antimicrobial actions that result primarily from the modification of protein thiols ( S -nitrosylation) and metal centers. A comprehensive approach was used to identify novel targets of NO· in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S.  Typhimurium). Newly identified targets include zinc metalloproteins required for DNA replication and repair (DnaG, PriA, and TopA), protein synthesis (AlaS and RpmE), and various metabolic activities (ClpX, GloB, MetE, PepA, and QueC)...
August 14, 2018: MBio
José Antonio López Trigo, Rosa López Mongil, Alberto Mariano Lázaro, Gloria Mato Chaín, Norberto Moreno Villajos, Primitivo Ramos Cordero
Influenza is a significant health problem, particularly in those persons susceptible to having associated complications, older people, children less than 2 years, patients with chronic diseases, immunocompromised patients, and pregnant women. But influenza also has a large impact on the health system, with an increase in the healthcare demand and a spectacular increase in outpatient visits, overloading the emergency and hospital services. During epidemic outbreaks, the hospital admission rates of people over 65 years are at a maximum, and the mortality notified for the 2017/2018 influenza season was 960 deaths...
August 11, 2018: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Adallah Abusam, Andrzej Mydlarczyk
Activated sludge systems (ASSs) are the most globally used wastewater treatment systems. However, there is very little information about the operational practices of ASSs in developing countries. This paper presents how the Riqqa and Umm-Al-Haiman ASSs, in Kuwait, are operated and the methodology used to evaluate and compare their performances. Over a period of 9 months, weekly samples of the influents, aeration tank mixed liquors, and secondary effluents were collected and analyzed according to standard methods...
August 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Si-Yu Zeng, Hui-Qin Lu, Qiu-Jiang Yan, Jian Zou
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- α (PPAR- α ) agonist fenofibrate ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy; however, its mechanism of action has not been completely determined. Our previous study indicated that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) is required for angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine whether ADAM17 is involved in the protective action of fenofibrate against cardiac hypertrophy. Abdominal artery constriction- (AAC-) induced hypertensive rats were used to observe the effects of fenofibrate on cardiac hypertrophy and ADAM17 expression...
2018: PPAR Research
Branum Griswold, Shawn Gilbert, Joseph Khoury
Background: Tibia vara, or Blount's disease, is a pathologic angular deformity of upper tibial physis causing a bow leg deformity. Adolescent Blount's disease may be unilateral or bilateral and is diagnosed during or just before the adolescent growth spurt. In addition to predisposing genetic factors, biomechanical overload of the proximal tibial physis causes asymmetric growth leading to a varus deformity.Surgical intervention is usually required for adolescent Blount's disease. Hemiepiphysiodesis has had some success in arresting or correcting the deformity...
2018: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
Yogi Umbarawan, Mas Rizky A A Syamsunarno, Norimichi Koitabashi, Hideru Obinata, Aiko Yamaguchi, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Takako Hishiki, Noriyo Hayakawa, Motoaki Sano, Hiroaki Sunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Yoshito Tsushima, Makoto Suematsu, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Tatsuya Iso
The energy metabolism of the failing heart is characterized by reduced fatty acid (FA) oxidation and an increase in glucose utilization. However, little is known about how energy metabolism-function relationship is relevant to pathophysiology of heart failure. Recent study showed that the genetic deletion of CD36 (CD36KO), which causes reduction in FA use with an increased reliance on glucose, accelerates the progression from compensated hypertrophy to heart failure. Here, we show the mechanisms by which CD36 deletion accelerates heart failure in response to pressure overload...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giuseppe Corrias, Simone Krebs, Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Davinia Ryan, Junting Zheng, Marinela Capanu, Luca Saba, Serena Monti, Maggie Fung, Scott Reeder, Lorenzo Mannelli
INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with advanced and metastatic tumors. Since the liver plays an active role in the metabolism of chemotherapy agents, hepatic injury is a common adverse effect. The purpose of this study is to compare a novel quantitative chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) method with conventional T1-weighted In and Out of phase (T1 IOP) MR for evaluating the reproducibility of the methods in an oncologic population exposed to chemotherapy...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
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