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Fernando Bessone, María Valeria Razori, Marcelo G Roma
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis from glucose acts as the "first hit" for NAFLD development...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
A Susana Ramírez, Kimberly Arellano Carmona
BACKGROUND: Fatalism - beliefs about the causes and controllability of disease - has been negatively associated with prevention behaviors. Fatalism has been suggested as a mechanism for health disparities because ethnic minorities are especially likely to hold fatalistic beliefs. However, the construct has been criticized: Fatalism fails to account for structural barriers to health faced by vulnerable populations that also score highly on measures of fatalism. Another critique suggests that operationalizations of fatalism expose communication failures: "Fatalism" rather reflects information overload from an environment riddled with misinformation and contradictions...
October 13, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Yasunori Iida, Akihiro Yoshitake, Hideyuki Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative fluid overload in cardiovascular surgery is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Recently, tolvaptan (TLV), a selective vasopressin V2 antagonist, has been used for perioperative fluid management. This study aimed to validate the safety and effectiveness of TLV administration after total arch replacement (TAR) using selective cerebral perfusion. METHODS: From August 2016 to December 2016, 11 patients who had undergone TAR for thoracic aortic aneurysm were included in this study...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Yu Lu, Makoto Harada, Yuji Kamijo, Takero Nakajima, Naoki Tanaka, Eiko Sugiyama, Mamoru Kyogashima, Frank J Gonzalez, Toshifumi Aoyama
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is involved in the regulation of fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. A high-cholesterol (HC) diet increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD); however, it is unclear whether the toxic effects of cholesterol involve changes in thrombotic factor expression, and whether PPARα is necessary for such effects. To investigate this possibility, we fed a HC diet to wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null mice and measured cholesterol and triglyceride contents, liver histology, serum/plasma levels of coagulation factors, hepatic expression of the coagulation factors, liver/serum sulfatide levels, hepatic sulfatide metabolism, hepatic expression of lipid transporters, and hepatic oxidative stress and its relating enzymes...
October 19, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Ning Zhang, Wen-Ying Wei, Hai-Han Liao, Zheng Yang, Can Hu, Sha-Sha Wang, Wei Deng, Qi-Zhu Tang
AdipoRon, a small-molecule adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) agonist, has been reported to be implicated in cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in pressure-overload-induced cardiac remodeling is still elusive. To elucidate the role of AdipoRon in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling in vivo and vitro, in the left ventricle of human end-stage heart failure, the expression of AdipoR2 is upregulated. Meanwhile, increased expression of AdipoR2 was also observed in mice failing hearts. Oral administration of AdipoRon alleviated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by pressure overload, as evidenced by the beneficial change of cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes, heart weight-to-body weight ratio, gene expression of hypertrophic markers, ventricle collagen ratio, and cardiac function...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Emile Boyer, Sandrine Le Gall-David, Bénédicte Martin, Shao Bing Fong, Olivier Loréal, Yves Deugnier, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Vincent Meuric
Genetic haemochromatosis (GH) is responsible for iron overload. Increased transferrin saturation (TSAT) has been associated with severe periodontitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting tissues surrounding the teeth and is related to dysbiosis of the subgingival microbiota. Because iron is essential for bacterial pathogens, alterations in iron homeostasis can drive dysbiosis. To unravel the relationships between serum iron biomarkers and the subgingival microbiota, we analysed samples from 66 GH patients...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan Li, Dong-Dong Zhang, Chao-Qing Wang, Miao Shi, Liang-Liang Wang
In consider of its noninvasive administration and endogenous stimulation property, the enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) could be a novel strategy for aluminum overload-induced cerebral damage. LIPUS was pretreated 7 days before concomitantly given with aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) daily for a period of 42 days. Morris water maze and elevated plus maze were performed to analyze spatial learning and memory. Western Blot and immunoprecipitation were used to detect BDNF and histone acetylation of H3K9 and H4K12 in the hippocampus...
October 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Hannah A Cooper, Satoru Eguchi
Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common event following myocardial infarction (MI) resulting in excessive oxidative stress, calcium overload, inflammation, and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial homeostasis including their dynamics are imbalanced in cardiac I/R injury in favor of increased mitochondrial fission. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission prior to I/R injury is protective and improves cardiac function following MI. Clinically, patients with MI often receive treatment following initiation of the ischemic event...
October 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Niwansa Adris, Simon Hazeldine, Peter Bentley, Debbie Trinder, Anita C G Chua, Lawrie W Powell, Louise E Ramm, Grant A Ramm, John K Olynyk
Detection of HFE Haemochromatosis (HH) is challenging in the absence of clinical features. HH subjects have elevated erythrocyte parameters compared to those without HH, but it remains unclear how this could be applied in clinical practice. Thus, we determined the sensitivity, specificity and clinical utility of erythrocyte parameters in 144 HH subjects with (n = 122) or without (n = 22) clinical and/or biochemical expression of iron overload, 1844 general population controls, and 700 chronic disease subjects...
October 10, 2018: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Xia Zhang, Ming-Chao Zhang, Chun-Tian Wang
Despite advances in therapeutic strategies, heart failure-associated mortality rates remain high. Thus, understanding the pathophysiological molecular mechanisms involved in the remodeling process is essential for developing new and effective therapies. LRRs are present various prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins and important for the innate immune system via regulating protein-protein interactions. LRRC25 is a member of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing protein family. LRRC25 has been shown to negatively modulate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, a crucial factor related to cardiac hypertrophy...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Enikő Balogh, György Paragh, Viktória Jeney
Bone homeostasis is a complex process, wherein osteoclasts resorb bone and osteoblasts produce new bone tissue. For the maintenance of skeletal integrity, this sequence has to be tightly regulated and orchestrated. Iron overload as well as iron deficiency disrupt the delicate balance between bone destruction and production, via influencing osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation as well as activity. Iron overload as well as iron deficiency are accompanied by weakened bones, suggesting that balanced bone homeostasis requires optimal-not too low, not too high-iron levels...
October 18, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Vanja Cejvanovic, Laura Kofoed Kjær, Helle Kirstine Mørup Bergholdt, Trine Henriksen, Allan Weimann, Christina Ellervik, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
AIM: The urinary biomarker for oxidative stress to RNA, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanosine (8-oxoGuo) is associated with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Iron has also been linked to diabetes. In individuals with untreated hereditary iron overload it has been observed that 8-oxoGuo was higher compared to controls. In the current study, we hypothesized that 8-oxoGuo was associated with diagnosis of diabetes, and that iron confounded this association. METHODS: Participants from a general Danish population were included in the study (n=3,567)...
October 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Junkui Wang, Zhiguo Tang, Yong Zhang, Chuan Qiu, Ling Zhu, Na Zhao, Zhongwei Liu
Featured by heart dysfunction, the diabetic cardiomyopathy is causing mortality and morbidity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Matrine was considered as a cardioprotective agent. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of matrine on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)- induced cardiac dysfunctions. Rats and isolated primary myocytes were exposed to AGEs. Left ventricular hemodynamic parameters were used to assess the cardiac function. Cell apoptosis was detected with TUNEL assay...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Rui Adão, Pedro Mendes-Ferreira, Carolina Maia-Rocha, Diana Santos-Ribeiro, Patrícia Gonçalves Rodrigues, André Vidal-Meireles, Cláudia Monteiro-Pinto, Luís D Pimentel, Inês Falcão-Pires, Gilles W De Keulenaer, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, Carmen Brás-Silva
We have previously shown that treatment with recombinant human neuregulin-1 (rhNRG-1) improves pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced animal model, by decreasing pulmonary arterial remodeling and endothelial dysfunction, as well as by restoring RV function. Additionally, rhNRG-1 treatment showed direct myocardial anti-remodelling effects in a model of pressure loading of the RV without PAH. This work aimed to study the intrinsic cardiac effects of rhNRG-1 on experimental PAH and RV pressure overload, and more specifically on diastolic stiffness, at both the ventricular and cardiomyocyte level...
October 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Jennifer Fiore
College/university students face many stressors as they balance their studies, work, personal relationships, and personal/family expectations. Music therapy students have additional stressors related to academic, musical, and clinical development. College/university students have increased mental health needs compared to previous generations, with volume impacting institutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of an online receptive music experience for music therapy students' stress and anxiety levels, and also to examine if a particular musical element was perceived as more beneficial in decreasing stress and anxiety...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
Donald Turbiville, Xiaotang Du, Jacob Yo, Bagi R Jana, Jianli Dong
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism characterized by increased iron absorption and tissue deposition. Three loss-of-function mutations in the hemochromatosis gene (HFE), namely, C282Y (c.845G>A), H63D (c.187C>G), and S65C (c.193A>T), account for the vast majority of HH cases. These mutations cause alterations in HFE membrane expression, structure, and/or activity, leading to dysregulation of iron absorption. It is well established that the phenotypic expression of HFE mutations varies markedly...
October 18, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Antonella Meloni, Daniele De Marchi, Laura Pistoia, Emanuele Grassedonio, Giuseppe Peritore, Paolo Preziosi, Gennaro Restaino, Riccardo Righi, Ada Riva, Stefania Renne, Nicolò Schicchi, Antonino Vallone, Angelo Peluso, Calogera Gerardi, Vincenzo Positano, Alessia Pepe
OBJECTIVES: To assess the transferability of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multislice multiecho T2* technique for pancreatic iron overload assessment. METHODS: Multiecho T2* sequences were installed on ten 1.5-T MRI scanners of the three main vendors. Five healthy subjects (n = 50) were scanned at each site. Five patients with thalassemia (n = 45) were scanned locally at each site and were rescanned at the reference site within 1 month. T2* images were analyzed using a previously validated software and the global pancreatic T2* value was calculated as the mean of T2* values over the head, body, and tail...
October 18, 2018: European Radiology
Nathan C Denham, Charles M Pearman, Jessica L Caldwell, George W P Madders, David A Eisner, Andrew W Trafford, Katharine M Dibb
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonly associated with heart failure. A bidirectional relationship exists between the two-AF exacerbates heart failure causing a significant increase in heart failure symptoms, admissions to hospital and cardiovascular death, while pathological remodeling of the atria as a result of heart failure increases the risk of AF. A comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of AF is essential if we are to break this vicious circle. In this review, the latest evidence will be presented showing a fundamental role for calcium in both the induction and maintenance of AF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ki Soon Kim, De-Liang Zhang, Gennadiy Kovtunovych, Manik C Ghosh, Hayden Ollivierre, Michael A Eckhaus, Tracey A Rouault
Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), the inducible enzyme that catabolizes the degradation of heme into biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide, plays an essential role in the clearance of senescent and damaged red blood cells, systemic iron homeostasis, erythropoiesis, vascular hemostasis, and oxidative and inflammatory stress responses. In humans, HMOX1 deficiency causes a rare and lethal disease, characterized by severe anemia, intravascular hemolysis, as well as vascular and tissue damage. Hmox1 knockout (KO) mice recapitulated the phenotypes of HMOX1-deficiency patients and could be rescued by bone marrow (BM) transplantation that engrafted donor's hematopoietic stem cells into the recipient animals after myeloablation...
October 23, 2018: Blood Advances
Chawannuch Ruaengsri, Matthew R Schill, Timothy S Lancaster, Ali J Khiabani, Joshua L Manghelli, Daniel I Carter, Jason W Greenberg, Spencer J Melby, Richard B Schuessler, Ralph J Damiano
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic left atrial volume overload on atrial anatomy, hemodynamics, and electrophysiology using a titratable left ventriculoatrial shunt in a canine model. METHODS: Canines (n = 16) underwent implantation of a shunt between the left ventricle and the left atrium. Sham animals (n = 8) underwent a median sternotomy without a shunt. Atrial activation times and effective refractory periods were determined using 250-bipolar epicardial electrodes...
November 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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