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Joel Tehse, Changiz Taghibiglou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading major cause of morbidity and mortality in youth and individuals under 45 year age. A wide variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified contributing to the pathogenesis of TBI. A better understanding of the pathophysiology behind TBI is essential for providing more effective treatment. Excitotoxicity as one of the secondary molecular events is a major contributing factor in apoptosis and neuronal death following the initial injury in TBI. Excitotoxicity is the rapid overload and influx of calcium into the cell cytoplasm, activating a series of deleterious signaling cascades causing the cell to undergo apoptosis...
December 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Carla Felice, Pietro Leccese, Luigia Scudeller, Ennio Lubrano, Fabrizio Cantini, Fabiana Castiglione, Paolo Gionchetti, Ambrogio Orlando, Carlo Salvarani, Raffaele Scarpa, Maurizio Vecchi, Ignazio Olivieri, Alessandro Armuzzi
Collaboration between gastroenterologists and rheumatologists is recommended for correct management of patients with associated spondyloarthritis (SpA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to establish the appropriateness of several red flags for a prompt specialist referral. A systematic review of the literature was performed using the GRADE method to describe the prevalence of coexisting IBD-SpA and the diagnostic accuracy of red flags proposed by a steering committee. Then, a consensus among expert gastroenterologists and rheumatologists (10 in the steering committee and 13 in the expert panel) was obtained using the RAND method to confirm the appropriateness of each red flag as "major" (1 sufficient for patient referral) or "minor" (at least 3 needed for patient referral) criteria for specialist referral...
December 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Lei Zhang, Xiaoguang Guo, Yang Liu, Min Ou, Xiaoyan Lin, Ji Qi, Yanxiao Xu, Guoyou Wang, Shijie Fu
PURPOSE: The aims of this study had been to classify the superior angle of the scapula based on morphological features, and to investigate its correlation with the suprascapular notch. METHODS: 303 samples of Chinese dried scapular specimens were collected from the Department of anatomy, Southwest Medical University. According to the anatomical morphological characteristics of the superior angle of the scapula, the morphological classification was performed to explore its correlation with the suprascapular notch (SSN)...
December 15, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Jian Wang, Qing-Jun Zhang, Timothy J Pirolli, Zhi-Ping Liu, LaShondra Powell, Edward B Thorp, Michael Jessen, Joseph M Forbess
BACKGROUND: The pedicled greater omentum has been shown to offer benefit in ischemic heart disease for both animal models and human patients. The impact of cardio-omentopexy in a pressure overload model of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. METHODS: LVH was created in rats by banding the ascending aorta after right thoracotomy (n=23). Sham surgery was performed in 12 additional rats. Six weeks post-banding, surviving LVH rats were assigned to cardio-omentopexy via left thoracotomy (LVH+Om, n=8) or sham left thoracotomy (LVH, n=8)...
December 12, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Mamdouh A Oraby, Mohammed F El-Yamany, Marwa M Safar, Naglaa Assaf, Hamdy A Ghoneim
Early detection and clinical interference are major challenges for the prevention of diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. This study investigated the effects of dapagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on some early markers for DN in fructose-streptozotocin (Fr-STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Fr-STZ rats were treated with either dapagliflozin (1 mg/kg p.o. daily), metformin (350 mg/kg p.o. daily), or their combination for 6 weeks. Fr-STZ rats displayed marked early tubular renal damage and glomerular podocyte injury as evidenced by renal KIM-1, NGAL, cystatin C, and vanin-1 mRNA, as well as urinary NAG elevation and nephrin mRNA suppression, associated with the development of marked renal interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis despite the presence of normoalbuminuria...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Dapeng Wang, Yufeng Zhang, Chunquan Zhang, Li Gao, Jie Li
Piceatannol (3,3',4,5'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenols compound that occurs hydroxylated analogue of resveratrol showing widely biological activities. Previous studies have demonstrated its functions on anti-cancer, neuroprotection and cardioprotection. However, few studies have clarified the benefits of piceatannol on cardiomyocytes except its anti-oxidative effect based on the original property of polyphenols. Here we apply H9c2 cardiomyocytes to study the cardioprotective mechanisms of piceatannol in vitro...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Eduarda Santa-Helena, Diego da Costa Cabrera, Stefanie Teixeira, Jonathan Rodrigues, Micheli Castro, Marcelo G Montes D'Oca, Luiz Eduardo Maia Nery, Carla Amorim Neves Gonçalves
Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker dihydropyridine that has been used in the treatment of hypertension. The production of reactive species and calcium overload are the main contributors to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I / R) injury. We investigated the ability of novel dihydropyridines (DHPs) to improve the effect of protecting against the injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in cardioblasts when compared to nifedipine. Forty three DHPs were created varying the fatty chains derived from palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acids and aromatic moiety in addition to the addition of chemical elements such as chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, furfural, hydroxyl and methoxy...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ningning Zhang, Xiangbo An, Pingping Lang, Feng Wang, Yunpeng Xie
Cardiac hypertrophy are the major health challenges in the whole world. Ginsenoside Rd is an important component of cell growth and tumorigenesis, but the role and mechanism of ginsenoside Rd in pressure overload induced cardiac dysfunction and remodeling are still not fully illuminated. Here, cardiac hypertrophic remodeling and dysfunction were induced by pressure overload in mice. Myocardial histology was detected by Masson's trichrome staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E). Western blot was used to detect protein levels of signal mediators...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Matteo Petracca, Massimo Bongiorni, Riccardo Bartoletti, Luciano Villa, Stefano M Candura
OBJECTIVES: Musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD) are a large group of locomotor system pathologies with multifactorial etiology. Healthcare professionals are often exposed to biomechanical overload of the spine and upper limb, for example during patient handling, and represent a working population at risk. METHODS: In order to acquire further knowledge on this subject, we conducted a cross-sectional study (year 2016) among healthcare workers (excluding physicians) of the Sondrio Hospital (Italy), investigating the correlations between manual handling, MDS and job fitness...
December 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Stephanie Breher-Esch, Nishika Sahini, Anna Trincone, Christin Wallstab, Jürgen Borlak
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health burden in need for new medication. To identify potential drug targets a genomic study was performed in lipid-laden primary human hepatocyte (PHH) and human hepatoma cell cultures. METHODS: PHH, HuH7 and HepG2 hepatoma cell cultures were treated with lipids and/or TNFα. Intracellular lipid load was quantified with the ORO assay. The Affymetrix HG-U133+ array system was employed to perform transcriptome analysis...
December 14, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Henrik Petré, Fredrik Wernstål, C Mikael Mattsson
BACKGROUND: Strength and power development are abilities important for athletic performance in many sports. Generally, resistance training based on gravity is used to improve these qualities. Flywheel training instead utilizes kinetic energy transferred to a flywheel. This allows for eccentric overload and variable resistance throughout the movement. The aim of this review was to identify the effects of flywheel training on multiple strength-related variables affecting athletic performance...
December 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Chuen Wen Tan, Wan Hui Wong, Roserahayu Idros, Yiong Huak Chan, Hartirathpal Kaur, Alvin Ren Kwang Tng, Lai Heng Lee, Heng Joo Ng, Ai Leen Ang
Non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) is associated with a hypercoagulable state with thrombotic risk highest after splenectomy. Various mechanisms have been proposed. Although an antiplatelet agent is commonly recommended as thromboprophylaxis in NTDT, the role of platelets contributing to this hypercoagulable state is not well-defined. This study aims to evaluate the role of platelets contributing to hypercoagulability in NTDT patients using thrombin generation (TG). Platelet-rich (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were collected from NTDT patients (n = 30) and normal controls (n = 20) for TG measurement and compared...
December 13, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Roger D Dias, Leon J Osterweil, Giuseppe Riccardi, Heather M Conboy, George S Avrunin, Steven J Yule, Jennifer M Gabany, David Arney, Marco A Zenati, Lori A Clarke, Julian M Goldman
In the surgical setting, team members constantly deal with a high-demand operative environment that requires simultaneously processing a large amount of information. In certain situations, high demands imposed by surgical tasks and other sources may exceed team member's cognitive capacity, leading to cognitive overload which may place patient safety at risk. In the present study, we describe a novel approach to integrate an objective measure of team member's cognitive load with procedural, behavioral and contextual data from real-life cardiac surgeries...
June 2018: ... IEEE International Inter-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support
Suleyman Yesil, Nuran Sungu, Aydan Kilicarslan, Serife Mehlika Kuskonmaz, Halil Kara, Aysegul Kucuk, Fazli Polat, Mustafa Kavutcu, Mustafa Arslan
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been demonstrated to affect the oxidative stress status in several in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a GLP-1 analogue, exenatide, on oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic markers in testicular cells in an iron overload rat model. To obtain this model, the animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=6/group). Rats in the control group received intraperitoneal injections of saline. Intraperitoneal iron dextran (60 mg/kg/day) was given to Group FE for 5 days a week for 4 weeks...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, Kelly Marie Chin, François Haddad, Paul M Hassoun, Anna R Hemnes, Susan Roberta Hopkins, Steven Mark Kawut, David Langleben, Joost Lumens, Robert Naeije
The function of the right ventricle determines the fate of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Since right heart failure is the consequence of increased afterload, a full physiological description of the cardiopulmonary unit consisting of both the right ventricle and pulmonary vascular system is required to interpret clinical data correctly. Here, we provide such a description of the unit and its components, including the functional interactions between the right ventricle and its load. This physiological description is used to provide a framework for the interpretation of right heart catheterisation data as well as imaging data of the right ventricle obtained by echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging...
December 13, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Irmela Rosina Demuth, Annett Martin, Anke Weissenborn
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency but also iron overload during pregnancy has been associated with unwanted health effects. In Germany, iron supplements are only recommended for pregnant women with diagnosed iron deficiency/anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women was reported at 24.4% in 2011. However, limited data suggest that more than 60% of women in Germany use iron supplements during gestation. Against this background, we investigated the prevalence of iron supplement intake among pregnant women and explored determining factors in order to assess whether women are following the advice to only supplement iron in case of a diagnosed iron deficiency/anaemia...
December 13, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Monica Ceccon, Mario Mauri, Luca Massimino, Giovanni Giudici, Rocco Piazza, Carlo Gambacorti-Passerini, Luca Mologni
Targeted therapy is an effective, rational, and safe approach to solid and hematological tumors treatment. Unfortunately, a significant fraction of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) relapses mainly because of gene amplification, mutations, or other bypass mechanisms. Recently a growing number of papers showed how, in some cases, resistance due to oncogene overexpression may be associated with drug addiction: cells able to proliferate in the presence of high TKI doses become also TKI dependent, undergoing cellular stress, and apoptosis/death upon drug withdrawal...
December 12, 2018: Cancers
Chiara Volani, Giuseppe Paglia, Sigurdur V Smarason, Peter P Pramstaller, Egon Demetz, Christa Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Guenter Weiss
Iron is an essential co-factor for several metabolic processes, including the Krebs cycle and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, maintaining an appropriate iron balance is essential to ensure sufficient energy production and to avoid excessive reactive oxygen species formation. Iron overload impairs mitochondrial fitness; however, little is known about the associated metabolic changes. Here we aimed to characterize the metabolic signature triggered by dietary iron overload over time in a mouse model, where mice received either a standard or a high-iron diet...
December 11, 2018: Cells
Jinbi Yang, Hao Ding
Unbalanced development is an urgent issue that needs to be resolved in the sustainable development strategy of Jiangsu Province, which inhibits Jiangsu's industrial transformation and upgrading. A relative resource carrying capacity model is extended based on resource carrying capacity to analyze the resource carrying capacity of the different regions of Jiangsu Province. Three indicators of water resources, land resources, and energy resources are included in the natural resources. In social resources, factors of population quality are included in the analysis scope...
December 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jesús Molina-Praena, Lucia Ramirez-Baena, José L Gómez-Urquiza, Gustavo R Cañadas, Emilia I De la Fuente, Guillermo A Cañadas-De la Fuente
Research findings concerning burnout prevalence rate among nurses from the medical area are contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse associated factors, to determine nurse burnout levels and to meta-analyse the prevalence rate of each burnout dimension. A systematic review, with meta-analysis, was conducted in February 2018, consulting the next scientific databases: PubMed, CUIDEN, CINAHL, Scopus, LILACS, PsycINFO and ProQuest Health & Medical Complete. In total, 38 articles were extracted, using a double-blinded procedure...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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